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dam in the year 1722. He wrote, as he himself tells us, feveral other works : but they are all perished. This however, which has escaped the ruins of time and barbarism, is highly valued, as being the only monument of the Medicina methodica, which is extant. He is allowed by all to be admirable in the history and description of diseases.

CÆSALPINUS (ANDREAS) an eminent philosopher and physician, was born at Arezzo, about the year 1159. After being long professor at Pisa, he became first physician to pope Clement VIII. It should seem from a passage in his Quæstiones peripateticæ, that he had some idea of the circulation of the blood. “ The lungs, says he, drawing “ the warm blood, thro’ a vein [the pulmonary artery] “ like the arteries, out of the right ventricle of the heart, “ and returning it by an anastomolis to the venal artery [the “ pulmonary vein] which goes to the left ventricle of the “ heart, the cool air, being in the mean time let in thro' the “ canals of the aspera arteria, which are extended along “ the venal artery, but do not communicate with it by in“ osculations, as Galen imagined, cools it only by touch

ing. To this circulation of the blood out of the right “ ventricle of the heart thro' the lungs into its left ven“ tricle, what appears upon dissection answers very well : “ for there are two vessels which end in the right ventri“cle, and two in the left: but one only carries the blood " in, the other sends it out, the membranes being con“ trived for that purpose.” His treatise De plantis entitles him to a place among the capital writers in botany; for he there makes the distribution of plants into a regular method, formed on their natural fimilitude, as being the most fafe and the molt useful for helping the memory and discovering their virtues. Yet, which is very surprizing, it was not followed, nor even understood, for near a hundred years. The restorer of method was Robert Morison, the first professor of botany at Oxford. Cæsalpinus died at Rome, Feb. 23, 1603. His Hortus ficcus, consisting of 768 dried specimens paited on 266 large pages, is still in being. The titles of his writings are, Kátom pov, five fpeculum artis medicæ Hippocraticum. De plantis libri xvi. cum appendice ; printed at Florence in 1583. De metallicis libri iii. Quæftionum medicarum libri ij. De medicamentorum facultatibus libri ii. Praxis univerfæ medicinæ. Demonum investigatio peripatetica. Quæftionum peripateticarum libri v.




CÆSAR (Julius) a learned civilian, was born (A) near Tottenham in Middlesex, in the year 1557. He took the degree of bachelor of arts, May 17, 1575, as a member Biogr. Brit. of Magdalen-hall, Oxford ; and went afterwards to study Wood, Falti, in the university of Paris; where, in the beginning of 1581, vol. 1. col. he was created doctor of the civil law; to which degree he

Biogr. Biit, was also admitted in 1583 at Oxford, and two years after became doctor of the canon law. In the reign of queen Eliza- Ibid. beth, he was master of requests, judge of the high court of admiralty, and master of St. Catherine's hospital near the Tower. Upon king James's acceflion, he was knighted by that prince at Greenwich. He was also constituted chan- Ibid. cellor, and under-treasurer of the exchequer, and, on the 5th of July 1607, sworn of his majesty's privy council.

He obtained a reversionary grant of the office of master Ibid. of the rolls, and succeeded to it on the ist of October 1014; upon which he resigned his place of chancellor of the exchequer. He was continued privy councellor by king Charles I. and appears to have been also custos rotulorum of the county of Hertford. Fuller says, he was chancellor Camden's of the duchy of Lancaster. He died April 28, 1639, in annals of the 79th year of his age, and lies buried in the church of king James. Great St. Helen within Bishopsgate, London, under a

Biogr. Brito monument designed by himself; which is in form of a deed, and made to resemble ruffled parchment, in allusion to his office, as master of the rolls.

a man of great gravity and integrity, and remarkable for his extensive bounty and charity to all persons of worth, or that were in want. He made his grants to all persons double kindness by expedition, and cloathed (as Lloyd expresses it) his very denials in such robes of courtship, that it was not obviously discernable, whether the request or denial were most decent. He was also very cautious of promises, left, becoming unable to perform them, he might multiply his enemies, whilst he intended to create friends. Besides, he observed that great persons esteem better such persons they have done

He was

[A] His father Cæsar Adelmar, from whom he had the name of (or Dalmarius, Dalmare, or Athel- Cæsar, which name Mary I. queen mer) physician to queen Mary and of England ordered to be continued queen Elizabeth, was lineally de- to his pofterity: and his father was scended from Adelmar count of Peter Maria Dalmarius, of the city Genoa and adiniral of France in the of Trevigio in Italy, doctor of reign of Charles the great, A.D.806. laws, sprung from those of his name This Cæfar Adelmar's mother was living at Cividad del Friuli. Biogr. daughter to the duke de Cesarini, Brit.


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great courtefies to, than those they have received great civilities from ; looking upon this as their disparagement, the other as their glory [B]. There is an entertaining story that has a relation to him mentioned by lord Clarendon, as follows. “ Sir Julius Cæsar was then master of the rolls, [in “ the reign of king Charles I.) and had inherent in his of“ fice the indubitable right and disposition of the fix « clerks places, all which he had for many years, upon any “ vacancy, bestowed to such persons, as he thought fit. One s of those places was become void, and designed by “ the old man to his son Robert Cæsar, a lawyer of

a good name, and exceedingly beloved. Weston earl of « Portland, lord treasurer (as he was vigilant in such cases) “ had procured the king to send a 'message to the master “ of the rolls, expressly forbidding him to dispose of that “ fix clerk's place, till his majesty's pleasure should be fur« ther made known to him. It was the first command of “ that kind that had been heard of, and was felt by the “ old man very fenably. He was indeed very old, and had " outlived most of his friends ; so that his age was an ob"jection against him ; many persons of quality being dead, “ who had, for recompence of service, procured the rever“ fion of his office. The treasurer found it no hard mat“ter, so far to terrify him, that (for the king's service as was “ pretended) he admitted for a fix clerk a person recom“ mended by him (Mr. Fern a dependant upon him) who “ paid fix thousand pounds ready money; which, poor man! " he lived to repent in a jay). This work being done, at “ the charge of the poor old man, who had been a privy “ counsellor from the entrance of king James, had been “ chancellor of the exchequer, and served in other offices ; “ the depriving him of his right made a great noise : and 6 the condition of his son (his father being not likely to « live to have the disposal of another office in his power) “ who, as was said before, was generally beloved, and « esteemed, was argument of great compaffion; and was “ livelily, and successfully represented to the king himself ; “ who was graciously pleased to promise, that, if the old “ man chanced to die before any other of the fix clerks, " that office, when it should fall, should be conferred on his “ fon, whosoever should succeed him as master of the rolls;

[B]Sir Julius Cæsar's manuscripts pounds, after being refused by a were sold by publick auction in sun- cheesemonger, as not clean enough dry lots at London, in December for his purpose to serve for waite 1757, for upwards of five hundred paper.

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which might well be provided for: and the lord treasurer “obliged himself (to expiate the injury) to procure some 6 declaration to that purpose, under his majesty's sign ma“nual; which, however easy to be done, he long forgot, “ or neglected. One day, the earl of Tullibardin, who was “ nearly allied to mr. Cæfar, and much his friend, being “ with the treasurer, passionately asked him, whether he had “ done that bufiness? To whom he answered with a seeming “ trouble, that he had forgotten it, for which he was hear“ tily forry; and if he would give him a little note in “ writing, for a memorial, he would put it among those 6 which he would dispatch with the king that afternoon. « The earl presently writ in a little paper, Remember “ Cæsar: and gave it to him; and he put it into that “ little pocket, where, he said, he kept all his memorials “ which were first to be transacted. Many days passed, and “ Cæsar never thought of. At length, when he changed “ his cloaths, and he who waited on him in his cham“ber, according to custom, brought him all the notes and 66 papers found in those he had left off, which he then « commonly perused; when he found this little billet, in “ which was only written Remember Cæfar, and which he “ had never read before, he was exceedingly confounded, " and knew not what to make or think of it. He sent for « his bosom friends, and after a serious and melancholic “ deliberation, it was agreed, that it was the advertifement “ of some friend, who durst not own the discovery ; that “ it could fignify nothing, but that there was a conspi“racy against his life, by his many, and mighty enemies : " and they all knew Cæsar's fate, by contemning or ne“ glecting such animadversions.” Therefore they advised him Biogr. Brit. to pretend to be indisposed, that he might not stir abroad all that day, and that none might be admitted to him but persons of undoubted affection : and that at night some fervants should watch with the porter. “Shortly after, the “ earl of Tullibardin asking him, whether he had remem“ bered Cæsar? the treasurer quickly recollected the ground “ of his perturbation, and could not forbear imparting it to “ his friends, and so the whole jest came to be discovered.”

CAGLIARI (Paul) a most excellent painter, was born at Verona in the year 1532. Gabriel Cagliari, his father, was a sculptor; and Antonio Badile, his uncle, was his mafter in painting. He was not only esteemed the best of all the Lombard painters, but for his copious and admirable in

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vention, for the grandeur and majesty of his composition, for the beauty and perfection of his draperies, and for his noble

ornaments of architecture, stiled by the Italians Il pittor feFresnoy,&c. lice, The happy painter. He drew his first pieces at Mantua,

and some other cities in Italy ; but meeting with more employment at Venice, he settled there; and the best of his works were made, after he returned thither from Rome, and had ftudied the antique. There is scarce a church in Venice, which has not some piece or other of his; and De Piles says, that “ his picture of the marriage at Cana, in the church of * St. George, is to be distinguished from his other works, as

! being not only the triumph of Paul Veronese, but almost Vies de Pe. “ the triumph of painting itself.” When the fenate fent Griintres, mani, procurator of St. Mark, to be their embassador at Rome,

Paul attended him, but did not stay long, having left some pieces at Venice unfinished. Philip II. king of Spain, sent for him to paint the Escurial, and made him great offers; but Paul excused himself from leaving his own country, where his reputation was so well established, that most of the princes of Europe ordered their several embassadors, to procure something of his hand at any rate. He was a person of a noble spirit, used to go richly dressed, and generally wore a gold chain, which had been presented to him by the procurators of St. Mark, as a prize he won from several artists his competitors. He had a great idea of his profession, having been often heard to say, that it was a gift from heaven ; that to judge of it well, a man must understand abundance of things; and, what gives us the highest opinion of his moral make, that the sovereign quality of a true painter is probity and integrity of manners. He was highly esteemed by all the principal men in his time, and so much admired by the great masters, as well his contemporaries, as those who fucceeded him, that Titian himself used to say, he was the ornament of his profession. And Guido Reni being asked, which of the masters his predecessors he would choose to be, were it in his power, after Raphael and Corregio, named Paul Veronese ; whom he always called his Paolino. He died of a fever at Venice, in the year 1588, and had a tomb and a statue of brass erected in the church of St. Sebastian.

Paul left great wealth to his two sons, Gabriel and Charles, who were painters, and lived very happily together. They joined in finishing several pieces left imperfect by their father; and followed his manner so closely in other excellent works of their own, that the connoisseurs do not easily di


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