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Even that he lived, is for his conqueror's tongue;
By foes alone his death-song must be sung ;
No chronicles but theirs shall tell
His mournful doom to future times ;
May these upon his virtues dwell,

And in his fate forget his crimes.”Sprague. The name of the man stationed with Alderman was Caleb Cook,* who had shared in many of Church's hazardous expeditions before the present. Seeing that he could not have the honor of killing Philip, he was desirous if possible of having a memento of the mighty exploit. He therefore prevailed upon Alderman to exchange guns with him. This gun was kept in the family until the present century, when the late Isaac Lothrop Esq. of Plimouth obtained the lock of it from Mr. Sylvanus Cook, late of Kingston. Sylvanus was great-grandson of Caleb.f The stock and barrel of the gun are still retained by the descendants of the name of Cook.

We are able to add yet a little for the gratification of the curious: a lock shown in the library of the Mass. Hist. Soc. is said to be the same which Alderman used in shooting Philip. This Alderman was a subject of Weetamot. In the commencement of this war, he went to the governor of Plimouth, and desired to remain in peace with the English, and immediately took up his residence upon an island, remote from the tribes engaged in the war. But after Philip had returned to his own country, Alderman, upon some occasion, visited hiin. It was at this time that he learned the fate of his brother before spoken of; or his murder was actually committed while he was present. This caused his flight to the English, which he thought, probably, the last resort for vengeance. He

came down from thence, says Church, (where Philip's camp now was,) on to Sand Point over against Trips, and hollow'd, and made signs to be fetch'd over” to the island. He was immediately brought over, and gave the inforination desired. Capt. Church had but just arrived upon Rhode Island, and was about eight miles from the upper end, where Alderman landed. He had been at home but a few minutes, when “they spy'd two horsemen coming a great pace,” and, as he prophesied, " they came with tydings.” Major Sanford and Capt. Golding were the horsemen, “who immediately ask'd Capt. Church what he would give to hear some news of Philip. He reply'd, That was what he wanted." The expedition was at once entered upon, and Alderman went as their pilot. But to return to the fall of Philip :

“ By this time,” continues Church, “ the enemy perceived they were waylaid on the east side of the swamp, tacked short about,” and were led out of their dangerous situation by the great captain Annawon. The man that had shot down Philip ran with all speed to Capt. Church, and informed him of his exploit, who commanded him to be silent about it, and let no man inore know it until they had drove the swamp clean ; but when they had drove the swamp through, and found the enemy had escaped, or at least the most of them, and the sun now up, and so the dew gone that they could not easily track them, the whole company met together at the place where the enemy's night shelter was, and then Capt.


Baylies, in his N. Plimouth, ii. 168, says his name was Francis, but as he gives no authority, we adhere to older authority.

+ This Caleb Cook was son of Jacob of Plimouth, and was born there, 29 Mar. 1651. He had two or more brothers ; Jacob, born 14 May, 1653, and Francis, 5 Jan. 1663-4. Hence it is not probable that Francis was a soldier at this time, as he was only in his Church gave them the news of Philip's death. Upon which the whole army* gave three loud huzzas. Capt. Church ordered his body to be pulled out of the mire on to the upland. So some of Capt. Church's Indians took hold of him by his stockings, and some by his small breeches, being otherwise naked, and drew him through the mud unto the upland; and a doleful, great, naked dirty beast, he looked like.” (Now follows one of the most barbarous passages in the life of the excellent Church. As the word excellent may surprise some of my readers, I will add, in as far as it is possible for a warrior to be so.). Capt. Church then said, “ Forasmuch as he has caused many an Englishman's body to lie unburied and rot above ground, not one of his bones shall be buried !!

Col. Mass. Hist. Soc. iv. 63.

13th year.

With the great chief, fell five of his most trusty followers, one of whom was his chief captain's sont and the very Indian who fired the first gun at the commencement of the war.

Philip having one very remarkable hand, being much scarred, occasioned by the splitting of a pistol in it formerly, Capt. Church gave the head and that hand to Alderman, the Indian who shot him, to show to such gentlemen as would bestow gratuities upon him; and accordingly he got many a penny by it.”I

The barbarous usage of beheading and quartering traitors was now executed upon the fallen Philip. Church, "calling his old Indian executioner, bid him behead and quarter him. Accordingly, he came with his hatchet, and stood over him, but before he struck, he made a small speech, directing it to Philip,saying, “You have been a very great man, and have made many a man afraid of you ; but so big as you be I will now chop your ass [arse] for you.” He then proceeded to the execution of his orders.

His head was sent to Plimouth, where it was exposed upon a gibbet for 20 years, and one of his hands to Boston, where it was exhibited in savage triumph, and his mangled body was denied the right of sepulture.

Church and his company returned to the island the same day, and arrived with the prisoners at Plimouth two days after, namely, Tuesday, August 15, “ ranging through all the woods in their way.” They now “ received their premium, which was 30 shillings per head,” for all enemies killed or taken, “instead of all wages, and Philip's head went at the same price.” This amounted to only four and sixpence apiece," which was all the reward they had, except the honor of killing Philip."

During the bloody contest, the pious fathers wrestled long and often with their God, in prayer, that he would prosper their arms and deliver their enemies into their hands; and when, upon stated days of prayer, the Indians gained advantage, it was looked upon as a rebuke of Providence, and animated them to greater sincerity and fervor ; and on the contrary, when their arms prevailed upon such days, it was viewed as an immediate interposition in their favor. "The philosophic mind will be shocked at the expressions of some, very eminent in that day for piety and excellence of moral life. Dr. Increase Mather,9 in speaking of the efficacy of prayer, in bringing about the destruction of the Indians, says, “ Nor could they (the English) cease crying to the Lord against Philip, until they had prayed the bullet into his heart.” And in speaking of the slaughter of Philip's people, at Narraganset, he says, “We have heard of two-andtwenty Indian captains, slain all of them, and brought down to hell in

Eighteen English and twenty-two Indians constituted his army a week before, but we know not how many were at the taking of Philip, though we may suppose about the same number. Hence this expedition cost the colony £9.

Very probably a son of Uncompoin, or Woonashum. | Philip's War. Ő In bis “ Prevalency of Prayer," page 10.


one day.” Again, in speaking of a chief who had sneered at the English religion, and who had, “ withal, added a most hideous blasphemy, immediately upon which a bullet took him in the head, and dashed out his brains, sending his cursed soul in a moment amongst the devils, and blasphemers in hell forever."*

These extracts are made with no other view than to show the habits of thinking in those times.

The low and vulgar epithetst sneeringly cast, upon the Indians by their English contemporaries are not to be attributed to a single individual, but to the English in general. It is too obvious that the early historians viewed the Indians as inferior beings, and some went so far as hardly to allow them to be human.

Like Massasoit, Philip always opposed the introduction of Christianity among his people. When Mr. Eliot urged upon him its great importance, he said he cared no more for the gospel than he did for a button upon his coat.s This does not very well agree with the account of Mr. Gookin, respecting Philip's feelings upon religious matters; at least, it shows that there was a time when he was willing to listen to such men as the excellent and benevolent Gookin. In speaking of the Wampanoags, he says, “ There are some that have hopes of their greatest and chiefest sachem, named Philip, living at Pawkunnawkutt. Some of his chief men, as I hear, stand well inclined to hear the gospel : and himself is a person of good understanding and knowledge in the best things. I have heard him speak very good words, arguing that his conscience is convicted: but yet, though his will is bowed to embrace Jesus Christ, his sensual and carnal lusts are strong bands to hold him fast under Satan's dominions.”ll And Dr. Mather adds, “ It was not long, before the hand which now writes, (1700,] upon a certain occasion took off the jaw from the exposed skull of that blasphemous leviathan; and the renowned Samuel Lee bath since been a pastor to an English congregation, sounding and showing the praises of heaven, upon that very spot of ground, where Philip and his Indians were lately worshipping of the devil.”T. The error that Philip was grandson to Massasoit

, is so well known to be such, that it would hardly seem to have required notice, but to inform the reader of its origin. The following passage from Mr. Josselyn's work** will, besides proving him to be the author of the error, at least the first writer that so denominates him, furnish some valuable information. Speaking of the Indians in general, he says, “Their beads are their money; of these, there are two sorts, blue beads and white beads; the first is their gold, the last their silver. These they work out of certain shells, so cunningly, that neither Jew nor Devil can They drill them and string them, and make many curious works with them, to

* Prevalency of Prayer, page 7.

+ Such as dogs, wolves, blood-hounds, demons, devils-incarnate, caitiffs, hell-hounds, fiends, monsters, beasts, &ć. Occasional quotations will show what authors have used these.

# The author of “ Indian Tales” has fathered all he could think of upon Mr. Hubbard. He may be called upon to point out the passage in that valuable author's works where he has called one or any of the Indians "hell-hounds." Such loose, gratuitous expresşions will not do at the bar of history. Magnalia. i Col. Mass. Hist. Soc. i. 200.

Mr. Lee was taken by the French in a voyage to England, and carried into their country, where he died, in 1691. This event, it was thought, hastened his end. Perhaps the surviving natives did not attribute the disaster to his usurping their territory, and teaching a religion they could not believe; but might they not with equal propriety? ** Account of two Voyages to New England, 142, 143.

tt Of this he was misinformed. There was much spurious wampum, which became a subject of legislation. See Hazard's Hist. Col. vol. ii.

adorn the persons of their sagamores and principal men, and young women, as belts, girdles, tablets, borders for their women's hair, bracelets, necklaces, and links to hang in their ears. Prince Philip, a little before I came for England, [1671,] coming to Boston, had a coat on and buskins set thick with these beads, in pleasant wild works, and a broad belt of the same ; his accoutrements were valued at £20. The English merchant giveth them 10s. a fathom for their white, and as much more, or Dear upon, for their blue beads.” “The roytelet now of the Pocanakets is prince Philip, alias Metacon, the grandson of Massasoit."*

In November, 1669, Philip sold to the selectmen of Dedham, the tract of land called Wooliommonuppogue“ within the town bounds, [of Dedham,] not yet purchased.” What the full consideration paid to him was, we do not learn. In an order which he sent to them afterwards, he requests them “to pay to this bearer, for the use of King Philip, £5 5s. money, and £5 in trucking cloth, at money price.” In a receipt signed by Peter, the following amount is named : “In reference to the payment of King Philip of Mount Hope, the full and just sum of £5 58. in inoney, and twelve yards of trucking cloth, three pounds of powder, and as much lead as to make it up; which is in full satisfaction with £10 that he is to receive of Nathaniel Pane.”+

While Mrs. Rowlandson was a captive in the wilderness with the allies of Philip, she mentions meeting with him; and although she speaks often with bitterness of the Indians in general, yet of him nothing of that nature appears in her journal. The party she was with visited Philip on the west side of the Connecticut, about five miles above Northfield, then called Squakeag. Having arrived at the point of crossing, Mrs. Rowlandson says, “ We must go over the river to Philip's crew. When I was in the canoe, I could not but be amazed at the numerous crew of pagans that were on the bank on the other side.” She was much afraid they meant to kill her here, but, being assured to the contrary, become more resigned to her fate. « Then came one of them, (she says,) and gave me two spoonfuls of meal (to comfort me,) and another gave me half a pint of peas, which was worth more than many bushels at another time. Then I went to see King Philip; he bade me come in and sit down ; and asked me whether I would smoke it; (a usual compliment now a days, among the saints and sinners ;) but this no ways suited me.'!

During my abode in this place, Philip spake to me to make a shirt for his boy, which I did; for which he gave me a shilling.' “ Afterward he asked me to make a cap for his boy, for which he invited me to dinner; I went, and he gave me a pancake, about as big as two fingers ; it was made of parched wheat, beaten and fried in bears' grease; but I thought I never tasted pleasanter meat in my

It is extremely gratifying to hear any testimony in favor of the humanity of men so near a state of nature. We speak not of this because such testimonies are few, for they are many, as it is unnecessary to apprize the reader of even few pages in this book. To say the least of Philip's humanity, it was as great towards captives, so far as we have any knowledge, as was that of any of the English to the captive Indians.

As the Indians were returning from their recesses upon the Connecticut, (in what is now New Hampshire and Vermont,) towards Wachuset, * having indeed my life, (says Mrs. Rowlandson,) but little spirit, Philip, who was in the company, came up, and took me by the hand, and said,


* Account of two Voyages to New England, 146. He is also called grandson of Massasoit, in the work entitled Present State of New England, in respect to the Indian War, fol. London, 1676 ; the author of that work doubtless copied from Josselyn.

+ MS. Documents among our state papers. | Narrative of her Captivity, 38, 39.

Ø Ibid. 40.

'Two weeks more and you shall be mistress again. I asked him if he spoke true: he said, Yes, and quickly you shall come to your master* again,' who had been gone from us three weeks.”+

In bringing our account of this truly great man towards a close, we must not forget to present the reader with a specimen of the language in which he spoke. The following is the Lord's prayer in Wampanoag:

Noo-shun kes-uk-qut, qut-tian-at-am-unch koo-we-su-onk, kuk-ket-a8-800tam-oonk pey-au-moo-utch, kut-te-nan-tam-00-onk ne nai, ne-ya-ne ke-suk-qut kah oh-ke-it. As-sa-ma-z-in-ne-an ko-ko-ke-suk-o-da-e nut-as-e-suk-ok-ke pe-tuk-qun-neg. Kah ah-quo-an-tam-a-z-in-ne-an num-match-e-se-ong-anon-ash, ne-wutch-e ne-na-wun wonk nut-ah-quo-an-tam-au-o-un-non-og nishnoh pasuk noo-na-mon-tuk-quoh-who-nan, kah ahque sag-kom-pa-gin-ne-an en qutch-e-het-tu-ong-a-nit

, qut poh-qua-wus-sin-né-an wutch match-i-tut.f. Since we are upon curiosities, the following may very properly be added. There is to be seen in the library of the Mass. Hist. Society a large skimmer, which some have mistaken for a bowl, cut out of the root of ash, that will hold about two quarts. On this article is this historical inscription, in gilt letters: “A trophy from the wigwam of King Philip; when he was slain in 1676, by Richard; presented by Ebenezer Richard, his grandson."S

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NANUNTENOOReasons for his aiding PhilipHis former nameMeets the English and Indians under Capt. Peirse—

Fights and destroys his

* Quinnapin. See his life.

Nar. of Mrs. Rowlandson, 63. | Eliots Indian Bible, Luke xi. 2-4.

No mention is made to whom, or when it was presented. It does not appear to us to be of such antiquity as its inscription pretends; and the truth of which may very

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