Page images
PDF
EPUB

Hvords

you

shall say unto me, I will tell them faithfully to all the kings of the Creek nations." The king's answer was, in the highest degree, conciliatory, and what was termed gracious.*

Thus are traced the first steps in the history of Georgia, and thus did every thing promise a continuance of that friendship so well begun by Gen. Oglethorpe. Nothing was left undone, while the Creek chiefs were in England, to impress upon their minds exalted ideas of the power and greatness of the English nation. The nobility were not only curious to see them, but entertained them at their tables in the most magnificent style. Multitudes flocked around them, conferring gifts and marks of respect upon them. The king allowed them £20 sterling a week, during their stay, and it was computed that, at their return to America, they brought presents to the amount of £400 sterling. After remaining in England four months, they embarked at Gravesend for Georgia. They were conveyed to the place of embarkation in his majesty's carriages.t

In the invasion of Georgia by the Spaniards, in 1743, many Indians were drawn into the controversy, on both sides. Toeanoeowi,f or Tooanohowi, a nephew of Tomochichi, was shot through the right arm, in an encounter with the Spaniards, by a Spanish captain. Tooanohowi drew his pistol with his left hand, and shot the captain through the head.

Thus, with the Spaniards upon one hand, and the English upon the other, and the French in the midst of them, the Creeks and Cherokees became subject to every possible evil to which the caprice of those several nations gave rise. Although there were events, in every year, of importance, yet, in this place, we shall take up the period rendered more memorable by the distinguished chiefs Attakullakulla and Ockonostota.||

The fame of Carolina had, in 1753, drawn a multitude of Europeans to her shores. The same year, on the 26 May, Malachty, attended by the Wolf-king and the Ottasee chief, with about 20 others, and above a hundred of their people, came to Charleston. They were met, on their way, by a troop of horsemen, who conducted them to the town, by the governor's order, in great state. This was to induce them to make peace and remain their allies, and, to this end, the Gov., Glenn, made a very pacific speech, in the Indian manner. Malachty, who, at this time, seems to have been the head chief among the Creeks, presented the governor with a quantity of skins, and readily consented to a peace with the English, but, in regard to a peace with the Cherokees, he said, that was a matter of great moment, and he must deliberate with his people, before he could give an answer. The Cherokees were already under the protection of the English, and some of them had, not long before, been killed by the Creeks, in the very neighborhood of Charleston. The party which committed this outrage was led by Malachty. Notwithstanding, a cessation of hostilities seems to have taken place, for numbers of each nation joined the English immediately after the capture of Oswego, by the French, in 1756. The Cherokees are particularly named as having rendered essential service in the expedition against Fort Duquesne ; but a circumstance happened, while those warriors were returning home from that expedition, which involved them in an immediate war with the English, in whose service they had been engaged. Having lost their borses, an'ı being worn out with toil and fatigue, on coining to the frontiers of Virginia, they picked up several of those animals, which belonged to the izhabitants of the places through which they travelled. This, Dr. Ramsay* says, was the cause of the massacre, which they suffered at that time. But Mr. Adair,t who lived then among the Indians in those parts, says, “Several companies of the Cheerake, who joined our forces under Gen. Stanwix, at the unfortunate Ohio, affirmed that their alienation from us was because they were confined to our martial arrangement, by unJust suspicion of them—were very much contemned,—and half starved at the main camp: their hearts told them, therefore, to return home, as freemen and injured allies, though without a supply of provisions. This they did, and pinching hunger forced them to take as much as barely supported nature, when returning to their own country. In their journey, the German inhabitants, without any provocation, killed, in cool blood, about 40 of their warriors, in different places—though each party was under the command of a British subject." It must be remembered that, upon Braddock's defeat, Virginia had offered a reward for the scalps of hostile Indians. Here, then, was an inducement for remorseless villains to murder, and it was impossible, in many cases, to know whether a scalp were taken from a friend or an enemy. Out of this, then, we have no hesitation in saying, grew the excessive calamities, which soon after distressed the southern provinces. Forty innocent men, and friends, too, inurdered in cold blood by the backwoodsmen of Virginia, brought on a war, which caused as much distress and misery among the parties engaged, as any since that region of country was planted by the whites.

* Harris, Voyages.
M Call's Georgia, i. 45.

| Harris. || Ouconnostotah, Ouconnostota, Ouconnostata, Wynne.-Occonoslota, Ramsay.Aitakullakulla generally called the Little-carpenter.

At one place, a monster entertained a party of Indians, and treated them kindly, while, at the same time, he caused a gang of his kindred ruffians to lie in ambush where they were to pass, and, when they arrived, barbarously shot them down to a man! The news was forth with carried to the Cherokee nation, and the effect of it upon the minds of the warriors, was like that of electricity. They seized their tomahawks and war clubs, and, but for the wisdom of Attakullakulla, would have murdered several Englishmen, then in their country upon some matters respecting a treaty. As Attakullakulla was a chief sachem, he was among the

first apprized of the murders, and the design of vengeance. He therefore goes immediately to them, and informed them of their danger, and assisted them to secrete themselves; then, without loss of time, he assembled his warriors, and made a speech to them, in which he inveighed, with great bitterness, against the murderous English, and urged immediate war against them; "and never (said he) shall the hatchet be buried, until the blood of our countrymen be atoned for. Let us not (he continued) violate our faith, or the laws of hospitality, by imbruing our hands in the blood of those who are nou in our power. They came to us in the confidence of friendship, with belts of wampum to cement a perpetual alliance with us. Let us carry them back to their own seltlements : conduct them safely within their confines, and then take up the hatchet, and endeavor to exterminate the whole race of them.” This council was adopted. Before commencing hostilities, however, the murderers were demanded, but were blindly refused them, and we have mentioned the consequences.

The French, it was said, used their influence to enrage the Indians; but,

* Hist. South Carolina, i. 169.

+ Hist. Amer. Indians, 245. That the Indians' taking horses was no pretext for the murders, even at the time, appears evident. “As (says Capt. M'Call, i. 257.) the horses in those parts ran wild in the woods, it was customary, both among the Indians and white people on the frontiers, to catch them and appropriate them to their own use."

[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[graphic][merged small]

if that were the case, we should not deemn it worth naming, as it appears to us that nothing more could be necessary to inflame them than the horrid outrages of which we have spoken.

Meanwhile, war parties dispersed themselves along the frontiers of South Carolina, and began the slaughter of the inhabitants with that fury and barbarity which might justly have been expected from an exasperated people. With such tardy steps did the whites proceed, that half a year had passed before a force could be sent against them. Col. Montgomery, afterwards Lord Eglington, at length marched into their country, but was ambushed at a place called Crows-creek, a dangerous defile between a river and a steep mountain, where he met with a dismal defeat. The colonel and a part of his men escaped.

If we can believe Mr. Adair, and I know not that he is or has been under any impeachment,—the perfidy of the whites, in this war, surpasses, or, at least, is equal to any thing which occurred in New England, regarding the Praying Indians, in the times of Pometacom, alias King Philip. The following is an instance. great many of the remote Cherokee towns took no part in the war, in the first place, but, on the contrary, declared themselves the friends of the whites, and even volunteered to fight against whatever people should be found in arins against them; and, as they needed ammunition, a large deputation from those tribes set out for Charleston, to strengthen their friendship and tender their assistance. The principal leader of these Indians was a chief, whom the whites called Round-0,“ on account of a blue impression be bore in that form ;" a brave and aged warrior, and particular friend of the English.

The friendly Indians, under Round-O, were met by an army under Gov. Lyttleton, of 1100 men, at Fort Prince George, in Dec. 1759. This fort was upon the Savannah River, near the Cherokee town called Keowee. Here the governor compelled these friendly Indians to sign a treaty, one article of which required them to deliver 22* of their people into his hands, to be kept as hostages for the due fulfilment of all the rest.f Besides the absurdity of detaining hostages from their friends, the English seem to have been miserably blind to their interests in other respects; for the Indians, at this time, knew not the meaning of hostages, but supposed those so retained were doomed to slavery; an office the most upsufferable to Indians of all others. The following are such of the names of the unfortunate Cherokees as we have been able to collect, who, under the name of hostages, were thrown into a dismal, close prison, scarce large enough for six men, where they remained about two months, and were then massacred, as in the sequel we shall show:

Chenohe, Ousanatanah, Tallichama, Tallitahe, Quarrasattahe, Connasaratah, Kataetoi, Otassite of Watogo, Ousanoletah of Jore, Kataeletah of Cowetche, Chisquatalone, Skiagusta_of Sticoe, Tanaesto, Wohatche, Wyejah, Oucahchistanah, Nicholche, Tony, Toatiahoi, Shallisloske and Chistie.

Both Attakullakulla and Ockonostota, it appears, were at Fort Prince George at this time, and signed the treaty; and Otassite, Kitagusta, Oconnocca and Killcannokca were the others on the part of the Indians. Things having been thus settled, Mr. Lyttleton returned to Charleston, where he

* This was the number of murderers the governor demanded should be delivered to him. Two had been delivered up before the hostages were taken, and when any others were delivered, the same number of hostages were to be released. Treatý, ART. III.

+ The treaty is printed at length in the British Empire, by Mr. Wynne (ii 273.) an author, by the way, of very great merit.

# Adair.

« PreviousContinue »