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was received like a conqueror, although what he had done, it will appear, was worse than if he had done nothing at all.
Ockonostota, for good reason, no doubt, entertained a deep-rooted hatred against Capt. Cotymore, an officer of the garrison, and the army had but just left the country, when it was fo that lie was hovering about the garrison with a large number of warriors. But it was uncertain, for some time, whether they intended to attack the fort, or whether they wished to continue near their friends, who were imprisoned in it. However, it is said, that, by some means, a plan was concerted between the Indians without and those confined within the fort, for surprising it. Be this as it may, Ockonostota practised the following wile to effect the object. Having placed a party of his warriors in a dark cane-brake near at hand, he sent a squaw to the garrison to invite the commander to come out, for he had something of importance to communicate to him. Capt. Cotymore imprudently went out, accompanied by two of his officers, and Ockonostota appeared upon the opposite bank of the Savannah, with a bridle in his hand, the better to conceal his intentions. He told the captain he was going to Charleston to effect the release of the hostages, and requested that a white man might accompany him; and that, as the distance was great, he would go and try to catch a horse. The captain promised him à guard, and hoped he would succeed in finding a horse. Ockonostota then quickly turned himself about, and swinging his bridle thrice over his head, which was the signal to his men, and they promptly obeying it, about 30 guns were discharged upon the officers at the same moment. Capt. Cotymore received a shot in his left breast, from which he died in two or three days after, and both the others were wounded. On recovering the fort, an attempt was made to put the hostages in irons. An Englishman, who laid hold on one of them for that purpose, was stabbed and slain; and, in the scuffle, two or three more were wounded, and driven out of the place of confinement. The tragedy in the fort had now only commenced; the miserable prisoners had repelled their assassins for the moment, and doubtless hoped for deliverance from their friends without, who had now closely besieged the place. But unfortunately for these poor wretches, the fort was too strong to be carried by their arts of war, and the dastardly whites found time and means to murder their victims, one by one, in a manner too horrible to relate.
There were few families who did not lose a friend or relation by this massacre, and, as one man, the nation took up the hatchet, and desolations quickly followed.
Meanwhile, singular as it may appear, Attakullakulla remained the fast friend of the whites, and used all his arts to induce his countrymen to make peace. But it was in vain he urged them to consider that they had more than revenged themselves; they were determined to carry all before: them. Attakullakulla was now an old man, and had been in England formerly,* and had become much attached to the English, from several
On the other hand, Ockonostota was a stern warrior, in the vigor of manhood, and, like the renowned Pontiac, was determined to rid his country of his barbarous enemies.
After the unfortunate expedition of Col. Montgomery, to which we have before alluded, all communication was cut off between Fort Loudon and the English settlements, and nothing but famine and the worst of deaths stared those who held it in the face. The number of men stationed here was 200, and their situation was truly deplorable. Ockonostota, with his numerous warriors, kept strict watch, insomuch that there was no means of escape. At length, the garrison having miserably subsisted, for some time,
* He went over with Sir Alexander Cumming, in 1730.
upon poor famished horses, dogs, &c., many became resolved to throw themselves into the power of the Indians, wishing rather to die by their hands, than miserably to perish within their fortress. Capt. Steuart, an officer among them, was well known to the Indians, and possessed great address and sayacity. He resolved, at this crisis, to repair to Chote, the residence of Ockonostota, and make overtures for the surrender of the garrison. He, accordingly, effected his object, and returned with articles of capitulation agreed upon. Besides the names of Ockonostota and Paul Demere, the commander of the garrison, the name of another chief was to the articles, called Cunigacatgoae. The articles stipulated, that the garrison should march out with their arms and drums, each soldier having as much powder and ball as his officers should think necessary, and that they should march for Virginia unmolested.
Accordingly, on 7 August, 1760, the English took up their march for Fort Prince George. They had proceeded but about 15 miles, when they encamped, for the night, upon a small plain near Taliquo. They were accompanied thus fur by Ockonostota in person, and many others, in a friendly manner, but at night they withdrew without giving any notice. The army was not molested during the night, but, at dawn of day, a sentinel came running into camp with the information that a host of Indians were creeping up to surround them. Capt. Demere had scarce time to rally, before the Indians broke into bis camp with great fury. The poor emaciated soldiers made but feeble resistance. Thirty of their number fell in the first onset, among whom was their captain. Those that were able, endeavored to save themselves by flight, and others surrendered themselves upon the place. Among the latter was Capt. Sleuart. The prisoners were conducted to Fort Loudon, which now became Ockonostota's head-quarters.
Attakullakulla, learning that his friend Steuart was among the captives, proceeded immediately to Fort Loudon, where he ransomed him at the expense of all the property he could command, and took care of him with the greatest tenderness and affection.
The restless Ockonostota next resolved to invest Fort Prince George. He was induced to undertake that project, as fortune had thrown in his way some of the means for such an undertaking, hitherto beyond his reach. Before abdicating Fort Loudon, the Euglish had bid in the ground several bags of powder. This his men had found. Several cannon had also been left behind, and he designed to force his English prisoners to get them through the woods, and manage them in the attack upon Fort Prince George. But Altakullakulla defeated these operations, by assisting Capt. Stewart to escape. He even accompanied him to the English settlements, and returned loaded with presents.
Ockonostota continued the war until Col. Grant, in 1761, traversed the Cherokee coupiry, and subdued his people in several battles; and peace was at last effected by the mediation of Attakullakulla. This chief's residence was upon the Tennessee or Cherokee River, at what was called the Overhill Towns. In 1773, when the learned traveller, Bartram, traveled into the Cherokee country, he met the old chief on his way to Charleston; of which circumstance he speaks thus in his Travels :—"Soon after crossing this large branch of the Tanase, I observed descending the heights, at some distance, a company of Indians, all well mounted on horseback. They came rapidly forward ; on their nearer approach, I observed a chief at the head of the caravan, and apprehending him to be the Little-carpenter, emperor or grand chief of the Cherokees, as they came up, I turned off from the path to make way, in token of respect, which compliment was accepted, and gratefully and magnanimously returned; for bis highness, with a gracious and cheerful smile, came up to me, and clapping his hand on his breast, offered it to me, saying, I am Ata-cul-culla, and heartily shook hands with me, and asked me if I knew it; I answered, that the good spirit who goes before me spoke to me, and said, that is the great Ata-cul-culla.” Mr. Bartram added, that he was of Pennsylvania, and though that was a great way off, yet the name of Attakullakulla was dear to his white brothers of Pennsylvania. The chief then asked him if he came directly from Charleston, and if his friend “ John Stewart were well.” Mr. Bartram said he saw him lately, and that he was well. This was, probably, the same person whom Attakullakulla had assisted to make an escape, as we have just related.
In carrying out the history of the two chiefs, Attakullakulla and Ocko nostota, we have omitted to notice Chlucco, better known by the name of the Long-warrior, king or mico of the Seminoles. He went out with Col.
Montgomery, and rendered him essential service in his unsuccessful expedition, of which we have spoken. A large band of Creeks accompanied him, and there is but little doubt, if it had not been for him and his warriors, few of the English would have returned to their friends. But, as usual, the English leader, in his time, had all the honor of successfully encountering many difficulties, and returning with his own life and many of his men's. It was by the aid of Chlucco, that the army escaped ambush after ambush, destroyed many of the Cherokee villages, and finally his warriors covered its retreat out of one of the most dangerous countries through which an army could pass. Long-warrior was what the New Eng. land Indians termed a great powwow. That he was a man possessing a good mind, may fairly be inferred from his ability to withstand the temptation of intoxicating liquors. He had been known to remain sober, when all his tribe, and many whites among them, had all been wallowing in the mire of drunkenness together. In the year 1773, at the head of about 40 warriors, he marched against the Chocktaws of West Florida. What was the issue of this expedition we have not learned. We may have again occasion to notice Chlucco.
MONCACHTAPE, the Yazoo Narrative of his adventures to the Pacific
Ocean-Grand-sun, chief of the Natchez-Receives great injustice from the French Concerts their destruction—700 French are cut off-War with them—The Natchez destroyed in their turn-GREAT-MORTAR—M'GILLIVRAY-His birth and education-Visits New York-Troubles of his nation-His death-TAME-KING-MAD-DOG.
6. This man
Moncachtape was a Yazoo, whose name signified, in the language of that nation, kiiler of pain and fatigue. How well he deserved this name the sequel will unfold. He was well known to the historian Du Pratz, about 1760, and it was owing to his singular good intelligence, that that traveller was able to add much valuable information to his work. (says Du Pratz*) was remarkable for his solid understanding and elevation of sentiments and I may justly compare him to those first Greeks, who travelled chiefly into the east, to examine the manners and customs of different nations, and to communicate to their fellow citizens, upon their return, the knowledge which they had acquired.” He was known to the French by the name of the Interpreter, as he could communicate with several other nations, having gained a knowledge of their languages. Mons. Du Pratz used great endeavors among the nations upon the Mississippi, to learn their origin, or from whence they came ; and observes concerning it, “ All that I could learn from them was, that they came from between the north and the sun-setting; and this account they uniformly adhere to, whenever they give any account of their origin." This was unsatisfactory to him, and in his exertions to find some one that could inform him better, he met with Moncachtape. The following is the result of bis communications, in his own words :
“ I had lost my wife, and all the children whom I had by her, when I undertook my journey towards the sun-rising. I set out from my village contrary to the inclination of all my relations, and went first to the Chicasaws, our friends and neighbors. I continued among them several days, to inform myself whether they knew whence we all came, or, at least, whence they themselves came; they, who were our elders; since from them came the language of the country. As they could not inform me, I proceeded on my journey. I reached the Wabash, or Ohio, near to its source, which is in the country of the Iroquois, or Five Nations. I left them, however, towards the north; and, during the winter, which, in that country, is very severe and very long, I lived in a village of the Abenaquis, where I contracted an acquaintance with a man somewhat older than myself, who promised to conduct me, the following spring, to the great water. Accordingly, when the snows were melted, and the weather was settled, we proceeded eastward, and, after several days' journey, I at length saw the great water, which filled me with such joy and admiration, that I could not speak. Night drawing on, we took up our
* Hist. Louisiana, ii. 121.
lodging on a high bank above the water, which was sorely vexed by the wind, and made so great a noise that I could not sleep. Next day, the ebbing and flowing of the water filled me with great apprehension; but my companion quieted my fears, by assuring me that the water observed certain bounds, both in advancing and retiring. Having satisfied our curiosity in viewing the great water, we returned to the village of the Abenaquis, where I continued the following winter; and, after the snows were melted, my companion and I went and viewed the great fall of the River St. Lawrence, at Niagara, which was distant from the village several days' journey. The view of this great fall, at first, made my hair stand on end, and my heart almost leap out of its place; but afterwards, before I left it, I had the courage to walk under it. Next day, we took the shortest road to the Ohio, and my companion and I cutting down a tree on the banks of the river, we formed it into a pettiaugre, which served to conduct me down the Ohio and the Mississippi, after which, with much difficulty, I went up our small river, and at length arrived safe among my relations, who were rejoiced to see me in good health.--This journey, instead of satisfying, only served to excite my curiosity. Our old men, for several years, had told me that the ancient speech informed them that the red men of the north came originally much higher and much farther than the source of the River Missouri ; and as I had longed to see, with my own eyes, the land from whence our
first fathers came, I took my precautions for my journey westwards. Having provided a small quantity of corn, I proceeded up along the eastern bank of the River Mississippi, till I came to the Obio. I went up along the bank of this last river, about the fourth part of a day's journey, that I might be able to cross it without being carried into the Mississippi. There I formed a cajeux, or raft of canes, by the assistance of which I passed over the river; and next day meeting with a herd of buffaloes in the meadows, I killed a fat one, and took from it the fillets, the bunch, and the tongue. Soon after, I arrived among the Tamaroas, a village of the nation of the Illinois, where I rested several days, and then proceeded northwards to the mouth of the Missouri, which, after it enters the great river, runs for a considerable time without intermixing its muddy waters with the elear stream of the other. Having crossed the Mississippi, I went up the Missouri, along its northern bank, and, after several days' journey, I arrived at the nation of the Missouris, where I staid a long time to learn the language that is spoken beyond them. In going along the Missouri, I passed through meadows a whole day's journey in length, which were quite covered with buffaloes.
“When the cold was past, and the snows were melted, I continued my journey up along the Missouri, till I came to the nation of the west, on the Canzas. Afterwards, in consequence of directions from them, I proceeded in the same course near 30 days, and at length I met with some of the nation of the Otters, who were hunting in that neighborhood, and were surprised to see me alone. I continued with the hunters two or three days, and then accompanied one of them and his wife, who was near her time of lying in, to their village, which lay far off betwixt the north and west. We continued our journey along the Missouri for nine days, and then we marched directly northwards for five days more, when we came to the fine river, which runs westward in a direction contrary to that of the Missouri. We proceeded down this river a whole day, and then arrived at the village of the Otters, who received me with as much kindness as if I had been of their own nation. A few days after, I joined a party of the Otters, who were going to carry a calumet of peace to a nation beyond them, and we embarked in a pettiaugre, and went down the river for 18 days, landing now and then to supply ourselves with pro