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cannot from them be confirmed. This digression, then, is to cast into the fire that broken crutch which this learned man hath lent unto the Jews and Socinians to lean upon, and keep themselves from sinking under their unbelief.

To discover the rise of that learned man's opinion, that Jeremiah is intended in this prophecy, the conceits of the Jewish doctors may a little be considered, who are divided amongst themselves.

1. The ancient doctors generally conclude that it is the Messiah who is here intended. “Behold, my servant the Messiah shall prosper," says the Chaldee paraphrast upon the place. And Constantine l'Empereur tells [us] from R. Simeon, in his book Salkout, that the ancient rabbins, in their ancient book Tanchuma, and higher, were of the same judgment.' Rabbi Moses Alscheth is urged to the same purpose at large by Hulsius; and in his comment on this place he says expressly, “Ecce doctores nostri laudatæ memoriæ uno ore statuunt, et a majoribus acceperunt, de rege Messia sermonem esse, et doctorum L. M. vestigiis insistemus." And one passage in him is very admirable, in the same place; saith he, “ Dicunt doctores nostri L. M. omnium afflictionum quæ mundum ingressæ sunt, tertia pars Davidi et patriarchis obtigit, tertia altera seculo excisionis, ultima tertia pars regi Messiæ incumbet;" where he urgeth the common consent of their doctors for the sufferings of the Messiah. Of the same mind was R. Solomon, as he is cited by Petrus Galatinus, lib. viii. cap. xiv.; as the same is affirmed by the Misdrach Resh, cap. ii. 14; and in Bereshith Rabba on Gen. xxiv., as is observed by Raymundus Martinus, Pug. Fidei 3, p. dist. 1, cap. x. So that before these men grew

. impudent and crafty in corrupting and perverting the testimonies of the Old Testament concerning the Messiah, they generally granted him and only him to be here intended. It was not for want of company, then, that Grotius took in with the modern rabbins, who, being mad with envy and malice, care not what they say, so they may oppose Jesus Christ

. 2. Many of the following Jewish doctors interpret this place of the whole people of the Jews. And this way go the men who are of the greatest note amongst them in these latter days, as R. D. Kimchi, Aben Ezra, Abrabanel, Lipman, with what weak and mean pretences, with what inconsistency as to the words of the text, hath been by others manifested.

3. Abrabinel, or Abrabanel, a man of great note and honour amongst them, though he assents to the former exposition, of applying the whole prophecy to the people of the Jews, and interprets

1 “ Porro libri istius, unde hæc sectio in Esaiam desumpta est, Author perhibetur D. Simeon, concionatorum princeps, qui Francofurti olim degebat. Hic e Judæorum vetustissimis scriptis, secundum bibliorum seriem, dicta et explicationes plurimas : magna diligentia et labore collegit : unde libri suo nomen wobr ac si peram dicas (mallet:] quia ut in pera reconduntur plurima.”—L'Emper.

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the words at large accordingly,—which exposition is confuted by Constantine l'Empereur,-yet he inclines to a singular opinion of his own, that Josiah is the man pointed at and described; but he is the first and last that abides by that interpretation.

4. Grotius interprets the words of Jeremiah in the first place, not denying them, as we shall see, to have an accommodation to Christ. In this he hath the company of one rabbi, R. Saadias Gaon, mentioned by Aben Ezra upon the 52d chapter of this prophecy, verse 13. But this fancy of Saadias is fully confuted by Abrabanel; whose words, because they sufficiently evert the whole design of Grotius also, I shall transcribe as they lie in the translation of Hulsius: "Revera ne unum quidem versiculum video, qui de Jeremiah exponi possit: qua ratione de eo dicetur, ‘Extolletur et altus erit valde?' Item illud, 'propter eum obdent reges os suum,' nam ætas illa prophetas habere consueverat. Quomodo etiam dici potest morbos nostros portasse, et dolores nostros bajulasse, et in tumice ejus curationem nobis esse, Deum in ipsum incurrere fecisse peccata omnium nostrûm: quasi ipsi pæna incubuisset, et Israel fuisset immunis? Jam illud, * Propter peccatum populi mei plaga ipsis,' item, “Dedit cum improbis sepulcrum ejus,' ad ipsum referri nequit; multo minus illud,

Videbit semen, prolongabit dies,' item, cum robustis partietur spolium.' In quibus omnibus nihil est quod de ipso commode affirmari possit. Unde vehementer miror, quomodo R. Hagaon in hanc sententiam perduci potuerit, et sapientes dari qui hanc expositionem laudant; cum tamen tota ista exponendi ratio plane aliena sit, et e Scriptura non facta."

Now, certainly, if this Jew thought he had sufficient cause to admire that the blind rabbi should thus wrest the sense of the Holy Ghost, and that any wise man should be so foolish as to commend it, we cannot but be excused in admiring that any man professing himself a Christian should insist in his steps, and that any should commend him for so doing.

That, therefore, which here is affirmed in the entrance of his discourse by Abrabanel, namely, that not one verse can or may

be expounded of Jeremiah, shall now particularly be made good against Grotius:

He confesseth with us that the head of this prophecy and discourse is in verse 13, chap. lii. The words of that verse are,

“Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high."

Of the sense of which words, thus he:

Ecce intelliget servus meus. Hæc omnia clarissimè sibi revelata cognoscet Jeremias. Exaltabitur et elevabitur, et sublimis erit valde. In magno honore erit apud ipsos Chaldæos, Jer. xxxix. in fine, et xl.;”—“My servant Jeremiah shall have all these things clearly re


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vealed to him, and he shall be in great honour with the Chaldeans.” So he.

1. For the words themselves: Sair, with the Vulgar Latin, he renders “intelliget," "shall understand.” The word signifies rather “prudence” for action with success, than any speculative knowledge by revelation. 1 Sam. xviii. 30, it is used of David behaving himself wisely in the business of his military and civil employment. Its opposite, saith Pagnine, is say, “quod incogitantiam significat in rebus agendis et ignavam levitatem,”—“which signifies incogitancy

in the management of affairs and idle lightness.” Whence the word is usually taken for to "prosper” in affairs; as it is used of our Saviour, Jer. xxiii. 5, “A King shall reign" Savn?, “and prosper." Nor can it be otherwise used here, considering the connection of the words wherein it stands, it being the precedent to his being “highly exalted” who is spoken of; which rather follows his “dealing prudently" than his “receiving revelations." So that in the very entrance there is a mistake in the sense of the word, and that mistake lies at the bottom of the whole interpretation.

2. I deny that God speaks anywhere in the Scripture of any one besides Jesus Christ in this phrase, without any addition, “My servant," as here, “Behold, my servant." So he speaks of Christ, Isa. xlii. 1, 19, and other places; but not of any other person whatever. It is an expression xar' igoxív, and not to be applied to any but to him who was the great servant of the Father in the work of mediation.

3. Even in respect of revelations, there is no ground why those made to Jeremiah should be spoken of so emphatically, and by way of eminence above others, seeing he came short of the prophet by whom these words are written. Nor can any instance be given of such a prediction used concerning any prophet whatever that was to be raised up in the church of the Jews, but of Christ himself only.

4. The exposition of the close of these words, “He shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high” (the great exaltation of the Lord Jesus Christ in his kingdom, when he was made a prince and a saviour in a most eminent manner, being set forth in various expressions, no one reaching to the glory of it), is unworthy the learned annotator. “He shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high;" —that is, the Chaldeans shall give him “victuals and a reward,” Jer. xl. 5; and after a while he shall be carried a prisoner into Egypt, and there knocked on the head. Such was the exaltation of the


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poor prophet! What resemblance hath all this to the exaltation of Jesus Christ, whom the learned man confesseth to be intended in these words?

1 “Eminentiæ notionem quavis formula expressit, quia illius eminentia erit sublimis excellentia."-D. Kimchi.

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The sense, then, of these words is: Jesus Christ, the Messiah, the servant of the Father, Isa. xlii. 1, 19, Phil. ii. 7, 8, “shall deal

prudently," and prosper in the business of doing his Father's will, and carrying on the affairs of his own kingdom, Isa ix. 7, “and be exalted" far above all principalities and powers, having “a name given him above every name, that at the name of Jesus,” etc., Phil. ii. 9, 10.

The next verse is,

“ As many were astonished at thee; his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men.”

Of the accomplishment of this in and upon the Lord Jesus Christ there is no difficulty. The astonishment mentioned is that of men at his low and despicable condition as to outward appearance; which was such as that he said of himself he was a worm, and no man,” Ps. xxii. 6. His condition was such and his visage such as all that knew any thing of him were astonished to the purpose. The marring of his visage and form, as it may point out all the acts of violence that were done upon his face, by spitting, buffeting, and the like, so it expresses his whole despised, contemned, persecuted estate and condition. But let us attend to our annotator:

“ Modd secundâ, modd tertiâ personâ, de Jeremia loquitur, quod frequens Hebræis. Sicut multi mirati erant hominem tam egregium tam fodè tractari, detrudi in carcerem, deinde in lacum lutosum, ibique et pædore et cibi inopiâ contabescere; sic contra, rebus mutatis, admirationi erit honos ipsi habitus;"—“He speaks of Jeremiah, sometimes in the second, sometimes in the third person; which is frequent with the Hebrews. As many wondered that so excellent a person should so vilely be dealt with, be thrust into prison, and then into a miry lake, and there to pine with stink and want of food; so on the contrary, affairs being changed, the honour afforded him shall be matter of admiration.”

1. To grant the first observation, as to the change of persons in the discourse, the word (PDV, “shall be astonished") here used signifies not every slight admiration, by wondering upon any occasion, or that may be a little more than ordinary, but mostly an astonishment arising from the contemplation of some ruthful spectacle. So Lev. xxvi. 32, “I will bring the land into desolation, and your enemies which dwell therein shall be astonished at it;" and the word is near twenty times used to the same purpose. This by way of diminution is made, "mirati sunt, admirationi erit.”

2. This astonishment of men is by Grotius referred both to the dejection and exaltation of Jeremiah, whereof there is nothing in the words. It is the amazement of men at the despicable condition of him that is spoken of only that is intended; but without intruding something of his exaltation, this discourse had wanted all colour or pretext.

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3. Was it so great a matter in Jerusalem that a prophet should be put in prison there, where they imprisoned, stoned, tortured, and slew them almost all, one after another, in their several generations, that it should be thus prophesied of as a thing that men would and should be amazed at? Was it any wonder at all in that city, whose streets not long before had run with the blood of innocent men, that a prophet should be cast into prison? Or was this peculiar to Jeremiah to be dealt so withal? Is it any matter of astonishment to this very day? Was his honour afterward such an amazing thing, in that for a little season he was suffered to go at liberty, and had victuals given him? Was not this, as to the thing itself, common to him with many hundred others? Were his afflictions such as to be be

? yond compare with those of any man, or any of the sons of men? or his honours such as to dazzle the eyes of men with admiration and astonishment? Let a man dare to make bold with the word of God, and he may make as many such applications as he pleaseth, and find out what person he will to answer all the prophecies of the Messiah. This not succeeding, let us try the next verse:

“So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at him: for that which had not been told them shall they see, and that which they had not heard shall they consider.”

Ita asperget gentes multas. In Hebræo, ‘Sic asperget,' ut respondeat illi 'sicut,' quod præcessit. Multos ex gentibus ab idolorum cultu avertet. Similitudo sumpta ab aspersionibus legalibus; unde et Chaldæis 711 est objurgare. At LXX. habent, Oūrw Javuloora, čovn Tond én airñ, non male; nam mirari est aspergi fulgore alicujus;” _“In the Hebrew it is, ' So he shall sprinkle,' that it might answer to the 'as' that went before. He shall turn many of the nations from the worship of idols. A similitude taken from the legal washings; whence 1717 with the Chaldees is to 'rebuke.' The LXX. render it, "So shall many nations wonder at him,' not badly; for to wonder is as it were to be sprinkled with any one's brightness.”

For the exposition of the words

1. We agree that it is, “So he shall sprinkle,” an åróðoois, relating to the apóragis, verse 14, “ As many were astonished,” etc.; the great work of Christ and his exaltation therein being rendered in opposition to his humiliation and dejection, before mentioned. As he was in so mean à condition that men were astonished at him, so he shall be exalted, in his great work of converting the nations, to their admiration.

2. It is granted that the expression, “He shall sprinkle,” is an allusion to the legal washings and purifications; which as they were typical of real sanctification and holiness, so from them is the promise thereof so often expressed in the terms of " washing” and “cleansing," Ezek. xxxvi. 25, the term being preserved and used in the New Testament frequently; the blood of Christ, whereby this work

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