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arietinum, adamas supernas, Tiberinum margaritum, Cilniorum smaragde, jaspis figulorum, berille Porsennæ, carbunculum Italiæ,” räilva ouvrira gerta, etc.' I hoped, therefore, this business had been at an issue; others also were of the same mind, especially considering that he had almost professed against proceeding farther in this controversy in some other treatises and apologies. For my own part, I must profess my thoughts arose only from his long silence. The reason of this I knew could not be that of him in the poet, φιλεί γάρ εκνεϊν πράγμανήρ πράσσων piga, seeing he could have done it as speedily as have written so much paper. The expressions in his books seemed to me as the fermentation of a spirit that, at one time or other, would boil over. I confess I was something delivered from the fear of it, when, not long before the publishing of his confession and apology, I met with him, and had occasion of much conference with him at London, even about justification, and he made not the least mention of this confutation of me which he hath now published; but pinsncio pveids, õue peacons. But though this present contest might have been easily prevented (as the reader will instantly perceive),

I presume the book was then wholly printed, and Mr B. was not to lose his pains, nor the world the benefit thereof, nor the printer his ink and paper, for so slight a cause as the preventing of the aspersion of me for an Antinomian.

But “jacta est alea;” now it is out, we must make the best of it; and I hope the reader will excuse me in what follows. Ως ουχ υπάρχων αλλά τιμωρούμενος.

But why must my arguments be answered and myself confuted? Two reasons hereof are given. The first by very many insinuations, namely, that I have delivered dangerous doctrines, such as subvert the foundation of the gospel,—plain Antinomianism. And these two positions are laid down to be confuted, namely, first, That the elect are justified from eternity, or from the death of Christ, before they believe; secondly, That justification by faith is but in foro conscientiæ, or in our own feeling, and terminated in conscience, and not in foro Dei ; farther, then, conscience may be so called: and my arguments for them are answered, chap. viii.

But what should a man do in this case ? I have already published to Mr B. and all the world that I believe neither of these propositions. Must I take my oath of it, or get compurgators, or must we have no end of this quarrel? Let Mr B. prove any such thing out of any thing I have written, and, as Nonius says out of Nævius, “ Ei dum vivebo fidelis ero." I am sure this minds me of that passage in the Jewish liturgy, “ Placeat tibi, Domine, liberare me a lite difficili, et ab adversario difficili, sive is ad fædus tuum pertineat sive non pertineat.” The following examination of the particulars excepted against by Mr B. will make this evident, whence it will appear that reszpå spóparis loti toő spāžas ræx@sos Yea, but,

Secondly, Two or three reverend brethren told him that, as to that part which he hath considered, it was necessary I should be confuted. Who these reverend brethren are I know not. I presume they may be of those friends of Mr B. that blame him for replying to Mr Blake, but say for all the rest with whom he hath dealt (of whom I am forced to be one) that it is no matter, they deserved no better. Whoever they are, they might have had more mercy than not a little to pity poor men under the strokes of a heavy hand. Nor do I know what are the reasons of the brethren why my name must be brought on this stage; nor, perhaps, is it meet they should be published. It may be it is necessary that Mr Owen should be confuted among Antinomians, and that ix spírodos. But what if it should appear in the issue that Mr Owen hath deserved better at their hands, and that this advice of theirs might have been spared ? But not to complain of I know not whom, to those reverend advisers I shall only say, Είδε πάν έχει καλώς, το παιγνίων,

p. 189.

1 Την κενοδοξίαν ώς τελευταίον χιτώνα η ψυχή πέφυκεν ασoτίθεσθαι. Sophocles, Elec. 320.

3 Menander.

4 Mr B.'s preface. ε'Αυτώ κακά τεύχι ανήρ, άλλα κακά τεύχων ήδε κακή βουλή των βουλεύσαντι.κακίστη.

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δότε κρότον, και πάντες υμείς μετά χαράς ποπεύσατι. But if it appear in the issue that I was charged with that which I never delivered nor wrote, and that my arguments to one purpose are answered in reference to another, and that this is the sum of Mr B.'s discourse against me, I shall only recommend to them some verses of old Ennius, as I find them in Aus. Pop. :

“Nam qui lepide postulat alterum frustrari,

Quem frustratur, frustra eum dicit frustra esse.
Nam qui sese frustrari quem frustra, sentit,

Qui frustatur is frustra est, si non, ille est frustra." What, then, shall I do: I am imposed on to lay the foundation of all Antinomianism (as Mr Burgess is also),—to maintain the justification from eternity, or at least in the cross of Christ, of all that should believe, and justification by faith to be but the sense of it in our consciences (which last I know better and wiser men than myself that do, though I do not); and so reckoned amongst them that overthrow the whole gospel, and place the righteousness of Christ in the room of our own believing and repentance, rendering them useless.

Shall I undertake to confute Mr B.'s book, at least wherein we differ, and so acquit myself both from Antinomianism and Socinianism in the business in hand? But,-1. The things of this discourse are such, and the manner of handling them of that sort, that Mr B. heartily, in the close of his book (p. 462), begs pardon for them who have necessitated him to spend so much time to so little purpose, και ταύτα πράσσων φάσκ' ανήρ ουδέν ποιών. As I see not yet the necessity of his pains, so I desire his reverend advisers may thank him for this intercession; for I suppose myself, at least, not concerned therein. But this I can say, that I am so far from engaging into a long operose contest, in a matter of such importance and consequence as the subject of that book is represented to be, that I would rather burn my pens and books also than serve a provocation so far as to spend half that time therein which the confutation of it would require from so slow and dull a person as myself.

2. He hath, in his preface, put such terrible conditions upon those that will answer him, that I know no man but must needs be affrighted with the thoughts of the attempt. He requires that whoever undertake this work be of a stronger judgment and a more discerning head than he, that he be a better proficient in these studies than he, that he be freer from prejudice than he, that he have more illumination and grace than he ; that is, that he be a better, wiser, more holy, and learned man than Mr B. Now, if we may take Mr B.'s character by what he discourseth of his mortification and sincerity, his freedom from prejudice, etc., as there is no reason but that we should, I profess I know not where to find his match, much less any to excel him, with whom I might intercede for his pains in the consideration of this treatise: for as for myself, I am, seriously, so far from entertaining any such thoughts in reference to Mr B., that I dare not do it in reference to any one godly minister that I know in the world; yea, I am sure that I am not, in respect of all the qualifications mentioned put together, to be preferred before any one of them. If it be said that it is not requisite that a man should know this of himself, but only that he be so indeed, I must needs profess that, being told beforehand that such he must be, if he undertake this work, I am not able to discern how he should attempt it and not proclaim himself to have an opinion of his own qualifications answerable to that which is required of him.

3. It is of some consideration, that a man that doth not know so much of him as I do, would by his writings take him to be immitis and immisericors,—a very Achilles, that will'not pardon a man in his grave, but will take him up and cut him in a thousand pieces. I verily believe that if a man (who had nothing else to do) should gather into one heap all the expressions which in his late books, confessions, and apologies, have a lovely aspect towards himself, as to ability, diligence, VOL. XII.

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sincerity, on the one hand, with all those which are full of reproach and contempt towards others, on the other, the view of them could not but a little startle a man of so great modesty and of such eminency in the mortification of pride as Mr B. is. But,

Ουδείς επ' αυτού τα κακά συνορά,

Σαφώς ετέρου δε άσχημονούντος όψεται. Had I not heard him profess how much he valued the peace of the church, and declare what his endeavours for it were, I could not but suppose, upon evidences which I am unwilling to repeat together, that a humour of disputing and quarrel. ling was very predominant in the man. However, though a profession may pass against all evidences of fact to the contrary whatever, yet I dare say that he lives not at expayérodus. [Sueton. Aug. 98.]

That he hath been able to discern the positions he opposes in the beginning of his eighth chapter to be contained in any writings of mine, as maintained by me, I must impute to such a sharp-sightedness as was that of Caius Caligula, to whom, when he inquired of Vitellius whether he saw him not embracing the moon, it was replied, “ Solis (domine) vobis diis licet invicem videre," Dio.

What shall I do, then? Shall I put forth a creed or an apology to make it appear that indeed' I am not concerned in any of Mr Baxter's contests? But,

1. I dare not look upon myself of any such consideration to the world, as to write books to give them an account of myself (with whom they very little trouble their thoughts); to tell them my faith and belief; to acquaint them when I am well and when I am sick; what sin I have mortified most; what books I have read; how I have studied; how I go, and walk, and look; what one of my neighbours says

of me, and what another; how I am praised by some and dispraised by others; what I do, and what I would have others do; what diligence, impartiality, uprightness, I use; what I think of other men: so dealing unmercifully with perishing paper, and making books by relating to myself, worthy

“Deferri in vicum vendentem thus et odores,

Et piper, et quicquid chartis amicitur ineptis."-Hor. Ep. ii. 269. And I should plainly show myself αλαζονοχαυνοφλύαρος.

2. I know there is no need of any such thing: for all that know me, or care to know me, know full well that, in and about the doctrine of justification by faith, I have no singular opinion of my own, but embrace the common, known doctrine of the reformed churches; which, by God's good assistance, in due time I shall farther explicate and vindicate from Papists, Socinians, and Arminians. I cannot complain that iyó sigui peóvos tão simão suós, Apollodorus; I have companions and counsellors. And, in truth, it is very marvellous to some that this learned person, who hath manifested so great a tenderness on his own behalf as to call their books “ monsters" and themselves “ liars," who charged his opinion about justification with a coincidence with that of the Papists, should himself so freely impute Antinomianism to others, an opinion which he esteems as bad, if not every way worse, than that of the Papists about justification. But “ contenti simus hoc Catone;" which is all I shall say, though some would add,- :

** Homine imperito nunquam quidquam injustius,

Qui, nisi quod ipse facit, nihil rectum putat." 3. I must add, if for a defensative of myself I should here transcribe and subscribe some creed already published, I must profess it must not be that of Mr B. (pp. 12, 13), which he calls the “Worcestershire profession of faith;" and that, as for other reasons, so especially for the way of delivering the doctrine of the Trinity, which but in one expression at most differs from the known confession of the Socinians, and in sundry particulars gives so great a countenance to their abominations. For instance, the first article of it is, “I believe that there is one only God, the Father, infinite in being," etc., which, being carried on towards the end, and joined to the

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profession of consent,” as it is called, in these words, “I do heartily take this one God for my only God and chiefest good, and this Jesus Christ for my only Lord, Redeemer, and Saviour,” evidently distinguishes the Lord Jesus Christ our Redeemer, as our Lord, from that one true God; which not only directly answers that question of Mr Biddle's, “How many Lords of Christians are there in distinction from this one God?” but in terms falls in with that which the Socinians profess to be the “tessera” of their sect and churches, as they call them, which is, that they believe in the "one true, living God the Father, and in his only Son Jesus Christ our Lord.” Nor am I at so great an indifferency in the business of the procession of the Holy Ghost as to those expressions of " from," and " by the Son,” as that confession is at, knowing that there is much more depends on these expressions, as to the doctrine of the Trinity, than all the confessionists can readily apprehend. But yet here,—that we may not have occasion to say, Astroháyw droλογιών φεύ πληθύος ! -I do freely clear the subscribers of that confession from any sinister opinion of the Trinity or the deity of Jesus Christ; though as to myself I suppose my reasons abundantly sufficient to detain me from a subscription of it. But if this course be not to be insisted shall 1,

4. Run over all the confessions of faith and common-places which I have or may have here at Oxford, and manifest my consent with them in the matter under question? I confess this were a pretty easy way to make up a great book; but for many reasons it suits not with my judgment, although I would have the advantage of giving what they positively deliver in abundance as their main thesis and foundation, without cutting off discourses from their connection and coherence, to give them a new face and appearance, which in their own proper place they had not, or gathering up their concessions to the adversaries to one purpose and applying them to another: and therefore I shall wholly waive that way of procedure, although I might by it, perhaps, keep up some good reputation with the orthodox.

To have passed over, then, this whole business in silence would have seemed to me much the best course, had I not seen a man of so great integrity and impartiality as Mr B. (who so much complains of want of candour and truth in others) counting it so necessary to vindicate himself from imputations as to multiply books and apologies to that end and purpose, and that under the chains of very strong importunities and entreaties to turn the course of his studies and pains to things more useful, wherein his labours, as he says, have met with excessive estimation and praises; and may doubtless well do so, there being, as he informs us, few divines that are diligently and impartially studious of truth, and fewer that have strong judgments that are able to discern it, though they do study it” (pref.); which though Mr B. arrogates not to himself, yet others may do well to ascribe to him. I hope, then, he will not be offended if in this I follow his steps, though “haud passibus æquis” and “longo proximus intervallo.” Only in this I shall desire to be excused, if, seeing the things of myself are very inconsiderable, and whatever I can write on that account being like the discourses of men returning “ e lacu furnoque," I multiply not leaves to no purpose. I shall, then, desire,1. To enter my protest that I do not engage with Mr B. upon

the terms and conditions by him prescribed in his preface, as though I were wiser, or better, or more learned than he; being fully assured that a man more unlearned than either of us, and less studied, may reprove and convince us of errors, and that we may deal so with them who are inuch more learned than us both.

2. To premise that I do not deliver my thoughts and whole judgment in the business of the justification of a sinner; which to do I have designed another opportunity, si Osos Díası, xai Chow, and shall not now prevent myself.

These things being premised, I shall,

1. Set down what I have delivered concerning the three heads wherein it is pretended the difference lies between us.

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2. Pass through the consideration of the particular places where Mr B. is pleased to take notice of me and my judgment and arguments as to the things of the contests wherein he is engaged. And this course I am necessitated unto because, as Mr B. states the controversies he pursues in the beginning of the eighth chapter, I profess myself wholly unconcerned in them.

The things, then, that I am traduced for the maintaining and giving countenance unto are:-1. The justification of the elect from eternity; 2. Their justification at the death of Christ, as dying and suffering with him; 3. Their absolution in heaven before their believing; 4. That justification by faith is nothing but a sense of it in the conscience; 5. That Christ suffered the idem which we should have done, and not only tantundem. Of all which very briefly.

1. For the first, I neither am nor ever was of that judgment; though, as it may be explained, I know better, wiser, and more learned men than myself

, that have been and are. This I once before told Mr B., and desired him to believe me, “Of the Death of Christ,” p. 33 (works, vol. x. p. 449.] If he will not yet do it, I cannot help it.

2. As to the second, I have also entreated Mr B. to believe that it is not my judgment, in that very book on which he animadverts, and hoped I might have obtained credit with him, he having no evidence to the contrary. Let the reader see what I deliver to this purpose, pp. 34, 35 (pp. 451, 452). In what sense I maintain that the “elect died and rose with Christ,” see pp. 82-84 (pp. 472, 473).

3. The third, or absolution in heaven before believing. What I mean hereby I explain, pp. 77–79 (pp. 470, 471). Let it be consulted.

It was, on I know not what grounds, before by Mr B. imposed on me that I maintained justification upon the death of Christ before believing; which I did with some earnestness reject, and proved by sundry arguments that we are not changed in our state and condition before we do believe. Certainly never was man more violently pressed to a warfare than I to this contest.

4. That justification by faith is nothing but a sense of it in the conscience, I never said, I never wrote, I never endeavoured to prove. What may a man expect from others, who is so dealt withal by a man whose writings so praise him as Mr B.'s do!

5. For the last thing, what I affirm in it, what I believe in it, what I have proved, the preceding treatise will give an account to the reader. And for my judgment in these things, this little at present may suffice. Mr B.'s animadversions, in the order wherein they lie, shall nextly be considered.

The first express mention that I am honoured withal is towards the end of his preface; occasioned only by a passage in my brief proem to Mr Eyre's book of justification. My words, as by him transcribed, are:

“For the present I shall only say, that there being too great evidence of a very welcome entertainment and acceptation given by many to an almost pure Socinian justification and exposition of the covenant of grace," etc.

To which Mr B. subjoins:

“But to be almost an error is to be a truth. There is but a thread between truth and error, and that which is not near to that error is not truth, but is liker to be another error in the other extreme. For truth is one straight line; error is manifold, even all that swerves from that line, in what space or degree soever.”

“ Malum omen !" and the worse because of choice. Whether this proceed rape της του ελέγχου άγνοιαν, or whether it be το έκαι σημείου (ασυλλογίστου γαρ και τούτο), it matters not, but I am sure it is sophistical. The doctrine of justification, which I reflected on, I did not say was near to error, or almost an error, but near to Socinianism, or almost Socinian. If Mr B. takes error and Socinianism to be terms

Arist. Rhet. lib. ü cap. xxvi.

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