The Empire And the Khanate: A Political History of Qing Relations With Khoqand C1760-1860
Drawing primarily on Qing archival sources, this study charts the changes in Qing policy that characterized the empire s relations with the Central Asian khanate of Khoqand, from the Qianlong era to the mid-19th century. It explores how the development of Khoqand as a regional power and its involvement with the khoja-cause impacted on Qing policy towards Xinjiang (Eastern Turkestan) and the consolidation of the north-western frontier. Focussing on the Altishahr region, it illustrates how, a notion of border defined by geography, politics and military logistics began to replace the earlier open and more fluid notion of frontier in Qing political thinking. It suggests that these developments presaged a transition from empire to nation-state long before the upheavals of the late 19th century.
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19th century Abd al-KarƯm al-DƯn Altishahr AmƯn Aqsu Asian attack Badakhshan Beijing Bukhara BurhƗn cantonment Central Asia Ch’ing Changling China Chinese conquest councillor Daoguang Daoguang emperor embargo empire’s Fletcher four western cities frontier officials garrison GZSL hakim bek Han Chinese HJNFL imperial agent Irdana IshƗq Islamic Ɩlim Junghars karun Kashgar khan khanate khojas Khoqand Khoqandi aqsaqal Khoqandi envoy Khoqandi traders Khotan Khǀja LFZZ MZL LFZZ WJL/ZE Manchu military governor Mongol Muhammad AlƯ KhƗn Muslims Nayancheng NƗrbutƗ northwest NWYGZY opium political Qazaqs Qianlong emperor Qing authorities Qing court Qing empire Qing forces Qing officials Qing rule Qing sources Qing troops Qipchaq Qirghiz QulƯ rebellion rebels region rhubarb Russian SarimsƗq Sariqol ShƗh Songyun sostoianii Altyshara suggested SultƗn SYXZG territory trade tribes tribute missions Turfan Turkic Turkic Muslims Uch Turfan Umar Valikhanov ValƯ Wei Yuan WJSL Xinjiang XZSL Yangi Hisar Yarkand Yǌsuf Yulin ZFL xu ZiyƗ ZPZZ MZL