An Account of the Land Revenue of British India ...

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W. Thacker & Company, 1856 - Land tenure - 95 pages
 

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Page 32 - ... occupancy, when those were disputed, (for occupancy came also within the scope of the technical term, purgunnah rates,) it was the office and duty of the authorized accounts of Government to settle. Lord Cornwallis also provided, that beyond the rent, the ryots should pay nothing. These laws are still in the Statute book, though, to the great detriment of the country, they have not, from the want of sufficient machinery, and sufficient knowledge in the early administrators of the system, been...
Page 28 - In many instances the earnings of the ryut are not sufficient to provide for his family; his wife and sons are obliged to betake themselves to some pursuit and assist him with all they can get. He lives generally on coarse rice, and pulse vegetables and fish (a mere drug in...
Page 32 - ... more than the intention, to make such a bargain, as Lord Hastings, in discussing this question, very justly observed. No Government can part with the obligation to do right and justice to any part of its subjects. " Far from doing so, Lord Cornwallis's settlement provided that the ryots should not pay higher rates of rent than the purgunnah rates, which any man, thoroughly versed in Indian revenue, knows to be a technical term, not for a specific table of rates, which has been idly sought for,...
Page 28 - In many instances the earnings of a ryot are not sufficient for his family ; and his wife and sons are obliged to betake themselves to some pursuit, and assist him with all they can get.
Page 16 - ... of dry or wet cultivation, or of fruit-trees, being assessed at a certain sum : but this mode of collecting the revenue was soon discontinued, and in lieu of it the land-tax was fixed at one half of the gross produce, to be paid either in kind or in money. The author of the Hiddyah observes, — " This tax ought not to exceed what the land can afford to pay; be it, therefore, known, that our jurists have decided that the utmost which the land can afford to pay is one half of the produce, and...
Page 29 - ... exaggeration ; even in ordinary seasons, and under ordinary circumstances, the ryots may often be seen fasting for days and nights for want of food. The inability of the ryot to better his degraded condition, in which he has been placed by the causes we have named, is increased by his mental debasement. Unprotected, harassed, and oppressed, he has been precluded from the genial rays of intellectuality. His mind is veiled in a thick gloom of ignorance."— Indian Petition presexted bytkc Earl...
Page 16 - ... take less, for to take less is lawful, but to take " more than the half is not lawful." THE HINDOO SYSTEM. The ancient Hindoo Governments are represented to have been entitled to a sixth, or, at most, a fourth of the gross produce of the land; but with regard to the practice of these governments, it appears, upon the authority of Sir Thomas Munro, that in the districts of the Hindoo chieftains of the northern circars, descended from the ancient sovereigns of Orissa, and in other Hindoo States,...
Page 16 - ... more than this ought not to be taken ; one half is just, and not oppressive, because it was lawful to capture both the persons and the lands of the conquered people and to divide them amongst the Moslems; and therefore taking one half only of the produce of their lands must be equally lawful : but, if the land cannot afford to pay one half, the prince must take less ; for to take less is lawful, but to take more than the half is not lawful.
Page 29 - ... of great improvements in the police and constant attention to it. Now, this crime has entirely disappeared in the Northwest Provinces since the new settlement, which secured to the cultivating ryots moderate and fair rents. It is evident that where there is a regular government and police, and yet predatory crimes cannot be checked, the cause must lie in the misery and desperation of a large class of the community.
Page 53 - ... fixed by the Government for the best lands, which cannot be exceeded. Inferior lands, so long as they remain inferior, are of course assessed at lower rates. The contracts with the cultivators are renewed from year to year, when remissions of rent are made, if the unfavourable character of the season or the circumstances of the cultivator render such a measure expedient. In the south of India the seasons are unusually precarious, and the cultivators poor and improvident. Under such circumstances,...

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