Page images
PDF
EPUB

quire. Since the inscription may be interesting to our readers, independently of its illustrating a work of art, we insert it with the abbreviations, &c. just as it appears on the medal:—

Born, May 1,1780, -
Ent. as Ensign In the 73 Reg. 1787;
App Lieut in the 76,17RS, and Can in the S3,1791;
Major in the 33,1792, Lieut Cot 1793 and Col 1794:
Com. a Dir. at the Storming of Seringapatam. May 4,1799;
Bottle of Conaghull, Sep. S, 1S00;
Appoiuted Major-Oeiieral. April 29,1802;
Batt of Asaarr. Sep 25, took Gawilirhar by atorm, Dec 30,1803;
Crent Knight of the Bath and Chief Seer, fortreland, 1807;
Defeated the Danes at the Battle of Kiogc. 1B07;

Appointed Lieut General. April 28, 1808;
B»Itle of Rnlei, Aug 17—Vimleia, Aug 21,1808;
Appointed Marshal Gen. of the Portuguese Army, March 22, 1809;
Captured Oporto, May 12— Ritt of Talavera, 17 and 28 July 1809;

Creat Viscount Welliugtnu and Baron Douro, Aug. 56, 1809; ,
Batt. of Bu«aco, Sep. 27— Coirabra, Oct. 7, 1810;
laeirtn de Honor, May 5—Almeida, May 11— Aroyo del Molina, Oct 28, 1811;
Creat Conde Vimiera and Appoint Gen. in Spain and Portugal, 1811;
Bait if Caidad Rodrigo. Jan. 19—Badajoi, April 6— Almarei, May 19,1812;
Butteof SalJinauca. Julv 22—entered Madrid, Aug. 14,1812;
Crcat. Earl, Feh. 22. and Marquis. Aug. 12, 1812;
Appoint. Col. of the Hone Guards Blue. Jan. 1,1813;
Battle of Vittnria, June 21, 1813;
Crest K G. and appoint. Pield Marshal of the British Army, June 21. 1813;
Batt of the Prieuces. July 28 to Ang. 2—St. Sebastian, Sept. 9. 1813;
Bidantaa, Oct 9— Pampeluna, Oct 31—Nivallr, Nor. 10, 1818;
. Sim, Dec. 9 to 13,1813—Orthes, Feb. 97—Toulouse, April 14. 1814 j
Crrstf^l Marquis of Douro and Dulte of Wellington, May 3,
T'«k his Seat in the House of Lords, June 23. 1814;
fiattleof Waterloo, June 1R; ent. Paris, July 7, 1815;
Created Prince of Waterloo, July 18,1815;
Generalissimo of the Allied Armies, 1815;
Master of the Ordnance
And Gor. of Plymouth, Oct. 9,
Wi».

Sir Thomas Lawrence (whom one of the principal painters of the Roman school has honoured with the title of * the English Titian') has just completed the portrait of the Pope, executed for H. R. H. the Prince Regent.

*. *. T.

[ocr errors]

Kino's Theatre.—On Saturday night, an opera, by Rouini, under the title of La Ccnerentola, or Cinderella, (being a translation of the French name Cemlrillon) was performed, for the first time, at this theatre. The story of Cinderella is too familiar to need repeating, but the present operu omits the essential points of this pretty fairy tale:—thus, none of the pageantry that should have graced it, is introduced :—not that we mean to insist that » pumpkin ought to have been converted into a splendid carriage, or mice into cream coloured horses, upon the stage; but we certainly expected some splendour, and that the opera would have borne some resemblance to the original story; but go far was this from being the case, that the glass slipper was not only omitted, but there was not even the slightest allusion to it. The father of Cinderella is substituted for the old woman, and under the title of Don MagnificO) he becomes eminently ridiculous. The music was not particularly striking; and when it is considered what a difference of opinion exists as to the best productions of Rossini, it could not be expected that this opera should be very attractive. Madame Bellocbi sustained the principal character, but it afforded very little scope for her talents. The character of the Princt Lover, Don Ramiro, was performed by Signor Torn, his first appearance on this stage. His figure is manly, but Dot commanding. His voice is not one of much power, rather harsh in the lower tones, but yet not absolutely disagreeable. His taste is well formed, and in his execution of the songs, he evidently fell beneath his own ■ '■ — The debut of Signor Torn was on the whole

very successful. Several parts of the opera were received with much applause by a very elegant and crowded audience.

Covent Garden.—Shakespeare's comedy of As you like it was performed at this theatre on Tuesday night, for the purpose of introducing a young debutante, in the character of Rosalind. The young lady, who made her first appearance on any stage in this character, possesses a fine person, a countenance capable of much expression, and a voice of exquisite sweetness and flexibility. There was observable during her whole performance, a conflict between timid inexperience and a very judicious preparation of the character. She had, however, the rare merit of showing equal judgment in the plaintive and lively situations: where she failed of touching the audience forcibly, the fault was neither that of a just conception of the author, nor a want of talents to do justice to it, but the' embarrassment and. timidity incidental to a first appearance. When she becomes more familiar with the audience, these disadvantages will exist no longer. In the cuckoo song, Miss Weasley (for such we understand is the name of the lady,) was peculiarly successful—so much so, as to be twice encored, and to be applauded to the very echo. She certainly sung it with admirable taste. A more successful first appearance we have seldom witnessed. Mr. Macready played Jaques for the first time; in the description of the wounded deer, he wa8 not very happj's but his failure was amply redeemed by his delivery of that immortal description of the ages of man, which he gave in an admirable manner. Faucett's Touchstone has only to be seen to be admired; and we do not remember to have seen him play it better than on this evening.' The play was announced for repetition on Thursday, 'in consequence,' as Mr. C. Kemble said to the audience, 'of the great applause with which they had honoured Miss Wensley's first effort.' It is not a'little remarkable, that two of Shakespeare's comedies should at present be the most attractive performances at this theatre.

Surrey Theatre.—Mr. Dibdin has commenced the theatrical campaign with his usual spirit and activity. Four new pieces, within the first fortnight, are certainly sufficient to gratify the most ardent lover of novelty. The new melo-drama, entitled The Prophecy, or the Giant Spectre, is founded on Lord Orford's Castle of Otranto, and every point of the romance, comic as well as terrific, is transferred to the stage, where they appear still more effective than in the novel. Much of the serious dialogue is taken from Jephson's tragic romance; but the lighter characters and the music are perfectly original. Huntley and Watkins made their first appearance this season in the characters of Manfred and Theodore, and were warmly greeted by the audience. The Princess of Otranto was sustained by that excellent actress, Miss Taylor, who imparts a peculiar interest to every character she undertakes. Mrs. W. S. Chatterly, from the English Opera House, made her first appearance, in the character of Matilda, and was much applauded. Confident that this lady possesses talents far beyond what are generally allowed to her, we are happy to see them transplanted to a soil where their value will be appreciated, and directed to that line for which they are best suited.—The scenery of the new piece is very splendid, and it was received with loud applause.

ADelphi Theatre.—A new burletta has been produced at this house, entitled Lovers of all Sorts, or not such a Fool as he looks. It is of the same lively cast as the other pieces produced at this theatre, during the present season. In one respect however, it is more censurable; there are several indelicate allusions, which lose none of their force when entrusted to Mr. Wilkinson; we caution the author of the piece and the performers to bear in mind that

* Immodest words admit of no defence,
For want of decency is want of sense.'

In our notice of the puntomine at this theatre, we did not speak so favourably as we ought to have done, for, yielding to the larger houses more .splendid and extensive scenery, in every othir respect, the Fairy of the North Star is a superior pantoniiue. Paulo is by far the most active clown on the stage, Miss E. Dennett the most graceful columbine we ever saw. The shawl dance of the three sisters (Dennetts) is in itself a treat of no ordinary description.

Uttcrain an& Scientific intelligence.

Important Intention in Hydraulics.—There is, at present, circulated in Paris, the prospectus of a small portable bteam-engine, whioh will raise water to the height of sixty feel, at the rate of fifteen quarts per minute. The machine will consume no more than the value of one pennyworth of coals in an hour, to raise, nine hundred quarts to this height. It will cost six hundred francs, 251. and will (says the inventor} last more than a hundred years. They offer, for progressive prices, machines which shall raise double, triple, or deciple quantities of water to almost any height.

Substitute for a Copying Machine.—Write with common writing ink, in which lump sugar has been dissolved, in the proportion of four scruples or a drachm and a half of sugar to an ounce of ink.

Moisten copying paper, (a paper which is sold at the stationers at Is. 10d. a quire for the copying machines,) by passing well a soft brush over it; then press it gently between soft cap paper, so as to smoothen it and clbsorb the superabundant moisture.

Put the paper so moistened upon the writing, and both between cap or other smooth soft paper, placing the whole on the carpet or hearth-rug, one end of which is to be folded over it. Hy standing and treading upon this, an impression will be taken equal, if not superior, to what would have been taken by a copying machine.

New Afethod of preparing the Purple of Cassius.—The Connt de Maistre says, that placing a sequin in contact with mercury at one of its surfaces, and twenty-four hours after ♦ fusing it with an equal weight of tin, an alloy was obtained, which was fusible in boiling resin. Afterwards triturating this alloy with pure caustic magnesia in a mortar, a powder was obtained ot a very fine purple colour.

Fulminating Gold.—Count de Maistre also describes a fulminating goldobtained by pouring a small quantity of solution of gold into red wine, (Bordeaux); a sediment formed which, when dried, and placed on burning charcoal in an iron capsule, exploded.

Portable Gas Lamp.—It appears, from an article in the last number of the Quarterly Journal of Science, that a portable gas lamp, similar to that for which Mr. Gordon has since obtained a patent, was exhibited by Professor Brande, in the Spring of 18 n, in a lecture at the Royal Institution, and which had been made by his directions, in May 1816.

[blocks in formation]

Macklin, in one of his comedies, makes an Irishman boast, that an ancestor of his had peopled all Scotland with his own hand; proof of this Hibernoe-Gselic extraction may, perhaps, be found in the following passages, in the last number of the Edinburgh Review :—' To cure discontent—and even unreasonable discontent, we would simply remove all its reasonable causes.'—* This passage, besides being composed with the obscurity and incorrectness that distinguish Mr. Davison's style, is conceived with a vagueness and want of precision by no meansluiiitual to him, except in the tract before us.'

Synonymous Words.—A Frenchman, whose knowledge of the English language was rather imperfect, wishing to see the will of a friend, went to Doctors' Commons, and very politely inqnired whether they ' had the shall of Moti Dela.'—The clerks, to whom the application was made, informed the accomplished stranger, that their office was not the emporium for shawls-..upon which he said, 'that he wanted the testament.'—Oh! you wish to see a will, said the industrious scribes of the civil law.—' Dat is what I want,' replied Monsieur,' and I did tink dat shall and will was de same ting, car my grammar say.jeserai, I shall or will be.'

Coincidence between Lord Byron and Burton.—The following passage from Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, appears to have suggested to Lord Byron that exquisite definition of solitude contained in the first canto of Child^Harold;

•To walk amongst orchards, gardens, bowers, artificial wildernesses green with thickets, arches, groves, rillet fountains, and such like pleasant places; pooles—betwixt wood and water, in a fair meadow by a ruin side; to disport in some pleasant plaine, to run up a steep hill, or sit in a shadie seat, must needs be a delectable recreation. Whosoever he is, therefore, that is overrunne with solitariness, or carried away with a pleasing melancholy, and vaine conceites, I can prescribe him no better remedie than this.'—Vol. l,p*224, Ed. 1624. Lord Byron has infinitely improved the thought, and taken a much wider range :—

'To sit on rocks, to muse o'er flood and fell,
To slowly trace the forest's shady scene;

Where things that own not man's dominion dwell,
And mortal steps have ne'er or rarely been,

To climb the trackless mountain all unseen
With the wild flocks that never need a fold;

Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean;
This is not solitude—'tis but to bold

Converse with nature's charms, and see her stores unrolled.*

On the 18th of February, will be published, in a vols. 12mo.

ITALIAN MYSTERIES; or, More Secrets than
One; by Francis Latham, Author of Mysterious Freebooter, this
Unknown, London, Romance of Ibe Hebrides, Men and Manners,
&c—Printed for A.K.N EVVM AN and Co. Leadenhatl Street,
Where may be bad, the following, just published,

Castles In The Am; or, the Whims of My Aunt, 3 vols. 2nd edition, price 15s.

Old Tapestry; a Tale of real Life, S vols 12s.

Dacresfield; or, Vicissitudes oil Earth, by Cadelia, 4 vols. 9°"

The Smugglers; a Tale, Descriptive of the Sea Coast of Scotland, 3 vols. l6s. 6d.

Disorder And Order, by Amelia Beauclerc, Author of Met-, treithe; or, Peer of Scotland, &c. 3 vols. iCs. (id.

The Highland Castle and the Lowland Cottage, by Rosalia St Clair, 4 vols, price 33k.

LONDOiN:—Published by J. Limbiko, 5.1, Holywell Street, near St. Clement's Church, Strand; where advertisements are received, and communications * for the Editor'(post paid) are Su be addressed. Sold also by Souter, 73, St. Paul's Church VarU CHAPPLE, Hall Mall; Grapel, Liverpool; and by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the United Kingdom. Printed l>y Davidson, Old Botwcll Court.

THE LITERARY CHRONICLE

. , . > \

Forming an Analysis and General Repository of Literature, Philosophy, Science, Arts, History, the Drama, Morals, Manners, and Amusements.

This Paper it published at Six o Clock every Satunlsy Morning; and forwarded Weekly, or in Monthly Parts, to all Parts of the United Kingdom.

[merged small][ocr errors]

&McU) of Jlcfo 33oofcS.

The Jacobite Relics of Scotland; being the Songs, Airs* and Legends of the Adherents of the House of Stuart. Collected and Illustrated by James Hogg, Author of the Queen's Wake, &c. Edinburgh, ism.

We love these rescuings of the popular muse from oblivion; we. read, with a good-humoured and accommodating- taste, the rude effusions of the uncivilized past; _ we are willing to make allowances for their coarseness and crudeiiess, and to look upon them with a lenity which we" would, by no means, extend to the productions of the present age. We would have the base of the poetical pyramid as broad as possible, that the structure might be stable as well as loftv, and, we need scarcely add, that its most proper foundation is the stone, rough and unpolished as it is first hewn from the quarry.

Mr. Hogg, better known by the name of the Ettrkk Shepherd, in his introduction, speaking of those old relics, which he professes to collect, say9,

'They actually form a delightful though rude epitome of 'lie history of our country during a period highly eventful— ■when every internal movement was decisive toward the establishment of the rights and liberties which we have since enj oyed; and they likewise furnish us with a key to the annals of many ancient and ncble families, who were either involved in ruin by the share they had in those commotions, or rose on that ruin in consequence of the support they afforded to the side that prevailed.'

Though these political relations increase the importance of this volume, yet they lead one to wish the subject a few centuries more remote, as those much-stricken strings of discord have not long ceased to vibrate. But the uanpled misfortunes and, recent extinction of the House t must silence the voice of party, especially as the aiaily ou the throne have set the noble example of ity of sentiment;—we quote a passage from the introduction to this work: it is an anecdote of our venerable ■'go:—

i Majesty having been told of a gentleman of family tune in. Perthshire, who had not only refused to take the oath of allegiance to him, but had never permitted him to ne named as king in his presence; " Carry my compliments to him," said the king, " but—what—stop—no; he may not recene my compliments as King of England—give him the elector of' Hanover's compliments, and tell him that he respects the steadiness of his principles."'

How, indeed, could there be aught of vindictivenass in answering the feeling appeal, 'Suffer us to make the songs of oar country, and do you make its laws.' Were all the soojgs of the country like the following extract from this '.'nllecUoD, they could not have a more noble or more effif laws;—

[graphic]
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]
[graphic]

Sarum lies, was once as wis* learn'd as Tom Aquinas; Long sleeves he wore, yet was no more A Christian than Socinus.

Oaths pro. and con. he swallow'd down,

And gold like any layman, Wrote, preach'd, audpray'd,

God's Holy Church for Ml

•Of every vice he had a spice, relate;

noil

erend prek...
He liv'd and died, if not belied,
A true dissenting zealot.

If such a soul to heaven has stole,

And slipt old Satan's clutches,
You'll then presume, there maybe room

For Marlborough and his duchess.' /

'Come, lend me an ear, if you've any to spare,
You that love commonwealth, and hate common prayer,
Who can in a breath, lie, dissemble, and swear.
Which nobody can deny, deny, which nobody can deny.

The times are so fickle, I vow and profess,
Men know not which party or way to embrace;
Hut I'll still be for those that are least in disgrace.
Which nobody can deny, deny, &c.

Sometimes I'm a rebel, and sometimes a saint;
Sometimes I can swear, and at other times cant;
There's nothing but grace, thanks to Jove, I do want;

Which nobody can deny, Sec.
Of gracious King William [ was a great lover,
Did join with a party that was for another;
J drank the king's health, take it one way or t'other;

Which nobody can deny, Sec.
I frequently went Into the Whigs' meeting,
When there I did mect-with such r
Makes me hate long prayers, with

Which nobody can deny, Sec.

[ocr errors][merged small]

All this I can do when I'm foolish and merry,
And I can sing psalms as if never weary:
But I still find more joy in a boat to the ferry;
Which nobody can deny, &c.

I can pledge any health my companions drink round,
And can say, Heaven bless! when I wish, Hell confound!
J £an hold to the hare, and rim wiyi the hound;
Which nobody can deny, Sec'

We were surprised at meeting a much used and abused .conceit in this dress,—

'Manila, as like Venus' sel'

As e'er aestarn was like anither,
Ance Cupid met upo* the mall,

And took her for his bonny mither.' There are several pretty and fantastic ideas scattered •through the volume; we cannot pass over

'The man in the moon
May wear out his shoon,
By running after Charles' wain.'

We recognize, as old acquaintances, most of the airs in this collection; among the rest we find the old English tune of' Sally in our Alley' tacked to a 'South Sea bal lad.' We have also * The King shall enjoy his ain again, which, as i« observed in one of the notes, is ' the most fa moos and most popular uir ever heard in this (Scottish) country; although, at the same time, it must be con

| Travels in Nubia. By the late John Lewis Buckhardt. Published by the Association for promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa. With Maps, &c. 4to. pp. 543. London, 1320.

It is melancholy to reflect how much enterprising "enius and talent have been sacrificed in the attempt to explore the interior of Africa; and it might be fairly questioned, whether our information be not purchased at too dear' a rate with the lives of all who have courage and talents to undertake a task so arduous and so dangerous? The fatal climate of Africa, always pernicious to Europeans, and the thousand dangers to be encountered, would be sufficient to appal the stoutest hearts, were they not inspired with an enthusiastic love of science which no danger—no difficulty could subdue.

John Lewis Burckhardt, the last European traveller who has fallen a victim to his zeal in furthering the views of the African Association, was of an eminent family, of Basle, but born at Lausanne. The French revolution had nearly brought his father to the scaffold; he was tried for his life by the French party at Basle, in 1796-7, and, though acquitted, was compelled to quit the country. He entered into a Swiss corps in English pay, leaving his wife and children at Basle. Here his son, Lewis Burckhardt, was a daily witness of the misery suffered under the republican French, and here he imbibed, at a very early age, a detestation of their principles, and a resolution never to bend under their yoke.

In the year 1800, young Burckhardt, then sixteen years of age, was entered in the University of Leipsic, from whence, after a stay of four years, he was removed to Gottingen. In both places his exemplary conduct, his distinguished talents, and ardent zeal for knowledge gained him universal respect. In 1806, he arrived in London, bringing with him excellent letters of introduction, and, sometime after, learning that the African Association were anxious to renew an attempt at discovery on the north side of Africa, in making which, their traveller, Mr. Horneman, had lately died, Burckhardt madean offer of his services to Sir Joseph Banks and the Rev. Dr. Hamilton. Finding him undismayed by the strong representation of danger which it was necessary to make, and admirably adapted to the undertaking by his natural and acquired talents, as well as by the vigour of his constitution, his

offer was 1809, B

[graphic]

On the 25th of lis instruction!. He

[graphic]

fessed, that it does not appear to have been originally Scottish air.' 5 1

The a

f in the study of of science whi

gently emp

guage, and those branches of science which were i cessary in the situation wherein he was about to be pi He allowed his beard to grow and assumed the ori dress; he attended lectures on chemistry, astronomy, i neralogy, medicine, and surgery, and, in the intervals o his studies, he exercised himself by long journeys on fo< bareheaded, in the heat of the sun, sleeping upon ground, andjiving upon vegetables and water.

He left England in March, 1809* proceeded to Malta, collector and illustrator of the Jacobite Relics we! and from thence to Aleppo. Heiemamed two years and s

half in Syria, principally at Aleppo: making daily ad-r ditions to his practical knowledge of the Arabic language, and to his experience of the character of oriental and of Mohammedan society and manners. An account of his travels in Syria, as detailed in his letter to the secretary of the African Association, is given in the memoirs of his life, prefixed to this work.

From Aleppo he went to Damascus, and to Cairo. From the latter place he made an excursion into the Nubian Desert, and succeeded in penetrating to the banks of the Astaboras, and from thence crossed the desert to Souakin, on the shore of the Red Sea. This and a former journey along the Nile, towards Dongola, were the only travels in the unexplored regions of the interior of Africa, which lie was destined to accomplish; but they led to a tour in Arabia, which was productive of information not less interesting, and scarcely less original than that which he collected in his Nubian journeys.

Burckhardt's knowledge of the Arabic language, and of Mohammedan manners, enabled him to reside at Mecca during the whole time qf the pilgrimage; and, after undergoing examination by two learned professors, he was pronounced not only a true but a very learned Mussulman. The health of our traveller, was now much on the decline: his last excursion was to mount Sinai, after this he remained in Cairo hoping to recover strength, and occupying himself in various papers for the Association. His constitution was however too deeply injured, nor could the attention of a skilful English physician restore it: he died at Cairo in October, 1817. ',■

The Travels now published, are those of Mr. BurckVtardt, in Nubia, with his information on the north eastern part of Africa: but it is the intention of the Association to continue the publication of his remarks on other countries. The first part of this work, is his journey along the banks of the Nile, from Assouan to Mahass, on the frontiers of Dongala. From this, and indeed from the whole of his journal, our extracts will necessarily be desultory. Assouan must once have been a town of some note, since it ts said, that, in the year 806 of the Mahommedan era, twenty-one thousand persons died of the plague in it. Speaking of this place our author notices a singular circumstance :—

'At the time of my virit, the Nubians belonging to Assouan were at war with their southern neighbours, occasioned by the latter having Intercepted a vessel laden with dates, knowing it to belong to a merchant of Assouan. A battle had been fought opposite Philx, a few days before my arrival, in which a pregnant woman was killed by a stone; for whenever the Nubians are engaged in skirmishes, their women join the party, and furiously attack each other, armed with slings. The southern party, to whom the deceased belonged, was now demanding from their enemies the debt of blood, not only of the woman, but of the child also which she bore in her womb at the time of. her death. This the latter refused to pay, and being the weaker in numbers, and there bting no garrison at Assouan to support them, the men thought proper to retire from the field; they abandoned the villages nearest to Philx, leaving only their women and female children, and retired with the males to Assouan. On my retur/i from Mahass, peace had not yet been restored; the Nubians were still at Assouan, where a caravan of women arrived daily, with provisions for their husbands.'

There are very few animals along the banks of the Nile; the cattle of the Nubians consists of cows, sheep, and gnts; and, sometimes, a few buffaloes are met with■

'The birds of Nubia'are a srnall species of partridge, with red legs, which sometimes afforded me a welcome supper; wild geese of the largest kind, a few storks, the eagle Kakham', crows in vast numbers, the bird Katta, but in small flight), and clouds of sparrows, which are the terror of the Nubians, as they devour at least one third of the harvest. A species of lapwing is also extremely common. It is the head of this bird which is represented in the hieroglyphic figures upon the augural staff; at least so it appeared to me, whenever I saw the bird displaying its crest. A white water-bird, of thesize of a large goose, called kork, by the natives, inhabits the sandy islands in the Nile, in flocks of several hundreds together, but 1 could never get near enough to examine any of them. The bird zakzak, frequently seen in Upper Egvpt, which is said to creep into the crocodile's mouth, and to feed upon the digested food which that animal throws up from iu stomach, does not visit Nubia; neither did I see any bird of the shape of the ibis.

'On the sandy shore, on the west side of the Nile, are numberless beetles, (scarabxi,) of great variety in size and shape; I often found the sandv road on that side completelycovered with the traces of their feet. The Nubians, who call them kafers, or infidels, dread them, from a belief that they are venomous, and that they poison whatever kind of food they touch. Their colour is generally black, and the largest I have seen were of the size of a half-crown piece.' The worship paid to this animal by the ancient Egyptians, may probably have had its origin in Nubia; it might well be adopted as a symbol of passive resignation to the decrees of providence; for it is impossible, from the sandy mounds which they inhabit, that these beetles can ever taste water, and the food they partake of must be very scanty; they are, however, always seen busily and unweariedly toiling their way over the sands.'

Of I brim, the Aga of which is independent of the governors of Nubia, our author gives the following gratifying account, so far as regards their honesty :—

'The people of Ibrim are often at war with the governors of Nubia, and although comparatively few in number, are a match for the latter; being all well provided with fire-arms. They are white, compared with the Nubians, and still retain the features of their ancestors, the Bosnian soldiers, who were sent to garrison Ibrim, by the great Sultan Selym- They all dress in coarse linen gowns, and most of them wear something like a turban: "We are Turks," they say, " and not Noubas." As they are: not under absolute subjection to their Aga, and independent of every other power, quarrels are very frequent among them. They have a hereditary Kady: blood is revenged by blood; no commutation in money being accepted for it when death ensues; but all wounds have their stated fines, according to the parts of the body upon which they are inflicted. A similar law prevails among the Syrian Bedouins. When a Turk of Ibrim marries, he presents his wife with a wedding dress, and gives her hesides, a written bond for three or four hundred piastres, half of which sum is paid to her in case of a divorce. Divorces, however, are very rare. At a wedding, a cow or a calf is killed; for to eat muUeu upon such an occasion would be a great scandal to the spouse.

'In no part of the eastern world, in which I have travelled, have I ever found property in suoh perfect security as in Ibrim. The inhabitants leave the Dhourra in heaps on the field, without a watch, during the night; their cattle feed on the banks of the river, without any one to tend thein; and the best parts of the household furniture are left all night under the palm-trees around their dwelling i in short, the people agreed in saying, that theft was quite unknown in their territory. It ought, however, to be added, that the Nubians, in general, are free from the vice of pilfering,'

At the camp of the Nubian governors, Mr. Burcki hardt experienced some difficulty, and was actually com,* pel led to change his route:—

« PreviousContinue »