Partners for Democracy: Crafting the New Japanese State Under MacArthur

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Oxford University Press, 2004 - History - 432 pages
In 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally to the United States and its allies, thereby planting the seed from which would spring one of the world's most successful and stable democracies. In an age when democracy is often pursued, yet rarely accomplished, in which failed democracies are found throughout Africa, Latin America, and Asia, Japan's transformation from an utterly defeated military power into a thriving constitutional democracy commands attention.
It has long been assumed that postwar Japan was largely the making of America, that democracy was simply imposed on a defeated land. Yet a political and legal system cannot long survive, much less thrive, if resisted by the very citizens it exists to serve. The external imposition of a constitution does not automatically translate into a constitutional democracy of the kind Japan has enjoyed for the past half-century. Apparently Japan, though under military occupation, was ready for what the West had to offer. Ray A. Moore and Donald L. Robinson convincingly show that the country's affirmation of democracy was neither cynical nor merely tactical. What made Japan different was that Japan and the United States-represented in Tokyo by the headstrong and deeply conservative General Douglas MacArthur-worked out a genuine partnership, navigating skillfully among die-hard defenders of the emperor, Japanese communists, and America's opinionated erstwhile allies. No dry recounting of policy decisions and diplomatic gestures, Partners for Democracy resounds with the strong personalities and dramatic clashes that paved the way to a hard-won success.
Here is the story of how a devastated land came to construct--at times aggressively and rapidly, at times deliberately and only after much debate-a democracy that stands today as the envy of many other nations.
 

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Contents

A New Order of Things
12
FALL 1945
21
Negotiated Surrender American Punning and Occupation
23
This Fundamental Problem MacArthur Saves Hirohito
36
In Good Faith Japan Considers Constitutional Reform
50
A Rational Way Konoe and Matsumoto on Constitutional Reform
64
Imposing the American Model
79
Only as a Last Resort The Americans Take Over
81
The Diet Goes to Work
183
Along Democratic and PeaceLoving Lines Yoshida Presents His Draft
185
Free and Untrammeled Debate The Emperors Prerogatives
192
Fervent Hopes Pacifism and Human Rights
211
Complex and Labyrinthine The Structure of Government
231
Fresh Trouble The House Subcommitee Frames Amendment
240
Fundamental Principles of Democracy Human Rights and Imperial Property
251
Sincere and Steady Efforts Denouement
269

A Liberal and Enlightened Constitution The SCAP model
93
A Very Serious Matter The Cabinets Initial Reactions
111
Go Your Best The Marathon Meeting
124
Grave Danger The Allies Challenge MacArthur
142
Seize This Opportunity eworking the March 6 Draft R
155
No Choice But to Abide The Privy Council Bureaucrats Prepare
165
Transforming a Draft into a constitution
181
Last Service to the Fatherland The House of Peers Address Constitutional Revision
282
A Borrowed Suit Peers Accept the Inevitable
294
Sequel
315
Broaden and Deepen the Debate Fifty Years without Revison
317
Conclusion
329
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About the author (2004)


Ray A. Moore is Professor of History and Asian Studies at Amherst College. Donald L. Robinson is Charles N. Clark Professor of Government and American Studies at Smith College. Together they edited The Constitution of Japan: A Documentary History of its Framing and Adoption, 1945-1947.

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