View of the State of Europe During the Middle Ages, Volume 1

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J. Murray, 1826 - Europe

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Page 8 - Creasy to select for military description those few battles of which, in the words of Hnllam, ' a contrary event would have essentially varied the drama of the world in all its subsequent scenes.
Page 216 - We lose a good deal of our sympathy with the spirit of freedom in Greece and Rome, when the importunate recollection occurs to us, of the tasks which might be enjoined, and the punishments which might be inflicted, without control either of law or opinion, by the keenest patriots of the Comitia, or the Council of Five Thousand.
Page 75 - Cressy and Poitiers, for these were fully matched in the ranks of France, but the yeomen who drew the bow with strong and steady arms, accustomed to its use in their native fields, and rendered fearless by personal competence and civil...
Page 177 - Investiture or the actual conveyance of feudal lands,' says Mr. Hallam, ' was of two kinds : proper and improper. The first was an actual putting in possession upon the ground, either by the lord or his deputy ; which is called in our law livery of seisin. The second was symbolical, and consisted in the delivery of a turf, a stone, a wand, a branch, or whatever else might have been made usual by the caprice of local custom. Du Cange enumerates not less than 98 varieties of investitures.
Page 244 - The kingdom was as a great fief, or rather as a bundle of fiefs, and the king little more than one of a number of feudal nobles, differing rather in dignity than in power from some of the rest.
Page 127 - Liberty never wore a more unamiable countenance than among these burghers, who abused the strength she gave them by cruelty and insolence."— Hattam.
Page 189 - Charta three only are retained ; to make the lord's eldest son a knight, to marry his eldest daughter, and to redeem his person from prison. They were restricted to nearly the same description by a law of William I. of Sicily, and by ' the customs of France/ These feudal aids are deserving of our attention, as the beginnings of taxation, of which for a long time they in a great measure answered the purpose, till the craving necessities and covetous policy of kings substituted for them more durable...
Page 422 - These were at first twelve, seven called the greater arts, and five lesser ; but the latter were gradually increased to fourteen. The seven greater arts were those of lawyers and notaries ; of dealers in foreign cloth, called sometimes Calimala; of bankers or money-changers; of woollen drapers ; of physicians and druggists ; of dealers in silk ; and of furriers.
Page 315 - II. frequently called upon those who owed military service, in their invasions of Scotland. But in the French wars of Edward III., the whole, I think, of his army served for pay, and was raised by contract with men of rank and influence, who received wages for every soldier according to his station and the arms he bore. The rate of pay was so remarkably high, that, unless we imagine a vast profit to have been intended for the contractors, the private lancers and even archers must have been chiefly...
Page 443 - Let no one," says Machiavel in this place, " who begins an innovation in a state, expect that he shall stop it at his pleasure, or regulate it according to his intention.

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