The Controversy over Marine Protected Areas: Science meets Policy
Springer, Oct 17, 2014 - Technology & Engineering - 162 pages
This book is a critical analysis of the concept of marine protected areas (MPAs) particularly as a tool for marine resource management. It explains the reasons for the extraordinary rise of MPAs to the top of the political agenda for marine policy, and evaluates the scientific credentials for the unprecedented popularity of this management option. The book reveals the role played by two policy networks – epistemic community and advocacy coalition – in promoting the notion of MPA, showing how advocacy for marine reserves by some scientists based on limited evidence of fisheries benefits has led to a blurring of the boundary between science and politics. Second, the study investigates whether the scientific consensus on MPAs has resulted in a publication bias, whereby pro-MPA articles are given preferential treatment by peer-reviewed academic journals, though it found only limited evidence of such a bias. Third, the project conducts a systematic review of the literature to determine the ecological effects of MPAs, and reaches the conclusion that there is little proof of a positive impact on finfish populations in temperate waters. Fourth, the study uses discourse analysis to trace the effects of a public campaigning policy network on marine conservation zones (MCZs) in England, which demonstrated that there was considerable confusion over the objectives that MCZs were being designated to achieve. The book’s conclusion is that the MPA issue shows the power of ideas in marine governance, but offers a caution that scientists who cross the line between science and politics risk exaggerating the benefits of MPAs by glossing over uncertainties in the data, which may antagonise the fishing industry, delay resolution of the MPA issue, and weaken public faith in marine science if and when the benefits of MCZs are subsequently seen to be limited.
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advocacy coalition Agardy analysis approach argue assessment biomass Caveen Chagos Chap claimed cold temperate controversy coral reef debate decisions Defra ecologically coherent ecosystem services ENGOs epistemic community establish evidence example fish species fish stocks fisheries benefits fisheries management fishermen fishing industry global habitats Halpern high seas Hilborn ICES J Marine impact issue journals Kaiser literature Lubchenco Marine Bill marine biodiversity marine conservation Marine Conservation Zones Marine Freshw Marine Policy marine protected areas marine reserves Marine Sci MCAA MCZs MPA networks MPAC MUMPAs Natural England nature network of MPAs NFFO no-take MPAs normative NP and SC objectives Ocean OSPAR papers peer-reviewed policy advocacy policy makers political precautionary principle publication bias reef fish rejected reported Roberts Rodmell role SC perspectives scientific advocacy scientists social socio-economic spatial spillover stakeholder sustainable Sweeting and Polunin targets tion trawling