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arduous task, which I have undertaken. *« The duty incumbent upon all, who have leisure and abilities, to endeavour to understand, in order to maintain it in perfection, are those high motives, by which Englishmen are called upon to examine the principles, to study the contrivance, and to contemplate the operations of that vast political machine, which is so much the envy, of others, and which should be the supreme admiration of ourselves, particularly at a time, when a party of discontented spirits, under the assumed character of philosophers, are labouring to abuse what they do not understand, to point out imperfections, which have no existence,
therefore offer no other apology for preferring what others, and even I myself, have on other occasions published upon the subject. My primary object in making this publication is to form and fix the minds of my countrymen upon the inolt important of all civil and political subjects, and to do away the effects of uncertainty, confusion, and error, under which some of them now labour. I most cordially adopt the sentiments of Dr. Price, when he says, in the discourse already alluded to, (p. 13) “Happier far muft he be, if at the same time he has reason to believe, he has been successful, and actually contributed by his instructions, to disseminate among his fellow creatures just notions of themselves, of their rights, of religion, and the nature and end of civil government.”
• Dr. Tatham's Letters to Mr. Burke, p. 7.
to find defects instead of excellencies, to traduce its general worth, and to make our countrymen dissatisfied with what they ought to love."
But as the nature, properties, and effectsof the most ingenious piece of mechanism can only be explained upon those mathematical principles, upon which it was constructed, and which had their existence, independent of this particular application of them: so * « before intelligent beings existed, they were poffible; they had therefore possible relations, and consequently possible laws. Before laws were made, there were relations of possible justice. To say, that there is nothing just or unjust, but what is commanded or forbidden by positive laws, is the same as saying, that before the describing
of a circle, all the radii were not equal.” The state of
This state of nature, in which all philofotheoretical and phers consider man, and the rights and metaplıyl:cal. ' perties inherent in this nature, is a mere theo
retical and metaphysical state, pre-existing only in the mind, before the physical existence of any human entity whatever. As this state of nature then never had any real existence, fo also the various qualities, properties, rights, powers, and adjuncts annexed unto it, are
* Montesq. Spirit of Laws, b. i. p. 2.
mere creatures of the imagination, attributable only to man in this ideal state of speculation: they bear the same fort of analogy to the physical state of man in society, as principles and properties of mathematical points and lines bear to the practical rules of mechanics. As well might we attempt to handle and manufacture a mathematical point, as to move only upon the principles of this state of nature, being placed by the beneficence of our Creator in the physical state of society. Some of our greatest philosophers, as is often the case, to avoid pleonasm, and in the full glare of their own conviction, have omitted to say, in express words, that this state of nature, in which they considered man in the abstract, never had an actual, physical, or real existence in this world, and this omiffion has, perhaps, occasioned the error of many modern illuminators, who, from ignorance, have confounded the two states together, or, from designed malice, have transplanted the attributes and properties of the one into the other.
To state the opinions of these philosophers upon the Rights of Man, in this state of nature, is to demonstrate, that they confidered it as pre-existing and antecedent to the physical state of man's real exiftence.
« To understand political power right, and derive it from its original, we must consider what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave or depending upon the will of
other man; a state also of equality, wherein all the power and jurisdiction is reciprocal, no one having more than another; there being nothing more evident, than that creatures of the fame species and rank, promiscuously born to all the same advantages of nature, and the use of the same faculties, should be equal one amongst another, without subordination or subjeccion.”
t" Prior to all those laws are those of nature, so called, because they derive their force entirely from our frame and being. In order to have a perfect knowledge of these laws, we must consider man before the establishment of society: the laws received in such a state
would be those of nature.” From the phy It requires no argument to prove, when of Adam and the physical civilized state of society compure nature was menced; for, from the commencement of physically im. poffible.
Locke upon Civil Government, p. 168. + Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws.
Eve the state of
this must be dated the impossible existence of the state of pure nature. Mr. Locke establishes this commencement from the formation and co-existence of our first parents, Adam and Eve; and he draws the necesity of it from the intrinsic nature and exigencies of man, as he has been actually formed and
Man phyfically constituted by his Creator.
• “God having framed by Gud
for society. made man such a creature, that, in his own judgment, it was not good for him to be alone, put him under strong obligations of necessity, convenience, and inclination, to drive him into society, as well as fitted him with understanding and language to continue and enjoy it. The first society was between man and wife ; which gave beginning to that between parents and children; to which, in time, that between master and servant came to be added." This fact then is uncontrovertible, that the only individual, who can be said, in any sense, to have existed in the state of nature, was Adam, before the formation of his wife. But how these rights could be exercised by him in that forlorn state of solitude, I know as little, as I do of the period of its duration, When, therefore, we speak generally of the Rights of Man, we ought to be understood to
• Locke of Civil Government, c. vii. p. 188.