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the epithet natural had been applied to these

rights, and this state. The bulk of The bulk of mankind are little able, and mankind think of no other less habituated, to analize the import and rights, than such as they can en tendency of words and phrases; and few joy, which are foeral rights.

amongst them will separate the idea, which they conceive the word natural conveys, from the state of their physical existence. They will plainly argue, that such as God hath made them, such they are ; nor do they think of, nor demand any other rights, than fuch, as God hath given them for the purpose, for which in his goodness 'he created them. The practical doctrine from such argument will be, what I before quoted from Mr. Locke. « God having made man such a creature, that, in his own judgment, it was not good for him to be alone, put him under strong obligations of necessity, convenience, and inclination, to drive him into society, as well as fitted him with understanding and language to continue and enjoy it.” Thus, perhaps, more properly, : though less technically speaking, we come to consider man in his real natural state, which is that of society. For Buchanan lays truly: *

• Buchanan of the due Privilege of the Scots Government, p. 198.

€ First

« First of all, then, we agree, that men by nature are made to live in society together, and for a communion of life.” * « Hitherto we have spoken only (and that but in part) of the natural Rights of Man. We have now to consider the civil Rights of Man, and to shew how the one originates out of the other. Man did not enter into society to become worfe, than he was before, nor to have less rights, than he had before, but to have those rights better secured. His natural rights are the foundation of all his civil rights.” These will be the subject of the ensuing chapter.

Payne's Rights of Man, p. 48.

C H A P.





OCIETY was the necessary consequence

of the experimental discovery of man's wants and insufficiency to supply them in the theoretical state of pure nature.

These wants were coeval with his physical existence; for, as Mr. Locke says, God so made man, as to put him under strong obligations of neceffty, convenience, and inclination, to drive him into fociety, as well as fitted him with understanding and language to continue and enjoy it. And here, as

Mr. Payne allows, Our enquiries find a resting Origin of fun place, our reason finds a home. This insufficiciety.

ency of individuals fought a remedy in the affistance of others ; mutual assistance brought on obligations, and obligations produced dependance. The diversity of age, strength, or talents, probably gave the first superiority over a promiscuous multitude (for parentage certainly gave the first superiority over individuals); this multiplied and varied, as the objects who possessed it; envy ever followed the poffeffor; and the consequences



broke out into strifes, feuds, and wars. So

as soon as mankind enter into a state of fociety, they lose the fense of their weakress; the equality ceases, and then commences the state of war."

These ruinous effects increased, as mankind was multiplied; and the natural tendency to superiority urged indivi

. duals to reduce their neighbours into a state of subjection. Still was man sensible of his own insufficiency, and he applied in need to his neighbour for assistance. This gradually Origin of nav formed men into distinct bodies: each body had their own respective views and interests ; and hence arose the difference of communities or nations.

Societies then once formed, the interests of the individuals forming them became united in one common centre ; they dropped the former sense of that weakness and indigence, which had driven them into society, and assumed a consequence (which I call political) from the newly acquired strength of their collected affcciates. The subsistence and preservation of their own community was their first concern; to defend themselves against the power and encroachments of others was their next. Thus did their collective exi- Origin of zo


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individuals in

gencies enforce the necessity of order and

government. The rights of It is a poftulatum, that when men formed the state of na- themselves into society, their natural rights to the commu- were not given up nor destroyed, but were nity in that of transferred only from the individual to the .

body at large. Whatever the former had an indefeasible right to do in the state of nature, the latter has an indefeasible right to do in the state of society; and throughout this state of society, the general interest of the community is the principle, upon which the constitution and particular laws of each state must be founded.

The private considerations of individuals were given up, in the exchange of our natural rights, for the improved liberties of civil intercourse and society.

* “ Men being, as has been said, by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of his estate, and subjected to the political power of another, without his own confent. The only way, whereby any one divests himself of his natural liberty, and puts on the bonds of civil society, is by agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a community, for their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living one amongst ano

• Locke of Civil Government, p. 194.


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