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the prudential care and provision for the pub. lic good, which it transmits and communi, cates to the head, as the principal part, and to all the rest of the members of the said body politic, whereby it fubfifts and is invigorated. And as the head of the body natural cannot change its nerves or sinews, cannot deny to the several parts their proper energy, their due proportion and aliment of blood; neither can a king, who is the head of the body politic, change the laws thereof, nor take from the people what is theirs by right, against their consents. Thus you have, Sir! the formal institution of every political kingdom, from whence you may guess at the power, which a king may exercise with respect to the laws and the subject : for he

is appointed to protect his subjects in their All power dele- lives, properties and laws; for this


end pouple.

and purpose, he has the delegation of power from the people; and he has no just claim to any other power but this." These fundamental principles of government were not then first discovered by modern theorists, who would aim at the abolition of all kingly power ; but they were inculcated between three and four hundred years ago by a fage and learned chancellor of England, into the heir apparent to the crown, at a time, when


gated from the

the nightest deviation from the straight line of constitutional polity would, in the judgment of a Fortescue, have more effectually weakened the throne, than the most desperate and inhuman efforts of the different competitors for the crown, who were actually then deluging the nation with blood, and overwhelming it with wretchedness. This fundamental principle of general government has been so unexceptionably admitted by persons of every description, that it seems to have been received as a political axiom. *" By the law of nature God hath ordained, that there should be political

government unto one or more, according to particular forms thereof, as monarchy, aristocracy, democracy, or mixt ; wherein is to be noted, that the ordination of God, by the law of nature, doth give political power unto the multitude immediately, and by them mediately to one or more.”

As essential as society is to the physical Sovereignty or state or condition of man, fo essential is sove- effential to fo

ciety as society reignty or government to fociety. " Peo- is to mankind. ple, if they would engage the protection of the whole body, and join their force in enterprizes and undertakings calculated for the common good, muft voluntarily resign some

• Parson's answer to Sir Edward Cok:, r. ii. F. 26. + Priestly upon Government, p. 6.


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part of their natural liberty, and submit their
conduct to the direction of the community;
for without these concessions, such an alliance,
attended with such advantages, could not be
formed.” The weight of authority, for this
fundamental principle of government, all
power is from the people, is almost unexception-
able: the few, who have at any time ques-
tioned or denied it, have either misconceived
it themselves, or in the heat of great conten-
tion, have obstinately refused to submit even to
the truth of their antagonists. Like other
truths, this has frequently met with opposition
and resistance from the attempts of the igno-
rant to misrepresent, and the wicked to abuse
When I lament the pliancy, with which


well meaning countrymen are seduced by the sophisticated arts and malice of some few, I feel at the same time a satisfaction at their disposition to seek the truth, which inspires me with an uncommon ardor to set it before them in so clear a light, that they shall not shut their eyes against it. * « Nec tam pertinaces fore arbitror, ut clarifi

many of

* Lacianctius. If to my more informed readers I appear guilty of pleonasm, I beg to be understood to have written this work with a view to point out the true road to those, that are ignorant, or have been misled.


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mum folem, fanis atque patentibus oculis videre se

*« That sociability in mankind, or incli-
nation to live in company, is by nature, and
consequently ordained by God, for the com-
mon benefit of all, is an easie thing to prove ;
seeing that all ground of realms and common-
wealths dependeth of this point, as of their first
principle; for that a common-wealth is no-
thing else, but the good government of a mul-
titude gathered together, to live in one; and
therefore all old philosophers, law-makers, and
wise-men, that have treated of government or
common-wealths; as Plato in his ten most
excellent books, which he wrote of this mat-
ter, intituling them, Of the Common-wealths;
and Marcus Cicero, that famous counsellor,
in other six books, that he writ of the same
matter, under the same title; and Aristotle, that
perhaps, excelleth them both, in eight books,
which he called his Politiques: all these, I
say, do make their entrance to treat of the
common-wealth affairs, from this first prin-
ciple, to wit, That man by nature is fociable, and
inclined to live in company.

« These two points then are of nature; Government is


cf nature.

• Dolman's Conference about the next Succession to the Crown of England, first printed in 1594, and reprinted in 1681.

to wit, the common-wealth and government of the fame by magistrates; but what kind of government each common-wealth will have, whether democratia, which is popular government by the people itself, as Athens, Thebes, and many other cities of Greece had in old time, and as the Cantons or Switzers at this day have; or else aristocratia, which is the government of some certain chofen number of the best; as the Romans many years, were governed by consuls and senators, and at this day the States of this country of Holland do imitate the famè; or else monarchia, which is the regiment ofone, and this again either of an emperor, king, duke, earl, or the like: these particular forms of government, I say, determined by God or nature, as the other two points before ; for then they should be

all one in all nations as the other are, seeing The particular God and nature are one to all (as often hath form of governe

been said) but these particular forms are left option of cach fuciety: unto every nation or country to chuse that form

of goverr ment, which they fhall like best, and think most fit for the natures and conditions of their people, which Aristotle proveth throughout all the second and fourth books of his Politiques, very largely laying down divers kinds of governments in his days, as namely, in Greece, that of the Milesians, Lacedemonians,


ment is at the

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