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- mirable Ufe in the Ánimal World, is the work of

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whatever elfe the Philosopher may think it. For who but an intelligent Being, what less than an Omnipotent, and infinitely Wife God could contrive,

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the Sound will be louder, proportionably to the Comprestion, or Quantity of Air crouded in, as I have often tried my felf, and may be further feen in Mr. Hawksbee's curious Experiments, p. 97. Alfo his Experiments in Phil. Trans: Nr. 32 r. Neither doth this succeed only in forced Rarefastions and Condenfations of the Air, but in fuch also as are natural ; as is evident from David Frædlichius in Varenius, upon the highet Eminencies of carpathus, near Kefmarckt in Hungary. The Story of Frædlichius is this, Ego Menfe funii 1615. tum adolescens, fublimitatem horum montium, cum duobus comitibus Scholaribus, experiri volens, ubi, cum in prime rupis vertice, magno labore, me fummum terminum affecutum esse putarem, demum fefe obtulit alia multo altior cautes, ubi pervafia eaque vacillantia faxa (quorum unum, f loco à viatore dimovetur–aliquot centena–rapit, & quidem tanto cum fagore, ut illi metuendum fit, ne totus Mons corruat, eumque obruar) enixus effem, iterum alia fublimior prodiit, &c. donec fummo vite periculo aa supremum cacumen penetraverim. Ex declivioribus montibus cum in fubjeffas valles, -–nil nifi obfuram nostem, aut ceruleum quid, infar profundi aeris, quod Yulgo fudum cælum apellatur, observare potui, mihique videbar, f. de monte caderem, non in terram, fed retiè in folum me prolapfurum, Mimiâ enim declivitate, species visibiles, extenuate & bebetate fuezunt. Eum verò altiorem montém peterem, quas intra nebulas den- #:: herebam Et cùm non procul à fummo vertice effem e fublimi quiescens prospexi & animadverti iis in locis, ubi mihi antea videbar intra nebulas heffe, compałła, atque alba fefe mowere nubes, fupra quas, per aliquot milliaria, & ultra terminos Sepuff commodus mihi prospelhus patuit. Alias tamen etiam nube: altiores, alias item humiliores, necnon quasdam equaliter à terra difiantes vidi. Atque hinc tria intellexi, 1. Me tum transvisse principizum medie Aeris regionis. 2. Difiantiam nubium à terra, non esse &qualem. – 3. Distantiam nubium non 72 Mill. Ger. zut quidam fed tantum dimidiatum Mill. Ger. In fummum montis verticem cùm pervenissem, adeò tranquillum er fubtilem aerem ibi offendi, ut ne pili quidem motum fentirem, cum tamen in deprefioribus ventum vehementem expertus fm : unde collegi fummum cacumen iftius montis Carpathici ad Mill. Germ. à radicibus fuis imis exfurgere, & ad fupremam usque aeris regionem, ad quam Venti non aftendunt, fertingere. Exploß in fummitate Sclepe- - - - - - - - - - - tum ;

and make fuch a fine Body, fuch a Medium, fo fusceptible of every Impreifion, that the Sense of

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tum ; quod non majorem fonitum primo pre fe tulit, quam f ligillum vel bacillum confregissem s post intervallum autem temporis murmur prolixum invaluit, inferioresque montis partes, convalles cofĵlvas opplevit. Defendendo per nives annosas intrà convalles, cum iterum Sclopetum exonerarem, major & horribilior fragor, quam ex tormento capacifimo inde exoriebatur : hinc verebár ne totus mens concufus mecum corrueret: duravitque hic fonus per femiquadrantem hore usque dum abstruffmas cavernas penetraffet, ad quas aer undiq; multiplicatus refiliit,—In his celfis montibus, plerumq; ningit grandinatve mediâ estate, quoties nempe in fubjeếtâ co vicinå planitie pluit, uti hoc ipsum expertus fum. Mives diverforum annorum ex colore & cortice duriore dignosti possunt, a Varen. Geogr. Gen. 1. 1. c. 19. Prop. ult. * - : -- ' , :

The Story being diverting, and containing divers things remarkable, I have chofen to note the whole of it (altho fomewhat long) rather than fingle out the Paffages only, which relate to the diminishing the Sound of his Pistol, by the rarity of the Air, at that great Ascent up into the Atmosphere; and the magnifying the Sound by the Polyphenisms or Repercuffions of the Rock, Cavérns, and other Phonocamptick Objects below in the Mount.

But 'tis not the Air alone that is capable of the Imprefions of Sound, but the Water alfo, as is manifest by striking a Bell under Water, the Sound of which may plainly enough be heard, but it is much duller and not fo loud : and it is also a Fourth deeper, by the Ear of fome great Judges in Mufical Notes, who gave me their Judgments in the matter. But Merfenne faith, a Sound made under Water, is of the fame Tone or Note, if heard under Water ; as are alfo Sounds made in the Air, when heard under Water. Wid. Merfen. Hydraul. ' , , ! , - **

Having mentioned the hearing of Sounds under Water, there is another Curiofity worth mentioning, that also farther proves Water to be fuceptible of the Impreifions of Sound, viz. Divers at the bottom of the Sea, can hear the Noises made above, only confusedly. But, on the contrary, those above cannot hear the Divers below. Of which an Experiment was made, that had like to have been fatal : one of the Divers blew an Horn in his Diving-Bell, at the bottom of the Sea; the Sound whereof (in that compressed Air) was fo very loud and irksome, that stunned the Diver, and made him fo giddy, that he had like to have dropt. out of his Bell, and to have been drowned. Vid. Sturmii Colleg. (ur. Vol. 2. Tentam 1. - */, - a *

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Hearing hath occafion for, to empower : Animals to express their Sense and Meaning to others 3 to make known their Fears their Wants, their Pains and Sorrows in melancholick Tones ; their Joys and Pleasures in more harmonious Notes; to fend

their Minds at great Diftances, (27), in a fhort

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Thoughts near at hand with a gentle Voice, or in

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- - - - , * * * * * * : «; t * * · * vo · · (27) As to the Distance to which Sound may be fent, having fome : doubt, whether there was any Difference between the Northern and Southern Parts ; by the Favour oftny learned and illustrious Friend Dr. Newton, Her Majesty's late Envoy at Florence. I procured fome Experiments to be made for me in Italy. His most Serene Highness the Great Duke, was pleased to order great Guns to be fird, for this purpose, at Florence, and Perfons were appointed on purpofe to observe thern at Leghorne; which they compute is no less than 35 Miles in a straight Line, But notwithstanding the Countrey between be fomewhat hilly and woody, and the Wind also was not favouring, only very calm and fill, yet the Sound was plainly enough heard. Ard they telt me, that the Leghorne Guns are often heard 66 Miles off, at Porto Ferraio ; that when the French bombarded Genoa, they heard it near Leghorne ço Miles distant ; and in the Messina Infurrestion, the Guns were heard from thence as far as-Augusia and Syraeuf, about I do Italian Miles. These Distances being fo considerable, give me reafon to fufpest, that Sounds fly as far, or nearly as far in the Southern, as in the Northern Parts of the world, notwithstanding-we have a few Instances of Sounds reaching farther Distances. As Dr. Hearn tells us of Guns fired at Stockholm in r68.g. that were heard 18o English Miles. And in the Dutch War, 1672, the Guns were heard above zoo Miles. Vid. Phil. Trans: Mr. I 13. Alfo there is this farther Reason of Suspicion, that the Mercury in the Barometer rifeth higher without than within the Tropicks and the more Northerly, still the higher; which may encrease the Strcngth of Sounds, by Note 26. - * * · · · · · · · (18) As to the Velocity of Sounds, by reason the most celebrated Authors differ about it, I made divers nice Experiments my felf, with good Instruments ; by which I found, F1. That there is fome, although a small Difference in the Velocity of Sounds with or against the Wind ; which also is, 2. Augmented or diminished by the Strength or weakness of the wind But - **. - that

than the fame moft wife and indulgent Creator, o could form fuch an CEconomy, as that of Melody and mufick is! That the Medium should (as I faid) fò readily receive : Impression of Sound, and convey the melodious Vibration of every musical String, the harmonious Pulfes of every animal Voice, and of every musical Pipe ; and the Ear be as well adapted and ready to receive all these Im: as the Medium to convey them: And lafty, that by means of the curious Lodgment and Inofculations of the Auditory Nerves before-mentioned, the Orgasmes of the Spirits should be allayed, and Perturbations of the Mind, in a great measure quieted, and stilled (29): Or to express it in : - - - , - . " Words :

that nothing elfe doth accelerate or retard it, not the Differences
of Day or Night, Heat or Cold, Sammer or Winter, Cloudy or
Clear, Barometer high or low, ere. . 3. That all kinds of Sounds
have the fame Motion, whether they be loud or languid, of
Bells, Guns, great or fmall, or any other fonorous Body. 4. That
they fly equal Spaces in equal Times. Fifthly and lastly, That
the Mean of their Flight is at the Rate of a Mile in 9; Half-
:, or 1 142 Feet in one Second of Time. Vid. Phil. Trans:
Ibid. * - |- |-
(29) Timothy a Mufician could excite Alexander the Great to
Arms with the Phrygian Sound, and allay his Fury with another
Tone, and excite him to Merriment. So Ericus :# of Den-
mark, by a certain Mufician could be driven to fuch a Fury, as to
Kill fome of his best and most truffy Servants. Mere of this
Power of Mufick over the Affestions may be ften in Ath. Kirch.
Phomurg. L. 2. sest. t. Alfo in If Voffus de Poematum cantu, er
Rythmi viribus. *** .

And not only upon the Affestions, but alfo on the Parts of the Body, Mufick is able to exert its Force, as appears from the Gastoigne Knight, cui Phormingis fino audito Vesta statim ad Urinam reddendan vellicabatur. Such another we have in A3. I. Ephem. Mat. Curios observ. 134. Alfo Morhof de Scyph. vitr, per cert. human, voch fonum frasto : where there is not only the Account of the Dutchman at Amsterdam, one Mich. Petter: that brake Romer-Glaffes with the Sound of his Voice ; but alfo di

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