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and every other fuch like Ufe (17). In fome
Greatures it is wide and large, in fome little and
narrow: in fome with a deep Incifure up into the
Head (18), for the better catching and holding of
Prey, and more easy Comminution of hard, large
and troublefome Food ; in others with a much
fhorter Incisure, for the gathering and holding of
herbaceous Food.
In Infećfs it is very notable. In fome forcipated;
to catch hold and tear their Prey (19). In fome
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(17) Becaufe it would be tedious to reckon up the Bones, Glands, Mufcles, and other Parts belonging tỏ the Mouth, it shall íuffice to obferve, that, for the various Services of Man’s Mouth, befides the Mufcles in common with other Parts, there are five Pair, and one fingle one proper to the Lips only, as Dr. Gibson reckons them : but my most dilient and curious Friend the late Mr. Cowper difcovered a Ë: Pair. And ::::::: Dr.Drake reckons fix Pair, and one single one proper to the Lips, L. # c. I 3. (18)Galen deterves to be here confusted, who excellently argues against the casual Concourfe of the Atoms of Epicurus and Afclepiades, from the provident and wife Formation of the Mouths of Animals, and their Teeth anfwerable thereto. In Man, his Mouth without a deep Incifure, with

: one canine Tooth on a fide, and flat Nails, becaufe,

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civile effingere, cui robur So vires effent ex fapientia, non ex corporis fortitudine. But for Lions, Wolfs and Dogs, and all

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l. II. c. 9.

(19) Among Infests the Squille aquatice, as they are very rapacious, f} are accordingly provided for it : Párticularl the Squilla Æquatica maximá recurva (as I call it) who : fomewhat terrible in its very Afpest, and in its Pofture in the Water, efpecially its Mouth, which is armed with lon fharp Hooks, with which it boldy, and greedily catchet

any thing in the Waters, even one’s Fingers. When the

have feizéd their Prey, they will fo tenaciously hold it wit

their forcipated Month, that they will not párt therewith,

even when they are taken out of the Waters, and i: * 2 OOllt

aculeated, to pierce and wound Animals (2o), and fuck their Blood. And in others strongly rigged with Jaws and Teeth, to gnaw and fcrape out their Food, to carry Burdens (21) to perforate the Earth,yea the hardeft Wood,yea even Stones themfelves, for Houfes (22) to themfelves,and Nefts for their Young. __And

about in one's Hand. I have admired at their peculiar way of taking in their Food ; which is done by piercing their Prey with their Forcipes (which are hollow) and fucking the Juice thereofthrough them. The Squilla here mentioned ; is the first and fecond in Mouffet's Theat. Infećł. l. 2. c. 37. (25) For an Instance of Infests endued with a Spear, I fhall, for its peculiarity, : upon one of the fmallest, if not the very smalleft óf all the Gnat-kind, which I call, Culex minimus nigricans maculatus fanguifuga. Among us in Essex, they are called Nidiots, by Mouffet Midget. ặt is

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Antenne, plain in the Female, in the Male feather’d, fomewhat like a Bottle-brush. It is fpotted with blackish Spots, especially on the Wings, which extend a little beyond the Bódy. It comes from a little flender Eel-like Worm, of a dirty white Colour, fwimming in stagnating Waters by a wrigling Motion ; as in Fig. 5. Its Aurelia is fmall, with a black Head, little short Horns, a fpotted, flender, rough Belly, Vid. Fig.6. It lies quietly on the top of the Water, now and then gently wagging ít felf this way, and that. Thefe Gnats are greedy Blood-fuckers, and very troublefome where numerous, as they are in fome Places near the Thames, particularly in the Breach-waters that have lately befallen near us, in the Parish of Dagenham ; where Ifound them fo vexatious, that I was glad to get out of thofe Marshes Yea, I have feen, Horfes fo stung with them, that they have had drops of Blood all over :::: Bodies, where they were wounded by them. I have given, a Figure (in Fig.7.) and more particular Defcription of this Gnat, becaufe, although it be common, it is no where taken notice of by any Author I know, except Mouffet, who, I fuppofe, means thefe Gnats, which he calls Midges, c. 13. p. 82. (21). Hornets and Wasps have ftrong Jaws, toothed, ywherewith they can dig into Fruits, for ẫ: Food ; asalfo gnaw and fcrape Wood, whole Mouthfuls of which they carry away to make their Combs. Vid. infr. Chap. 13. Not. 2. (22) Monfeur de la Voye tells of an ancient Wall of ":::ß

And laftly, in Birds it is no lefs remarkable. In

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Air, and making way for the Body thro' the airy Regions, i In the next place, it is hard and horny,

* which is a good Supplement for the want of Teeth,

and caufeth the Bill to have the Ufe and Service of the Hand, It's hooked Form is of great ufe to the rapaçious Kind (23), in catching and holding their Prey, and in the Comminution thereof by tearing; to others it is no lefs ferviceable to their Climbing, as well as neat and nice Comminution of their Food (24). Its extraordinary Length and Slendernefs is very useful to fome, to fearch and grope for their Food in moorish Places (25); as īts Length and Breadth is to others, to hunt and fearch in muddy places (26): and the contrary Form,

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| Mouth, with : lack jaws, &c. Phil. Tranf. Np. 18, : (23) Pro iis, [Labris] cornea & acuta Voluçribus Rostna. Eadem rapto viventibus adunca : collesto resta : berbas ruentjbus limumque lata, ut Suum generi: Jumentis vice manâs ad colligenda pabula : ora apertiora laniatu viventibi i, Plin.

Nat. Hist. l. i 1. c. 37., . |- (24). Parrots have their Bills nicelv adapted to thefe Services, beinghooked, for climbing and reaching what they

have occafion for ; and the lower Jaw being compleatl fitted to theHooks of the upper, they can as minutely ::::

their Food, as other Animals do with their Teetho |(25) Thus in Woodcockt, Sniței, &c, who hunt for Worms in moorish Ground, and, as Mr. Willu bby faith, live alfo on the fatty unstuous Humour they fuck out of the Earth. So also the Bills of Curlews, and many other Sea-Fowl, are very long, to enable them to hunt for the Worms, &c. in

the Sands on the Sea-fhofe, which they frequent, (26) Duck#, Geese and divers others, haye fuch long broad Bills, to quaster and hunt in : and Mud ; t3 which we may reckon the uncouth Bi! of the Sppov-bili ; but that which deferves r":" Observation in the : Papstes

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Fórm, namely, a thick, short, and sharp edged Bill is as useful to other Birds, who have occafiori to husk and flay the Grains they fwallow. But it would be endlefs, and tedious, to reckon upall the various Shapes, and commodious Mechanism of all; the Sharpness and Strength of those who have occafion to perforate Wood and Shells (27); the Slendernefs and Neatnefs of such as pickup small Infects ; the Cross-form of fuch as break up Fruits (28); the comprefied Form of others (29), with many other curious and artificial Forms, all fuited to the way of living, and peculiar Occafions of the feveral Species of Birds. Thus much forthe Mouth. , . : Letus next take a fhort View of the Teeth (3o). ---- » - - - ; : : - ... Ih

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named in thefe two last Notes is, the Nerves, going to the rend of their Bills, enabling them to discover their Food out of fight ; of which fee Book VII. Chap. 2. Not. 5. · · · :: (27) The Picus viridis, or Green-Woodsþite, and all the Wood-Peckers have Bills, curiously made for :::: Wood, ftrong, hard, and fharp. A neat Ridge runs along the top of the ċ::::::::, s Bill, as ifan Artift :# defigned it for Strength and Neatnefs. - - is (as) The Loxia, or Croß-Bill, whose Bill is thick and . ftrong, with the Tips crofing one another ; with to rea:#breaks open Fir-cones, Apples, and other Fruit, to -come at their Kernels, which are its Food, as if the crofyfing of the Bill was defigned for this Service. 29) The Sea-Pie haht a long, sharp, narrow Bill, comz prested fide-ways, and every way fo well adapted to the raifing Limpets from the Rocks (which are its chief, if not only Food) that Nature (or rather the Author of Nature) feeñns to have framed it purely for that Ufe. (3o) Those Animals which have Teeth on both faws, have bui one Stomach ; but most of those which have ne upperTeeth, or nome at all, have three Stomachs : as in Beafts, the Panch, the Read, and the Feck ; and in all granivorous Birds, the : Crop, the &chinus, and the Gizard. For as chewing is to an easie Digestion, fois swallowing whole to that which is more

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*In which their peculiar Hardnefs (; ; ) is refmarkable, their Growth (32) alfo, their firm Infertions and Bandage in the Gums and Jaws, and their various Shape and Strength, fuited to their vårious Occasion and Ufe (33) ; the foremoft weak, and fartheft from the Center, as being only Preparers to the reft; the others being to grind and mince, are accordingly made ftronger, and placed nearer - - the __.(3i), : faith, the Teeth are made of convolved Skińs'hárdned ; and if we view the Grinders of Deer, Horfes, Sheep, Goc. we fhall find great Reafon to be of his Mind. His Observations are, Mirum autem eos [i. e. Dentes] cum þrimum à pelliculis imbricatim convolutis & muco vifido enfarent, in tantam dirige/cere foliditatem, que offa cunsta peret. Idem ft etiam in Officulis Ceraforum, &c.---.-Separátiane fastá, per membranas conditur Magma locellis, quos formant lamine tenues, ac duriuscute ad Dentis figuram anteà divinitas compositæ, J. Peyer Meryco1. 1. 2. c. 8. (32). Qui autem [i. e. Dentes], rene/cuntur, minimè credendi funf à facultate aliquá plasticá Brutorum denuò formavi, sed latentet tantummodo in confestum producuntur augmento molis ex #uente#:: Id. ibid., , , i : , , _(33) From thefe, and other like Confiderations of the Teérh, Galen infers, that they must needs be the Work of fome wife, Provident Being ; not Chance, nor a fortuitous Concourfé of Atoms. For the Confirmátion of which he uts the cafe, That fuppofe the order of the Teeth should : been inverted, the Grinders fet in the room of the In#:: &c. (which might as well have been, had not the eeth been placed by a wife Agent) in this cafe, what Use would the Teeth have been :::y:: Confufion by fuch a flight Error in their difpofal only ? Upon which #: 21 • ues, At siquis choream hominum 32 (the number of the #:) ordine difpofuit, eum ut hominem industrium laudare. mus : cùm verò Dentium choream Natura tam bellà exornårif nonne ipsam quoque laudabimus ? And then he goes on with the Argument, from the Sockets of the Teeth, and their nice fitting in them, which being no lefs accurately done, than what is done by a Carpenter, or Stone-cutter, in fittin a Tenon into a Mortice, doth as well infer the Art an Aa of the wife Maker of Animal Bodies, as the other doth the A& and Art of Man. And fo he goes on with othet Arguments to the fame Effest., Galen de Uf Part; t, 41, er 8: O 2 ($4)

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