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made by GOD, asian Instrument wrought by its Power, any. Pneumatick Engine; to be contrived and made by Man! + a - * 2. i . . . . .

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T. HU S much for the first Thing ministering to el the Terraqueous Globe, the Atmosphere, and its Meteors; the next Appendage is Light: (1) Concerning which, F have in my Survey of the Heavens (2) fhewed, "what admirable Contrivances the infinitely wife Creator hath for the affording this noble, glorious; and comfortable Benefit to other Globes, as well as ours; the Provifion he hath made by Moons, as well as by the Suñ, for the Com

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2:2 “It is not worth while to enumerate the Opinions of the Aristotelians, tartefans, and others about the Nature of Light"; Aristotle making it a Quality ; Cartes a Pulfion, or Motion of the Globules of the second Element, Vid.cartes Princip. p. 3. §. 55; &re. But with the Moderns, i I take Light to confift of material Particles, propagated from the Sun, and other luminous Bodies, not infantaneously, but în time, according to the Notes following in this chapterti But not to infist upon other Arguments for the Proofofit, four: noble Founder hath proved the Materiality of Light and Heat, from astual Experiments on Silver, Copper, Tin, -Leãd, Spelter; tron, Tutenag, and other Bodies, exposed (both naked, and clofely shue up) to the Fire: All which were constantly found to receive an-Increment of Weight. I with he could have met with afavourable Seafon, to have tried his Experiments with the Sun-beams as he intended. Vid. Byl Exp, to make Fire and “Flame ponderable. ..", så svt: , :. . . . . . : * * - ******,\ , a(z) Astro-Theol, Book: 7. ** * · * * * * * , " "; :: * * * * * . . . . . . . .:\: - :


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And now let us briefly confider the great Necessity and Use thereof to all our Animal World: - And this we shall find to be little lefs than the very Life and Pleasure of all those Creatures. For what Benefft would Life be of, what Pleasure, what Comfort would it be for us to liye in perpetual Darkness? How could we provide our felves with Food and Neceffàries? How could we go about the leaft Bufiness, correspond with one another, or be ofany Use in the World, or any Creatures be the fame to us, without Light, and thofè admirable Organs of the Body, which the great Creator hathi ãdapted to the Perception of that great Benefit : But now by the help of this admirable, this firfimade (3), because mðft necessary, Creature of God, by this, Ifay, all the Animal World is enabled to go here and there, as their occafions call; they can, tranfaċt their Business by Day, and refresh and recruit themfelves by Night, with Reft, and Sleep. They can with Admiration and Pleafüre, behold the glorious Works of God ; they can view the Glories of the Heavens, and fee the Beauties of the flowry Fields, the gay attire of the feathered Tribe, the exquisite Garniture of many Quadru, Infećts, and other Creatures; they can take in the delightfome Landskips of divers Countries, and Places ; they can with admiration fee the great Creator’s wonderful Art and Contrivance in the Parts of Animals and Vegetables : And in a word, behold the Harmony of this lower Worlj, and of the Globes above; and furvey GOD's exquisite Workmanship in every Creature. ::: - : - : ; *19. , , , . ,i "i"---"- – + *** -

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To all which I might add the Improvements, which the Sagacity of Men hath made of this noble, Creature of God, by the Refraćtions and Reflećtions of Glaffes. But it would be endless to enumerate, all its particular Ufes and Benefits to our World. , But before Ileave this Point, there are two things, concerning Light, which will deferve an especiál Remark; and thạt is, its fwift and almost infantaneous Motion; and its vaft Extenfion. 1. It is a very great Aćt of the Providence of God, : great a Benefitas Lightis, is not long in its Passage from Place to Place. For was the Motion thereof no fwifter than the Motion of the fwifteft Bodies on Earth, fuch as of a Bullet out of agreat Gun, or even of a Sound. (4) (which is the fwifteft Motion we have next Light), in thisCafe Light would take up, in its Progress from the Sun to us, above thirty two Years, at the Rate of the firft, and above feventeen Years, at the Rate of the latter Motion. . . . . . . . . , .

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(4) It may not be ungrateful to the Curious, to take notice of the Velocity of these two Things. . . , , -- ---- According to the Observations of Merfennus, a Bullet-shot out of a great Gun, flies 92 Fathom in a Second of Time, (vid. Merfen. Balif.) which is equal to 589; Feet English, and according to the Computation of Mr. Huygens, it would be 25 Years in paffing from the Earth to the Sun. But according to my own Observations made with one of her Majesty's Sakers, and a very accurate Pendulum-Chronometer, a Bullet, at its first Discharge, flies 31 o Yards in five Half-seconds, which is a Mile in a little above 17 Halffeconds. And allowing the Sun's Distance, as in the next Note, a Bullet would be 32# Years in flyingi with its utmoft Velocity to the Sun.

As to the Velocity ofSound,fee Book 4. dhap. 3. Note 28, according to which rate there mentioned, a Sound would be near 17 i Years în flying as far ::::::: is from the Earth to the Sun. Confer here the Experiments of the Mead, del (iment, p. 140, ere,

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The Inconveniencies of which would be, its Energy and Vigour would be greatly cooled and abated ; its Rays would be lefs penetrant; and Darkness would with greater difficulty and much : be diffipated, efpecially by the fainter Lights of our fublunary luminous Bodies. But paffing with fuch :::::::: with nearly the instantaneous Swiftnefs of almoft two Hundred Thousand, English Miles in one Second of Time, {: the fame thing) being but about feven ;or Eight Minutes of an Hour in coming k = i . ; - - - -? · |- - * . . . . from

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(5) Mr. Romer's ingenious Hypothefis about the Velocity of Light, hath been established by the Royal Academy, and in the Observatory for eight Years, as our Phil. Trans: No. 136. observe from the Journ, des Scavans ; our most eminent Astronomers also in England admit it : But Dr. Hook thinks with Monfieur cartes, the Motion of Light infantaneous, Hook Pof. Works, pag. 77. And this he endeavours to explain, pag. I 3e, &c. , , ' What Mr. Romer's Hypothefis is, may be feen, in the Phil. Tranfaći, before-cited : As also in the before-mentioned Sir Isaac Newton's opticks : Light is propagated from luminous Bodies in time, and fþends about feven or eight Minutes of an Hour in paffing fram the Sun to the Earth. This was first observed by Romer, and then by others, by means of the Eclipses of the Satellites of Jupiter. For thefe Eclipfes, when the Earth is between the Sun and Jupiter, happen about feven or eight Minutes : than they ought to do by the Tables; and when the Earth is beyond the G), they happen about feven or eight Minutes later than they ought to do: The reafon being, that the Light of the satellites hath farther to go in the latter café, than in the former, by the Diameter of the Earth's Orbit. Newt. Opt. L. 2. Part. 3. Prop. I 1. - - - - - - Now forasmuch as the Distance between the Sun and the Earth (according to the Computations in my Afro-Theology, B. I. th. 3. Mote 2) is 85o5 1398 English Miles ; therefore, at the rate of 7# Minutes, or 45o Seconds in paffing from the Sun, Light will be found to fly above 191225 Miles in one Second of Time, * - , · * . , ' :- - * * * * * * . . . " * ** * - - - - - - - - - x. . . . . .

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from the Sun tous, therefore with all fechrity and speed, we receive the kindly Effećts and Inflúences - of that noble and useful Créature of God. . . . . | 2. Another thing of great consideration, about Light is, its vaft Expansion, it's almost incomprehensible, and inconceivable Extension, which as a late ingenious Author (6) faith, “Is as boundlefs “ and unlimited as the Universe it felf, or the Ex“ paníum of all material Beings: The vaftness of “ which is fo great, that it exceeds theComprehen“ fions of Man's Understanding. Infomụch that “ very many have afferted it absolutely Infinite, “ and without any Limits or Bounds. - And that this noble Creature of God is of this Extent, (7) is manifest from our feeing fome of the fartheft distant Objećts, the heavenly Bodies, fome with our naked Eye, fome with the help "::: |- - I - - |

6) Dr. Hook Post. Works. Lest of Light, pag. 76. -

} For the proof of this vaft Extent of Light, I shall take the Computation of the fame great Man, pag. 77. If, faith he, we confider first the vafi Difiance between us and the Sun, which from the bef and latef Observations in Astronomy, is judged to be about Ioooo Diameters of the Earth, each of which is about 7925 English Miles; therefore, the Sun's difiance is Miles ; and if we consider that according to the observation, which I published to prove ehe Motion of the Earth, Twhich were Observations of the Parallax of fome of the fixt Stars in the Head of Draco, made in 1699] the whole Diameter of the Orb, viz. 2oooo, made the Subtenfe but of one Minute to one of the fixt Stars, which cannot therefore be leß distant than 3438 Diameters of this great Orb, and confequently 6876oooo Diameters of the Earth : And if this Star be one of the nearef, and that the Stars that are of one Degree lesser in Magnitude (Imean not ofthe Second Magnitude, because there may be many Degrees between the first and Second) be as much farther; and another Jört yet fmaller be three times as far ; and a fourth four times as far, and fo onward, possibly to fome Ioo Degrees of Magnitude fuch as may be discovered by longer and longer Telefefes, that they may be 1oo times as far; then certainly this material Expansion, a part of which we are, muß be fo great, that 'twill infinitely exceed our fhallow conception to imagine. Now, by what I laß mentioned, .: is e714673ĝ:

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