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of Man's Posture. Book V. that there are given HC:::::: Miles, or 21e34781 English Feet (according to B.II. Chap. 2. Note 1.) CEthe fame Length with the Height of the Eye on the Maft of a Ship, or at only a Man's Height,&c. added to it; and E. H C the oppofite Right-Angle. By which three Parts given, it is easy to : all the other Parts of the Triangle. And firft the Angle at C, in order to find the Side : , the Proportion is,
s the side C 8, to the Angle at H ; : So the Side HC, to the Angle at &, which :5 fubftrasted out of Ä: #: the Remainder is the Angle at Ö. And then, As the Angle at & is to its oppofite Side HC, or elfe, As the Angle at H is to its opposite Side C.E.; : So the Angle at C, to its ::::: Side & H, the vifible Horizon. Or the labour may be íhortned, by adding together the Logarithm of the Sum of the two given Sides, and the Logarithm of their Difference: the half of which two Logarithms, is the Logarithm of the Side required, : For an Example we will take the two Sides in Yards,_by reafon fcarce any Table_of Logarithms will ferve us farther. The Semidiámeter of the Earth is 7o1 1594 Yards :: the Height of the Eye is 2 Yards more, the Sum of both Sides, is 14o1319o.
is the Logar. of 5296 Yards = 3 Miles, which is the Length of the Line & H, or Diftance the Eye can reach at 6 Feet Height. |This would be the Distance, on a perfest Globe, did the vifual Rays come to the Eye in a strait Line. But by means of the Refrastions of the Atmosphere, diftant Objekts on the Horizon, appear higher than really they are, ánd ma be feen at a greater Distance, efpecially on the Sea; whic is a matter of great Ufe, efpecially to discover at Sea the Land, Rocks, &c. and it is a great A& of the divine Providence in the Contrivance and Convenience of the Atmofphere, which by this means enlargeth the visible Horizon, and is all one as if the terraqueous Globe was much larger than really it is. As to the Height of the Apparent above the true Level, or how much distant Objests are raised by the Refrastions, the ingenious and accuráte Gentlemen of the French Academy Royal, have given us a Table in their Measure of the Earth ; Art. I z, - (6) - ' ( 6
And as this Erećtion of Man's Body is the moft compleat Posture for him ; so if we furvey the Provifion made for it, we find all done with manifeft Design, the utmost Art and Skill being em;: therein. To país by the particular Conformation of many of the Parts, the Ligaments and Faftnings to anfwer this Posture, as the Faftning, for instance, of the Pericardium to the Diaphragm (which is peculiar to Man (6), I fay paffing by a deal of this nature, manifesting this Posture to be an Act of Design) let us ftop a little at the curious Fabrick of the Bones, those Pillars of the Body. And how artificially do we find them made, how curiously placed from the Head to Foot ! The Vertebrae of the Neck and Back Bone (7) made short and complanated, and firmly braced with Mufcles and Tendons, for easy Incurvations of the Body, but withal for greater Strength, to fupport the :::: own Weight, together with other additional Weights it may have Occasion to bear. The Thigh-Bones and Legs long, and strong, and every way well fitted for the Motion of the Body. The Feet accommodated with a great Number of Bones, curiously and firmly tacked together (to which muft be added the miniftry of the Muscles (8) to anfwer all the Moti
tions of the Legs and Thighs, and at the fame time to keep the Body upright, and prevent it’s falling, by readily affifting against every Vacillation thereof, and with easy and ready Touches keeping the Line of Innixion, and Center of Gravity in due Place and Posture (9). - And as the Bones are admirably adapted to prop, fo all the Parts of the Body are as incomparably placed to poise it. Not one fide too heavy for the other, but all in nice Equipoife : the Shoulders, Arms, and Side æquilibrated on one Part ; on the other Part the Vifcera of the Belly counterpoifed with the Weight of the Scapular part, and that useful Cufhion of Flesh behind.
And laftly, to all this we may add the wonder
ful Concurrence, and Miniftry of the prodigious Numberand Variety of Muscles, placed throughout the Body for this Service: that they should fo readily anfwer to every Posture, and comply with every Motion thereof, without any previous
the Bottom of the Foot, in the Form of a St. Andrew's Crofs, to incline the leffer Toes towards the great One, and the great One towards the leffer. The sborf Flexori are chiefly concerned in drawing the Toes towards the Heel. The Tranfverfalis Pedis draws the Outfides of the Foot towards each other ; and by being inferted into one of the Sefamoid Bones of the great Toe, diverts the Power of the Abdułłor Mufele (falfly fo called) and makes it become a Flexor And laftly, the Peroneus longus runs round the outer Ankle, and obliquely forwards cross the bottom of the Foot, and at once helps to extend the Tarfus, to conftrist the Foot, and to dire& the Power of the other Extenfors towards the Ball of the great Toe., Hence the Lofs of the Great Toe, is more than of all the other Toes. See alfo Mr. Cowper's Anat. Tab. 28. &c. . . (9) It is very well worth while to compare here what Borelli faith de motu Animal. Par. 1. cap. 18. de fiatione Animal. Prop. 132, &c. to which I refer the Reader, it being tog long to recite here, - |- - (19)
-- - - - - - - - - - - - Of the F i G u R E and SH Á P E of Man's B o D f, . . . . . . . . : : : : : : : : : : , - HE Figure and fhape of Man's :; is the J - most commodious that could possibly be invented for fuch an Animal; the molt agreeable to his Motion, to his Labours, and all his Occafions. For had he been a Rational Reptile, he could not have moved from Place to Place fast enough for his Bufiness, nor indeed have done any almost. Had he been a Rational Quádrupedé, among other things, he had loft the Benefit of his Hands, those nobiếİnftruments of the most useful Performances of the Body. Had he been made a Bird, befides many other great, Inconveveniençes, thofe before mentioned of his Flying
would have been fomie. In a word, , any other
Šhape of Body, but that which the Allwife Creator hath given Mah, would have been as incommodious, as aný Posture but that of Erećt : it would havé renderedhim more helpless, or have put it in his Power to have been more pernici
Pleafures, or Conveniences, which his prefent Figure capacitates him for.
C H A P. iv. | Of the STAT U R e and Siz e of Man's BODY.
A S in the Figure, fo in the Stature and Size of
Man’s Body, we have another manifest Indication of excellent Defign: Not too Pygmean (1), nor too Gigantick (2), either of which Sizes would in fome particular or other, have
or to the rest of his Fellow-Creatures. Toó Pygmean would have rendered him too puny a Lord of the Creation, too impotent and unfit to manage the inferiour Creatures, would have ex
posed him to the Affaults of the weakeft Animals,
to the ravening Appetite of voracious Birds, and have put him in the Way, and endangered his being trodden in the Dirt by the larger Animals. He would have been also too weak for his Bufinefs, unable to carry Burdens, and in a word, to cerns. - |- |And on the other hand, had Man’s Body been made too monftrously strong, too enormously - - - · · Gigan
(1) What is here urged about the Size of Man's Body,
may anfwer one of Lucretius’s Reafons why Nil ex nihilo gignitur. His Argument is - v Denique cur Homines tantos natura parare | Non potuit, pedibus qui pontum per vada possent
Transire, & magnos manibus divellere monteis ?
- Lucret. L. I Car. 2oo.
(2) Haud facile ft ut qui/quam &o ingentes corporis vires,&o
ngenium subtile habeat. Diodor. Sic, L, 17.
- | \ (3)
tranfact the greater part of his Labours and Con