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$$$$8N taking a View of this Part of the AniI : mal World, fo far as the Strućture of KĚ their Bodies is conformable to that of Man, I shall país them by, and only take notice of fome Peculiarities in them, which are plain Indications of Defign, and the Divine Super-intendence and Management. And, I, The moft visible apparent Variation is the Prone Posture of their Body. Concerning which, I shall take notice only of Two Things, the Parts ministring thereto; and the Ufe and Benefit thereef. I. As for the Parts, tis observăble, that in all thefe Creatures, the Legs are made exaćtly conformable to this Posture, as thofề in Man are to his ereći Posture: And what is farther observable alfo, is that the Legs and Feet are always admirably fuited to the Motion and Exercifes of each Animal: In fome they are made for Strength only, to fupport a vaft unweildy Body (I); in others * - - - they 4- - -, !
(1) The Elephant being a Creature of prodigious Weight, the largest of all Animals; Pliny faith, hath its Legs accordingly made of an immenfe Strength, like Pillars, rather than ter, 2 *
they are made for Agility and Swiftnefs (2), in fome they are made for only Walking and Running, in others for that, and Swimming too (3); in others for Walking and Digging (4); and in others for Walking and Flying (5): In fome they are made more lax and weak, for the plainer Lands; in others rigid, ftiff, and lefs flexible (6),
(2) Deer, Hares, and other Creatures, remarkable for Swiftnefs, have their Legs accordingly flender, but withal strong, and every way adapted to their Swiftness.
(3) Thus the Feet of the oiter are made, the Toes being all conjoyned with Membranes, as the Feet of Geefe and Ducks are. And in Swimming, it is observable, that when the Foot goes forward in the Water, the Toes are close; but when backward, they are spread out, whereby they more forcibly ftrike the water, and drive themfelves forward. The fame may be observed also in Ducks and Geefe,
Of the Cafor or Beaver, the French Academifts fay, The Strusture of the Feet was very extraordinary, and fufficiently demonstrated, that Nature hath defigned this Animal to live in the Water, as well as upon Land. For although it bad Four Feet, like Terrestrial Animals, yet the hindmoff feemed more proper to fwim than walk with, the Five Toes of which they were compos’d, being joined together like those of a Goofe by a Membrane, which ferves this Animal to fwim with. But the Fore-ones were made otherwife; for there was no Membrane which held those Toes joined together : And this was requifite for the Conveniency of this Animal, which useth them as Hands like a Squirrel, when he eats. Memoirs for a Nat. Hist. of Animals, pag. 84.
(4) The Mole's Feet are a remarkable Infance.
(;) The Wings of the Bat are a prodigious Deviation from Nature's ordinary way. So ’tis in the Virginian Squirrel, whose Skin is extended between the Fore-Legs and its Body. :
(6) Of the Legs of the Elk, the French Academists fay, Although fome Authors report, that there are Elks in Mofcovia, whose Legs are jointiefs ; there , is great Probability, that ibis opinion is foundeá on what is reported of those Elks of Moscovia, as well as of Cæsar’s Alce, and Pliny's . Machlis, that they bave Legs so stiff and inflexible, that they do run :
for traverfing the Ice, and dangerous Precipices of the high Mountains (7); in fome they are shod with tough and hard Hoofs, fome whole, fome cleft; in others with only a callous Skin. In which latter, ’tis observable that the Feet are composed of Toes, fome short for bare going; fome long to fupply the Place of a Hand (8); fome armed : long and strong Talons, to catch, hold, and tear the Prey; fome fenced only with short Nails, to confirm the Steps in Running and Walking. . . - * 2. As the Posture of Man’s Body is the fittefi for a Rational Animal, fo is the Prone Posture of Quadrupeds the most ufeful and beneficial to themfelves, as also moft ferviceable to Man. For they are hereby better made for their gathering their Food, to pursue their Prey, to leap, to climb, to fwim, to guard themfelves againft their Enemies, and in a word, to do whatever may be of principal Ufe to themfelves; as alfo they are hereby rendered more ufeful and ferviceable to Man, for carrying his Burdens, for tilling his Ground, yea, even for his Sports and Diverfions. And
Jee without flipping; which is a Way that is reported that they have to fave themselves from the Wolves, &c. ibid. p. 108.
(7) The common tame Goat (whose Habitation is generally Mountains and Rocks, and who delighteth to walk on the Tops of Pales, Houses, &c. and to take great and feemingly dangerous Leaps). I have observ'd, hath the Joints of the Legs very ftiff and strong, the Hoof hollow underneath, and its Edges fharp. The like, I doubt not, is to be found in the Wild Goat, confidering what Dr. Scheuchzer hath faid of its climbing the moft dangerous Craggs of the Alps, and the Manner of their
hunting it. vid. Iter. Alpin. 3. p. 9. (8) Thus in Apes and Minkeys, in the Beaver before, and
divers others. * (r)
Chap. I- The Posture, &c. 319
And now I might here add a Survey of the excellent Contrivances of the Parts ministring to this Posture of the Four-footed Animals, the admirable Structure of the Bones (9), the Joints and Muscles s their various Sizes and Strength ; their commodious Lodgment and Situation, the nice Æquipoife of the Body, with a great deal more to the fame purpofe. But I fhould be tedious to infift minutely upon fuch Particulars, and befides, I have given a Touch upon thefe kinds of Things, when I fpake of Man.
Paffing by therefore many Things of this Kind, that might deferve Remark, I shall only confider fome of the Parts of Quadrupeds, differing from what is found in Man (Ho), and which are manifeft Works of Defign.
C H A P. II. Of the Heads of Qu A or v p E ps. ** - . , ? · [ T is remarkable, that in Man, the Head is
of one fingular Form; in the Four-footed Race,
(9) It is a fingular Provifion Nature hath made for the Strength of the Lion, if that be true, which Galen faith is reported of its Bones being not hollow (as in other Animals) but folid. Which Report he thus far çonfirms, that most of the Bones are fo; and that those in the Legs, and fome other Parts, have only a fmall and obscure Cavity in them. Vid. Galen, de Uf. Part. L. I 1. c. 18. |- |(1o). These sorts of Differences in the Mechanifin of Animals, upon the score of the Position of their Bodies, occur fo often, thar it would be no mean Service to Anatomy–- if any one would give us a History of those Variations of the Parts of Animals, which spring from the different Postures of their Bodier. Drake Anat. V. I, B, I. C, 17. - |- « ) ~ 1
Race, as various as their Species. In fome fquare and large, fuitable to their flow Motion, Food, and Abode ; in other lefs, flender, and sharp, agreeable to their fwifter Motion, or to make their Way to their Food (1), or Habitation under Ground (2). But paffing by a great many Obfervations that might be made of this kind, I shall ftop a little at the Brain, as the moft confiderable Part of this part of the Body, being the great Inftrument of Life and Motion in Quadrupeds, as ’tis in Man of that, as also in all Probability the chief Seat of his immortal Soul. And accordingly it is a remarkable Difference, that in Man the Brain is large, affording Substance and Room for fo noble a Gueft; whereas in Quadrupeds, it is but finall. And another Thing no lefs reinarkable, is the Situation of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum, or the greater or leffer Brain, which I shall give in the Words of one of the moft exaćt Anatomifts we have of that Part (3): “ Since, “ faith he, God hath, given to Man a lofty “ Countenance, to behold the Heavens, and “ hath also feated an immortal Soul in the Brain, “ capable of the Contemplation of heavenly - “ Things ;
(1) Thus Swine, for Infance, who dig in the Earth for Roots and other Food, have their Neck, and all Parts of their Head very well adapted to that Service. Their Neck short, brawny, and strong; their Eyes fet pretty high out of the way; their Snout long; their Nofe callous and ftrong; and their Senfe of Smelling very accurate, to hunt out and diftinguish their Food in Mud, under Ground, and other the like Places where it lies concealed. (2) What hath been faid of Swine is no lefs, rather more remarkable in the Mole, whose Neck, Nofe, Eyes and Ears, ) i:all fitted in the niceft Manner to its subterraneous Way of 1İC. (3) Willis Cerebr. Anar, cap, 6. Cumque huic Deus os fublime dederit, &c.