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“-Things; therefore as his Face is erećt, fo the “ Brain is fet in an higher Place, namely, above “ the Cerebellum and all the o Senfories. But in “ Brutes, whose Face is prome towards the Earth, “ and whose Brain is incapable of Speculation, “the Cerebellum, (whose Bufiness it is to minifter “ to the Aétions and Funétions of the Pracordia, “the principal Office inthofe Creatures) in themis “a fituated in the higher Place, and the Cere“ brum lower. Also fome of the Organs of Senfë, “ as the Ears and Eyes, are placed, if not above “the Cerebrum, yet at leaft equalthereto. |Another Convenience in this Position of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum, the laft ingenious Anatomift (4) tells us is this, “ In thể Head of Man, “ faith he, the Bafe of the Brain and Cerebell, yea, “ of the whole Skull, is fèt parallel to the Horizon; “ by which Means there is the lefs Danger of the “ two Brains joggling, or flipping out of their “ Place. But in Quadrupeds, : Head hangs “ down, the Bafe of the Skull makes a right An“ gle with the Horizon, by which - Means the “ Ërain is undermoft, and the Cerebell upper“ moft; fo that one would be apt to imagine the “ Cerebell fhould not be fteady, but joggle out “ of its Place. To remedy which Inconvenience “ he tells us, And leaft the frequent Concuffions “ of the Cerebell should cause a Fainting, or “ diforderly Motion of the Spirits about the “ Precordia, therefore by the Artifice of Nature, “ fufficient Provision is made in all, by the “ dura Meninx clofely encompaffing the Cerebel. “lum ; befides which, it is (in f") ":
(4) İd. paulo post. În capite humanó cerebri S. Ce estelli, &c. - Y (;) “ with a strong bony Fence; and in others, as “the Hare, the Coney, and fuch leffer Quadru“ peds, a part of the Cerebellis on each fide fenced “ with the Os petrofum : So that by this double “ Stay, its whole Mafs is firmly contained within “the Skull. : F -, - ; : "
Befides thefe Peculiarities, I might take notice of divers other Things no lefs remarkable, as the Nilfitating Membrane of the Eye (5), the different Paflages of the Carotid. Arteries (6) through the
skull, their Branching into the Rete Mirabile (7), . . . . . : " ": . , , the –********–
- - : . . . . :::::: , ** * (5) See Book 4. Ch. 2. Note 33. . . . ::: ; , e
- - - * - (6) Arteria Carotis aliquanto # erius in homine quam in alio quovis animali, Calvariam ingreditur, fil. iuxta illud foramen, per quod finus lateralis in Venam iugularem defiturus cranio elabitur; nam in cæteris hæc arteria fub extremitate, feu procesu acuto offis petrofi, inter cranium emergit: verum in capite humano, eadem, ambage longiori circumdusta (ut finguinis torrens, priusqvam ad cerebri oram appellit, frasto impetu, lenius, & placidium fluat) prope specum ab ingressu fimus lateralis fatium, Calvarie hafin attingit; – & in majorem cautelam, tunita insupér ascititia craffiore investitur. And fo he goes on to fhew the Conveniency of this Guard the Artery hath, ; and its Paffage to the Brain, and then faith, si hujusmodi conformationis ratio inquiritur, facile occurrit, in capite humano, abi gemerofi affestus, 3 magni animorum impetus ac ardores excitantur, fanguinis in Ceretri oras åppulsum debere effe liberum & expeditum, &c. Atque hoc quidem respettu differt Homo a plerisque Brutis, quibus, Arteria in mille furculos divisa, ne fanguinen pleniore alteo, aut citatiore, quam par est, curfu, ad cerebrum evehat, Plexus Retiformes constituit, quibus mempe efficitur, út fanguis tardi admodum, lenique G equabili fere fillicidio, in cerebram illabatur. And then he goes on fo give a farther Account of this Artery, and the Rete mirabile în divers Creatures.
willis ibid. cap. 8. - - -(7) Galen thinks the Rete mirabile is for concoĉting and elaborating the Animal Spirits, as the Epididymides, [the Convolutions upatei:A2; staixos] are for elaborating the Seed. De Of Part. L. 9. c. 4. This Rete is much more confpicuous in Beafts than Man; and as "Dr. Willis well judges, ferves, 1. To bridle the too rapid Incurfion of the Blood * 1ntO"
the different Magnitude of the Nates, and fòme other Parts of the Brain in Beasts, quite different from what it is in Man: But the Touches already #:: may be Instances sufficient to prevent my eing tedious in inlarging upon thefe admirable : of God. - , , " -- C - - - |
- : ; ::: :,:: :, :, :, . . . " c H A ofi. Necks foga prv:#E: F: Head: paß we to the Neck, no principal Part of the Body, but yet a good Infiance of the Creator’s Wisdom and Design, inafmuch as in Man it is short, agreeable to thế Erection of his Body; but in the Four-footed Tribe it is long, anfwerable to the Length of the Legs (i); and in fome of thefe long, and lefs |- - -*- ; -' |- · ··· ftrong,
\ - * a * - , : - - - · * * *. - into the Brain of those Creatures, whose Heads hang down much. 4. To separate fome of the superduous ferous Parts of the Bloođ; and fend them to the Salivai Glands, before the Blood ențers the Brain of thofé Animals, whose Blood is naturally of a watery Constitution. 3. To obviate any Obstructions, that may happen in the Arteries, by giving a free Paffige through other Veffels, when fame are ftopped. |- . In Quadrupeds, as the Carotid Arteries , are branched into. the Rete mirabile, for the bridling the too rapid Current of the Blood into the Brain ; so the Vertebral Arteries, are, near their Entrance into the Skull, bent into an, acuter Anr. #: in Man, which is a wife Provision, for the fame urpose. . . . . . : , ; :, .
(1) It is very remarkable, that in all the Species of Qua: drupeds, this Equality holds, except only the Elephant; and that there should be a fufficient fpecial Provifion made for that Creature, by its Probs is or funk. A Member fo admirably contrived, fo curiously wrought, and , with fo great . .
Agility and Reidineß, apr: by that unweild y Crea-z – [VIIe
strong, ferving to carry the Mouth to the Ground; in others shorter, brawny and strong, ferving to dig, and heave up great Burdesns (2): _ · But that which deferves especial Remark, is that peculiar Provifion made in the Necks of all, er moft granivorous Buadrupeds, for the perpetual holding down their Head in gathering their Food, by that ftrong tendinous and infensible Aponeurofs, or : (3) braced from the Head to the Middle of the Back. By which means the Head, although heavy, may be long held down withoüt any Labour, Pain, or Uneafiness to the Muscles of the Neck, that would otherwife be earied by bing fò long put upon the Stretch.
ture to all its feveral Occasions, that I take it to be a manifest Infance of the Creator's Workmanship ; see its Anatomy in Dr. A. Moulen’s Anat. of the Elephant, p. 33. As also in Mr. Blair's Account in Phil. Tranf. No. 326. - Aliorum ea ef humilitas ut cibum terrefrem rostris facile conzingant. Quæ autem altiora funt, ut Anferes, ut Cygni, ut Grues, ut Cameli, adjuvantur proceritate collrum. Manus etiam data Elephantis, quia propter magnitudinem corporis difficiles aditus habebant ad pafture. Cic. de. N. D. L. 2. c. : Quod iis animalibus quæ pedes habent ffos in digitos, Collam brevius fit fiftum, quam ut per ipsum cibum ori admovere queant : iis vero que ungulas habent solidas, aut bifidas, longius, ut prona atque inclinantia fasci queant. Quî id etiam opus non fit Artificis utilitatis memoris ? Ad hæc quod Grues ac Ciconie, cum crura haberent longiora, ob eam causam Rostrum etiam magnum, & Gollum longius habuerint. Pisces autem neque Collum penitus habuere, utpote, qui neque crura habent. Quo patio non id etiam ef admirandum ? Galen. - de Uf part. L. I 1. c. 8.
(2) As in Moles and Swine, in Ch. 2. Note 1. : (3) Called the Whiteleather, Fackwar, Taxwax, and Fixfax. - . |- - * * , , . . . . . . . . . |. . . . . . . . . . . . . (F)
ROM the Neck, let us descend to the StaIl mach, a Part, as of absolute Neceffity to the Being, and Well-being of Animals, fo is in the fèveral Species of Quadrupeds fized, contrived, and made with the utmoft Variety and Art. (1) What Artift, what Being, but the infinite Confervator of the World, could fo well adapt; every Food to all the feveral Kinds of thofě grand Devourers of it! Who could fo well fute their Stomachs to the Reception and Digestion thereof; one kind of Stomach to the Carnívorous, another to the Herbaceous Animals ; one fitted to digeft by bare Mastication ; and a whole fet of Stomachs in others, to digeft with the Help of Rumination! Which laft Aćt, together with the Apparatus for that Service, is fo peculiar, and withal fo curious an Artifice of Nature, that it might juftly deferve a more particular Enquiry ; but having formerly mentioned it (2), and left I should be too tedious, I shall pafs it by.
(1) The pecular contrivance and Make of the Dromsday's or Camel's Stomach, is very remarkable, which I will give
from the Parifian Anatomists : At the Top of the Second [of the .
4 Ventricles], there were feveral fquare Holes, which were the Orifices of about 3o Cavities, made like Sacks placed between
the two Membranes, which do compose the subflance of this .