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ble Work of God (1), and of infinite Ufè (2) to

affording Food to fuch as can terrebrate, and make Way into it by their Vermicular Faculty ; and the next Vegetable being Food to others that can climb and reach (I 1), or but crawl to it.

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C H A P. II.
Of the Inhabitants of the WAT E R s.

I Have now gome through that Part of the Ania . A mal World, which I proposed to furvey, the Animals inhabiting the Land. |

As to the other Part of the Terraqueous Globe,

the Waters, and the Inhabitants thereof, not ha

ving Time at present to finish what I have begun on that large Subjećt, I shall be forced to quit it for the prefent, altho’ we have there as ample and glorious a Scene of the Infinite Creator’s Power and Art, as hath been already fet forth on the dry Land. For the Waters themfelves are an admira


in Philos. Trans. No. 291, I have faid, it is in all probability Earth made of rotted Roots and Plants, and fuch like nutritive Things, not pure Earth. And the e is farther Reason for it, use worms will drag the Leaves of Trees into their Holes. (I 1) Snails might : in Danger of wanting Food, if they were . to live only upon fuch tender Plants as are near the Ground, within their : only; to impower them therefore to extend their Pursuits faither, they are enabled by the Means mentioned in Note 4. to fick unto, and creep up Walls and Ve; getables at their Pleasure. (1) Befides their absolute Necessity, and gréat tife to the World, there are feveral Topics, from whence the Waters may be demonstrated to be God’s work; as, the creating fo vaft á

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givingit Bounds; the Méthods of keeping it fweet and clean, by

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that Part of the Globe already furveyed; and the prodigious Variety (3), and Multitudes of curious and wonderful Things observable in its Inhabitants of all Sorts, are an inexhaustible Scene of the Creator’s Wifdom and Power. The vaft Bulk of fome (4), and prodigious Minutenefs of others (5), together with the incomparable Contrivance and Strućture of the Bodies (6) of all ; the Provisions and Supplies of Food afforded to fuch an :


king the waters useful to the Vegetation of Plants, and for Food to Ânimals, by the noble Methods offweetning them ; and many, other Things befides, which are infifted on in that Part of my Survey. :plio having named divers Mirabilia Aquarum, to fhew their Power; then proceeds to their uses, viz. Eadem cadentes omnium terra nafcentium causa fiunt, prorsus mirabili natura, fiquis velit reputare, ut fruges gignantur, arbores fruticesque vivant, in cælum migrare aquão, animamque herbis vitalem inde deferre : justa confessione, omnes terræ quoque vires aquarum beneficii. Quapropter ante omnia ipsarum potentiæ exempla ponemus. Cuntias enim quis mortalium enumerare queat? And then he goes on with an Enumeration of fome Waters famed for :: medicinal, or fome other unufual Quality. Flin. L. 31. c. 1, & 2. (2) Pliny reckons 176 Kinds in the Waters, whose Names may be met with in his L-32. c. 11, but he is short in-his Account. (4) Pliny, L. 9. c. 3. faith, that in the Indian Sea there are Balenæ quaternim iugerum (i. e. 96o Feet) Priftes 2co cubitorum (i. e. goo Feet ). And L. 32. c. 1. he mentions Whales 6oo Footlong, and 36o broad, that came into a River of Arabia. If the Reader hath a mind, he may fee his Reafon Why the largeft Animals are bred in the Sea. L. 9. c. 2. (5) As the largeft, so the moft minute Animals are bred in the Waters, as those in Pepper water; and fuch as make the green Scutn on the Waters, or make them feem as if Green, and many others. See B. 4. Ch. I 1. N. I 3, 14. (6) It might be here shewn that the Bodies of all the feveral • Inhabitants of the Waters are the beft cdntrived and fuited to that Place and Bufiness in the waters, which is proper for them; that particularly their Bodies are cloathed and guarded, in the beft Manner, with Scales, or Shells, &c. fuitable to the Place they are to refide in, the Dangers they may there be exposed unto, and the Motion and Business they are there to pei: :

rable Company of Eaters, and that in an Element, unlikely one would think, to afford any great Storé of Supplies (7); the Bufiness of Refpiration performed in a Way fo diffèrent from, but equivalent to what is in Land Animals (8); the Adjustment of the Organs of Wifion (9) to that Element in which the Animal liveth; the Poife (1o), the Sup, sí s port That the Center of Gravity (of great Confideration in that fluid Element) is always placed in the fi test Part of the Body : That the Shape of their Bodies (especially the more fwift) is the most commodious for making way : the waters, and most agreeable to Geometrical Rules ; and many other Matters befides would deferve a Place here, were they not too long for Notes, and that I shall anticipate what will be more proper for another Place, and more accurately treated of there. (7) See before Book 4 Ch. II. . . . . . . . . . . . . * 8) Galen was aware of the Respiration of Fishes by their Branchis, For having fid, that Fishes have no Qccasion of a Voice, reither respire throughthe Mouth as Land Animals do, he faith, Sed earum, quas Branthias nuncupamus, construstio, ipsis vice Pulmonis est. cum enim crebris ac tenuibus foraminibus fint # anchie ha interceptæ, aeri quidem vaporiperviis, subtilioribué tarnen quam pro mole aquæ ; hanc quidem extra répellunt, illa autem prompte intromittuni. Galen. de Ulf Part. L. 6. c. 9. So alfo Pliny held, that Fishes respired by their Gills; but héfaith Aristotle was of a different Opinion. Plin. L. 9. c. 7, Atid fo Aristotle feems to be in his Hist. Animal. L. 3. c 2. and in other Places. And I may add our famous, Dr. Needhani : See his De form. Fætu, Ch. 6. and Anfwer to Severinus. - . . . . . (9) A protuberant Eye would have been înconvenient for Fishes, by hindring their Motion in fo dense a Medium as Water is; or elfe their brushing through fo thick a Médium would have been apt to wear, and prejudice their Eyes. Therefore their Cornea is flat. To make amends for which, as alfo for the Refraćtion of Water, ɖifferent from that of the Air, the wife Contriver of the Eye, hath made the Crystalline sphærical in Fishes, which in Animals, living in the Air, is Lenticular, and more flat. (1o) As I have fhewéa before, that the Bodies of Birds are nicely poised to swim in the Air : fo are those of Fishes for the water, ev. ry Part of the Body being duly balanced, and the Center of Gravity (as I faid in ::::: 6.) accurately fixed. And to prevent Vacillation, fome #:: Fins ferve, particularly the: - * # å *t

port (11), the Motion of the Body (12), forwards with great Swiftnefs, and upwards and downwards, with great Readiness and Agility, and all without Feet and Hands, and ten thousand Things befides; all thefe Things, Ifay, do lay before us fo various, fo glorious, and withal fo inexhaustible a Scene of the Divine Power, Wisdom and Goodnefs, that it would be in vain to engage my felf in fo large a Province, without allotting as much Time and Pains to it, as the preceding Survey hath coft me. Paffing by therefore that Part of our Globe, I shall only fay fomewhat very briefly concerning the Infensitive Creatures, particularly those of the Wegetable Kingdom, and fo conclude this Survey.

of the Belly; as Borelli proved by cutting off the Belly-fins, which caused the Fish to reel to the right and left hand, and render'd it unableto ftand fteadily in an upright Posture. (11) To enable the Fish to abide at the Top, or Bottom, or any other Part of the Waters, the Air-Bladder is given to moft Fishes, which as ’tis more full or empty, makes the Body more or leß buoyant. (12 The Tail is the grand Inftrument of the Motion of the Body ; not the Fins, as fome imagine. For which reafon, Fishes are more musculous and ftrong in that Part, than in all the reft of their Body, according asit is in the motive Parts of all Animals, in the pećtoral Muscles of Birds, the Thighs of Man, órc. If the Reader hath a mind to fee the admirable Method, how Fishes row themselves by their Tail and other Curiofities relating to their swimming, I shall refer him to Borelli de mot. Anim. Part. 1, ch 23. particularly to Prop. 213.

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fick (2), fome for Food, fome for Pleasure; yea, the

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$2$%$HE Vegetable Kingdom, although an in3$ T : feriour Branch of the Creation, exhibits };&## fou: fuch an ample Scene of the Creator’s Contrivance, Curiofity, and Art, that I much rather chufe to fhew what might be faid, than engage too far in Particulars. . I might infift upon the great Variety there is, both of Trees and Plants provided for all Ages, and for every Ufe and Occafion of the World { ); fome for Building, for Tools and Utenfils of every kind ; fome : fòme foft; fome tough and ftrong, fome brittle ; fome long and tall, fome short and low; fomethick and large, fome fmall and flender; fome for Phy


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(1) The fifth Book of Theophrastus’s Hist. Plant. may be here confulted: where he gives ample Instances of the various Constitutions and Ufes of Trees, in various works, Ge. See also before B. 4 ch. 13. Note I. (2) : quoque berbis inferuit [Natura] remedia : quippe cum medicinas dederit etiam acculeatis ––in quibus ipfis providentiam Naturæ fatis admirari amplestique non est. ––Inde excogitavit aliquas aspelfu hispidas, tačiu truces, ut tantum non vocem ipfius fingentis illat, rationemque reddentis exaudire videamur, ne fe depafat avida Quadrupes, me procaces manum rapiant, ne neglesia Kestigia obterant, ne infidens Ales infringat : his muniendo Aculeis, telisque armando, remediis ut tuta ac falva fint. Ita hoc quoque quod in iis odimus, hominum causa excogitàtum est. Plin. N. H. L. 22.

c. 6, D d 3 Are

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