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The Place, in which they live and aćt. |. The Balance of their Numbers. . Their Food. - . Their Cloathing. . Their Houses, Nefis, or Habitations. . Their Methods of Self-Prefervation. Io. Their Generation, and Confervation of their Species by that means.
C H A P. I.
T H E firft Thing to be confidered in common to all the Sensitive Creatures, is their faculty of Seeing, Hearing, Smelling, Tysting, and Feeling; and the Organs ministring to thefe five Senses, together with the exaćt Accommodation of those Senses and their Organs to the State and Make of every Tribe of Animals (2). The Confideration of which Particulars alone, were there no other Demonftrations of God, is abundantly fufficient to evince the infinite Wifdom, Power and Goodness of the great Creator. For who can but stand amazed at the Glories of these Works ; at the admirable Artifice of them, and at their noble Ufe
and Performances ! For fuppofe an Animal, as fuch, had Breath and Life, and could move it felf hither and thither; yet how could it know whither to go, what it was about, where to find its Food, how to
avoid thousands of Dangers (3), without Sight !
C H A P. II.
OR our clearer proceeding in the Confiderati
F on of this noble Part (I), and understanding its CEconomy, I shall confider,
1. The Form of the Eye.
2. Its Situation in the Body.
3. Its Motions.
4. Its Size.
5. Its Number.
6. Its Parts. - |
7. The Guard and Security Nature hath provided for this fo ufeful a Part.
As this eminent Part hath not been pretermitted by Authors, that have made it their particular Defign and Bufiness to fpeak of the Works of God s fo divers of the aforefaid Particulars have been touched upon by them. And therefore I shall take in as little as possible of what they have faid, and as near
(1.) In Diffećłionibus anatomicis vix aliquid admirabilibus, aut artificiosus, frusturâ Oculi humani, meo quidem iudicio, occurrit; ut merito, per excellentiam, Creatoris appelletur Miraculum. Gul. Fabr. Hildan. Cent. 2. Observ. 1. *
So likewife that accurate Surveyor of the Eye, Dr. Briggs, whose Ophthalmography I have met with fince my penning this part of my Survey. His Charafter of this curious piece of God's Work is, Inter precipuas corporis animati partes, que magni conditoris nostri fapientiam oftendunt, nulla fanè reperitur, que majori pompâ elucet quam ipfe 0culus, aut que elegantiori formå concinnatur. Deum enim alie partes vel minori fatellitio fipantur, vel in tantam venustatem haud assurgunt 3 0celli peculiarem honorem & decus à fupremo Numine aflatum referunt, & nunquam non fupende fue Potentie charasteres representant. Nulla fanè pars tam divino
as I can, mention chiefly what they have omitted. And, * 1. For the Form of the Eye , which is for the most part Globous, or fomewhat of the sphæroidal form; Which is far the most commodious optical Form, as being fitteft to contain the Humours within, and to receive the Images of Objećts from without (2). Wasit a Cube, or of any multangular Form, fome of its Parts would lie too far off (3), and fome too nigh those lenticular Humours, which by their Refraćtions caufe Vision. But by means of the Form before-mentioned, the Humours of the Eye are commodiously laid together, to perform
(2) It is a good Reason Frier Bacon affigns for the Sphæricity of the Eye : Nam fi effet plane figure, fpecies rei majoris oculo non pof. fet cadere perpendiculariter fuper eum. Cum ergo 0culus videt magna corpora, ut ferè quartam cæli uno aspettu, manifestum est, quod non potest effe plane figure, nec alicujus niß spherice, quoniam fuperfpheram parvam possunt cadere perpendiculares infinite, que à magno corpore veniunt, er tendunt in centrum Sphere : Et fe magnum corpu poteß ab oculo parvo videri. For the Demonstration of of which he hath givenus a Figure. Rog. Bacon, Perspett. Distiast.
. Cab. a.
4 :Briggs faith, Pars antica, (fove Cornea,) convexiorest pofiica : hâc enim ratione radii meliùs in paupillam detorquentur, & 6culi fundus ex alterâ parte in majorem (propter imagines rerum ibidem delineandos) expanditur. Ibid. §. 2.
(3) Suppose the Eye had the Retina, or back part flat for the Reception of the Images, as in Fig. I. ABA: it is manifest, that if the Extremes of the Image AA were at a due focal distance, the middle B would be too nigh the Crystalline, and confequently appear confused and dim; but all parts of the Retina lying at a due focal distance from the Crystalline, as at ACA, therefore the Image painted thereon is feen distinét and clear, Thus in a dark Room, with a Lens at a hole in the Window, (which Sturmius calls his Artificial Eye, in his Exercit. Acad. one of which he had made for his Pupils, to run any where on Wheels. In this Room, I fay, if the Paper that receives the Images be too nigh, or too far off the Lens, the Image will be confused and dim; but in the Focus of the Glafs, distinct, clear, and a pleasant Sight.
their Office of Refraćtion; and the Retina, and every other part of that little darkned Cell, is neatly adapted regularly to receive the Images from without, and to convey them accordingly to the common Senfory in the Brain. . . To this we may add the aptitude of this Figure to the Motion of the Eye. For it is neceflary for the Eye to move this way, and that way, in order to adjuft it felf to the Objećts it would view, fo by this Figure it is well prepared for fuch Motions, fo that it can with great Facility and Dexterity direći it felfas occasion requires. . . . And as the Figure, fò no lefs commodious is, 2. The Situation of the Eye, namely in the Head (4), the moft erećt, eminent Part of the Body, near the most fensible, vital Part, the Brain. By its Eminence in the Body, it is prepared to take in the more (5) Objećłs. And by its Situation in the Head, befides its Proximity to the Brain, it is in the most convenient Place for Defence and Security. In the Hands, it might indeed (in Man) be rendered more eminent than the Head, and be turned about here and there at pleasure. But then it would be exposed to many Injuries in that aćtive Part, and the Hands (6) rendered a lefs aćtive and
(4) Blemmpis traduntur capita abesse, ore er oculis pestori affixis. Piin. Nat. Hift. l. 5. c. 8. Occidentem verfus quosdam fine cervice Oculos in humeris habentes. Ib. l. 7. c. 2. s From thefe, and other fuch like Fables, in this last cited Chapter of Pliny, no doubt our famous Romancer Sir 7. Mandevile, had his Romantick Stories, related in his Travels.
(5) See Book V. chap. 2. Note 5. |-
(6) Galen deserves to be here consulted, who in his Book De Ufu Partium, from many confiderations of the Hand, fuch as what is here mentioned, as also its Strusture, Site and Ufe, largely proves and reflests upon the Wisdom and Providence of the : triver and Maker of that Part. - - , -. .