A History of the French Language
This well-established and popular book provides students with all the linguistic background they need for studying any period of French literature. For the second edition the text has been revised and updated throughout, and the two final chapters on contemporary French, and its position as a world language, have been completely rewritten. Starting with a brief description of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Gaul, and the earliest recorded forms of French, Peter Rickard traces the development of the language through the later Middle Ages and Renaissance to show how it became standardized in a near modern form in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
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adjectives adverb already attested borrowed calque changes classical conjugation considerable consonants decasyllables declension dialect dictionary Dictionnaire diphthong earlier edition English Estienne fact feminine fifteenth final unstressed forms France Francien French language Gallo-Romans Gaul Gaulish Germanic grammar grammarians Greek hence ╬le-de-France imperfect subjunctive indicative infinitive influence Italian j’ai language of Paris langue franšaise large number later learned linguistic literary loan-words main clause masculine means Mid.F Mod.F modern neologisms nominative normally Normandy noun oblique Occitan official language ofthe organisation originally oxytons paroxytons participle past definite period phonetic Picard plural preceding preposition pronunciation proparoxytons prose Provenšal qu’il regional replaced Robert Estienne Roman scribe sentence seventeenth century singular sixteenth century sometimes Song of Roland speech spelling spoken language Strasbourg Oaths stressed subject pronouns subjunctive subordinate clauses substantives suffixes survived syllable syntax tense texts thirteenth century triphthongs usage Vaugelas verbs vernacular vocabulary vowel Vulgar Latin word-order writing written language