Light and Electron Microscopy

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, Oct 30, 1992 - Medical - 312 pages
2 Reviews
Optical and electron microscopes are often used effectively despite little knowledge of the relevant theory or even of how a particular type of microscope functions. Eventually however proper use interpretation of images and choices of specific applications demand an understanding of fundamental principles. This book describes the principles of operation of each type of microscope currently available and of use to biomedical and materials scientists explains the mechanisms of image formation (contrast and its enhancement) accounts for ultimate limits on the size of observable details (resolving power and resolution) and finally provides an account of Fourier optical theory. Principles behind the photographic methods used in microscopy are described and there is some discussion of image processing methods. Throughout the text emphasises the underlying similarity of all microscope systems and recognising that biologists may often be uncomfortable with mathematical approaches every effort has been made to present concepts verbally. Where mathematical treatment is indispensible the nature of its contribution is made explicit.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
definitions and brief history
2
13 Microscope design
4
14 Mathematical aspects
6
Light and electrons
7
22 Geometrical optics
10
23 Wave optics physical optics
12
24 Characteristics of wave motions
15
111 Phasecontrast principles
150
112 The phasecontrast microscope
152
113 The differentialinterferencecontrast DIC microscope
154
114 The modulationcontrast microscope MCM
158
115 Reflectioninterference microscopy
160
116 Interferometer microscopes
161
117 Quantitative intracellularmass measurements by interferometric microscopy
166
Polarizing microscopy
168

25 Limits of lightelectron parallelism
21
Wave interactions
23
32 Huygens principle
24
33 Resultant vibrations
25
34 Superposition of waves of different frequencies Fourier optics
29
35 Applications of Fourier theory to basic properties of radiation
36
Interference effects and diffraction patterns
39
42 Interference and diffraction
40
44 Diffraction patterns
43
45 Holography
49
Polarized light
51
52 Circularly and elliptically polarized light
52
53 Interactions of polarized light with oriented matter
56
54 Sources of planepolarized light
61
55 Polarizers analyzers and compensators
63
Lenses
65
62 Focusing properties of curved surfaces
66
63 Focal points focal lengths and focal planes
68
65 Magnification
71
67 Image location
73
69 Lens errors
79
Imaging microscopy and diffraction
88
73 Transforms and inverse transforms the optical diffractometer
91
74 Diffraction and reciprocal space
92
the phase problem
93
Contrast
95
82 Lightoptical contrast
97
83 Electronoptical contrast
100
84 Contrast transfer functions
112
85 Massthickness contrast
116
Resolution
118
92 Fourier optics and limiting resolution
119
93 Coherence properties and resolution
121
95 Numerical aperture and the immersion principle
126
96 Extension of the classical resolution limit
128
97 Conflicts between contrast and resolution
129
The light microscope
131
102 Magnification and calibration
139
103 Depths of field and focus for light microscopes
140
104 Alternative modes of optical microscopy
142
Imaging of phase objects
149
122 The polarizing microscope
169
123 Basic concepts of polarizing microscopy
170
124 Compensators
173
125 Biological polarizing microscopes
177
126 Measurements with the polarizing microscope
179
Prospects for biological xray microscopy
184
132 Xray sources
186
133 Types of xray microscopes
187
The conventional transmission electron microscope
192
142 Alternative operating modes
206
Scanning microscopes
212
152 Types of electron scanning microscopes
213
153 The SEM
214
154 The STEM
221
Practical aspects of electron microscopy
228
162 Depths of Field and focus and threedimensional structure
235
163 Determination of molecular weight
236
164 Operation of the electron microscope
238
The quest for ultimate electron microscopic resolution
247
172 Electron imaging
250
173 Image processing using Fourier analysis
253
174 The darkfield image
260
175 Ultimate resolution
264
Innovations in microscope development
270
183 The neutron microscope
271
186 Nuclearmagneticresonance microscopy
275
187 The acoustic microscope
276
188 Superresolving instruments and confocal systems
278
189 Videoenhanced light microscope systems
284
Photography
286
192 Formation of the latent image
287
193 Chemical processing
288
194 Properties of photographic emulsions
291
195 Basic features of color photography
296
Image location
298
B Sign conventions
300
F Raytracing equations for exact image location
301
Author index
303
Subject index
307
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