Technological Development in Industry: A Business-economic Survey and Analysis
This book surveys & analyses key aspects of the technological development process in manufacturing firms & industries. It covers the genesis of technical-product inventions & innovations; the impact of new technologies on jobs, firms, & industries; & major business-economic & other factors facilitating & hampering change. The findings of published research on the subject are reviewed; & detailed case studies presented of the introduction & utilization of new technologies in a wide range of firms in engineering, construction, food & drugs, textiles, petrochemicals, & other industries. Contents: 1. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDUSTRY: AN OVERVIEW Introduction* The sources of technological innovation* The impact of technology on industrial organization* Technology, society, & economic development* Technology & the growth & performance of manufacturing enterprises* The twenty-five firm survey* 2. THE ECONOMICS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTIntroduction: economic theories of innovation* The significance of market & firm size* Other economic influences on technological development & business growth* Economic aspects of business growth, performance, & technological development in engineering* The economic costs & benefits of new technologies* The twenty-five firm survey* 3. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT & ORGANIZATION (1): GENERALThe impact of technology on the organization of industrial firms* The impact of organization on industrial technological development* Organization & the general growth & performance of firms* "Lean" manufacturing: the Toyota production model* The twenty-five firm survey* 4. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT & ORGANIZATION (2): CHANGE MANAGEMENT, JOB SATISFACTION, & PRODUCTIVITY Theories & research: an overview* The twenty-five firm survey* Engineering* Textiles* Chemicals & petroleum* Ocean tankers* Civil engineering & construction* 5. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT & ORGANIZATION (3): TWENTY-FIVE COMPANY CASE STUDIESIn-depth analyses of firms in the engineering, civil engineering & construction, textiles, food & drugs, chemicals, & petroleum industries* 6. TRADE UNIONS & TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTIntroduction* Trade unions & new technologies in the engineering, textiles, petrochemicals, & civil engineering & construction industries* 7. THE POLITICAL & LEGAL ENVIRONMENT Introduction* Current concerns* Government impacts on the engineering, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, & textile industries* 8. EDUCATION, TRAINING, & TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction & overview* Attempts to encourage more school leavers & college graduates into manufacturing* Education, training, & technological development in the twenty-five firm survey* The cases of engineering, textiles, & chemicals* 9. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, THE LABOUR MARKET, & EMPLOYMENT Technological labour supplies & supply shortages* Salaries & other benefits in attracting, motivating, & retaining employees* The twenty-five firm survey* 10. FINANCE & INVESTMENT IN NEW TECHNOLOGYIntroduction: the contribution of investment to technological development* Investment in new technology in Britain* Banks, venture capitalists, & the stock market as sources of finance for new technology*
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and/or areas automation basic Britain British business-economic chemicals companies competition computerization considerable craft unions customers demand demarcation problems economic effects efficiency employees employment relations Engineering Employers Federation engineering firms enterprises equipment Factors Affecting factors of production finance firm's firm’s flexibility functions growth and performance handling higher important increased individual Industrial Systems Research innovation integration investment investors job enrichment job rotation job satisfaction labour market lean manufacturing Lewis F machine tools major managerial manufacturing firms materials Meanwhile mechanical modern Nonetheless organization organizational orientations overall personnel plant level private equity problems production operatives professional profits rates recent recruitment reduced relatively retraining roles sector shopfloor shortages significant significantly skills social socio-technical system specialist staff stock market structures supervisors supply Survey of Factors tasks technical change technical-production system techniques technological change technological development tended textile trade union traditional venture capital wage welding wider workers
Page 4 - Adaptive, problem-solving, temporary systems of diverse specialists, linked together by coordinating and task evaluating specialists in an organic flux— this is the organizational form that will gradually replace bureaucracy as we know it.
Page 3 - No ordinary involvement with a new idea provides the energy required to cope with the indifference and resistance that major technical change provokes. It is characteristic of champions of new developments that they identify with the idea as their own, and with its promotion as a cause, to a degree that goes far beyond the requirement of their job. In fact, many display persistence and courage of heroic quality.
Page 9 - s concept of the socio-technical system arose from the consideration that any production system requires both a technological organization — equipment and process layout — and a work organization — relating those who carry out the necessary tasks to each other. Technological demands limit the kind of work organization possible, but a work organization has social and psychological properties of its own that are independent of technology.