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smitten for our wickednesses," &c. I would ask you, Sir, is this Popery? Is not this the Gospel of Christ in its freeness and fulness? Is not this good tidings of great joy to all people ? and should we not wish that such a Service should be read audibly and impressively by the minister, and heard attentively and intelligently by the people. With the best wishes for the increasing success of

your valuable Magazine, I remain your's,

D. Y.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CHRISTIAN EXAMINER.

SIR-In reading that admirable work, “Horne's Introduction to the Study of the Scriptures," I have met in the second volume, p. 516, fourth edition, the following passage, which as I humbly deem it to be incorrect, I would wish to submit to your examination, as the work is, deservedly, in the hands of all our young Divines and Students in Divinity.

He says, on Genesis xlix. 10, “The general meaning of Moses may be, that a native lawgiver, or expounder of the law, teacher, or scribe, (intimating the ecclesiastical polity of the Jews,) should not be wanting to that people, until Shiloh, or the sent, (the Apostle, as St. Paul terms Jesus Christ, Heb. iii. 1,) come.'

The observations which I would make, refer to the latter part of this passage, viz. the meaning of the word Shiloh, which I am of opinion does not mean the “ Sent," but the Peacemaker," as being derived from sm, to be tranquil or secure, and not from nu, to send.

On this subject Bishop Newton, in the 4th chapter of his Dissertations on the Prophecies, has the following observations, “The Vulgar Latin translates it Qui mittendus est, He who is to be sent;” on which he gives this note: “ As if St. Jerome had read

, , , misit the mistake being easy, of 1, in place of 7; and again he says, I look upon

the word Shiloh to be derived from the word 5w, tranquillus, pacificus fuit,&c.

Again, on referring to Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon, the 5th Observation on the root 75w, he says, “ It is used as a noun masc. with a radical 77, 750, Shiloh, the giver of peace, tranquillity, or security, the Saviour, salvator, and occurs Genesis xlix. 10. And

. Again, on referring to Buxtorf,“ in voce nabw, tranquillum esse, Quiescere," he has the following derivative:"775w, m. Schilo, Quidam absolutum faciunt Sou Secundina: metonym. Fætus, Fili

Et cum Aff. o loco 1 ut sæpe, filius ejus Gen. xlix. 10. ejus Jehudæ, ex sterpe Jehudæ natus." And afterwards, “Vel 07 non

us.

est pronomen affix. et vocatur Messias kar '££oxnv Schilo, quasi Tranquillus, et eternæ tranquillitatis Author.” From the abovementioned references, I would humbly submit, that the opinion of the learned inclines to the interpretation of Shiloh signifying the “ peacemaker," or the Prince of Peace, (D150-1, Isaiah ix. 6,) rather than that it should be thought to signify “ the Sent."

Perhaps you may deem the above worthy of insertion as tending to ascertain the true meaning of this important epithet.

Your's,

W. B.

ON TYPES.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CHRISTIAN EXAMINER.

SIR,

-A striking difference of opinion exists among Commentatators as to what are, and what are not types. It is desirable that the reader of the Scriptures, and still more so that the preacher of them, should have definite and correct views upon the subject; which is universally allowed to be an important one. May I, then, propose the following questions, and beg a solution from some of your Correspondents, viz.-What is the meaning of the word type in the Scripture sense of it; and in what respect, or whether in any, a type differs from an emblem or a similitude ? Do the Scriptures give us sufficient warrant for determining the occasions upon which we may correctly apply the term ? Which are the typical persons, places, things, and events, mentioned in Scripture ?

BEDELL.

MILNER'S CHURCH HISTORY.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CHRISTIAN EXAMINER.

Sir-I transcribe the following passage from “ Milner's History of the Church of Christ,” with the hope that its insertion in your valuable Magazine may induce one of your correspondents to favour your readers with some observations upon it. It appears to suggest a subject of much interest and importance.

“ Mark was sister's son to Barnabas, the son of Mary, a pious woman of Jerusalem. He was probably brought up in Christianity from early life, and his conduct for some time gives credibility to an opinion, tolerably well confirmed by experience, that early converts, or those who have been religiously brought up, do not make that vigorous progress in divine things generally, which those do whose conversion has commenced after a life of much sin and vanity. Their views are apt to be faint, and their dispositions in religion languid and indolent.” Milner's History, Vol, i. p. 115.

Is it the case, Sir, that those who are brought up in the faith of Christ from early life are under a disadvantage wbich does not attach to those whose conversion has taken place after a long course of sin and vanity? Is it fair or correct to ascribe the faintness of their views and the languor of their dispositions in religion, to their early acquaintance with the Gospel of Christ ?

Mr. Milner's language appears to me to be calculated to discourage those who are labouring to bring up their children “from the days of their youth,” in the nurture and admonition of the Lord ; and as I am not acquained with any work in which the question is treated of, 1 write you these lines, in the hope of seeing the subject discussed in your pages, with that ability and talent which so pre-eminently characterise your publication.

L. W.

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS.

CAUSES OF THE FAILURE OF ROMISH MISSIONS.

(Continued from p. 432 of Vol. III.)

The penetrating Musselman, Acbar, must have received such stories with ineffable contempt: and we need not wonder, that their mission here utterly failed. If the Emperor had had any wish to hear the wonders of the Gospel, such a display of nonsense and depravity must have expelled the thought from his mind. A good taste must be disgusted, when he reads of the trumpery Gods of the classic ages: yet he feels little more than disgust. But what should we feel on beholding the Creator, JenoVAH SABARTH described as seeking by artifice to conceal from the Devil the place and time of the birth of Christ!! From the ludicrousness of the thought we might be tempted to indulge in jest --but the awful blasphemy of it deters us.

Our worthy Jesuit has hitherto been endeavouring to impress his readers with a deep sense of the wisdom and excellent contrivance manifest in all the preparations for the appearance of our Lord.

He proceeds to mention the appearance of the angel Gabriel to Mary ; but it would seem, that the historian was not satisfied with the conciseness of the sacred historians: or, perhaps be wished to shew, how much more he knew, than the four Evangelists together, with St. Peter and St. Paul to help them.

page 34 of the history we find, that “the Virgin was sitting “ retired in her house one day, and the prophetic promise in “ Isaiah of a Son to be born of a Virgin came into her mind. “ She felt an earnest desire to see that most happy virgin, and “ breathed a wish, that she might be the meanest of her servants. “ While her thoughts were thus occupied, the Angel Gabriel

At

* suddenly entered by the door in the form of a beautiful young “man, becomingly arrayed, full of glory and brightness."

“ She was astonished—not because she saw an angel ; for she had often seen angels before this.”

The reverence paid to the Virgin is to be by all means inculcated on the ignorant infidels. A specimen has been already given. Xavier was too anxious for her glory not to work into his history an occasional hint on the subject : the impiety of giving these fictions as the word of God was a thought not worthy his consideration. Jesuits soar above these obstacles of other minds. At page 49 we have the visit of the Virgin to Elizabeth, the mutual salutation: and Mary's hymn. He then proceeds—“ In “ this salutation and meeting of the Holy Mary with Elizabeth,

we may see the great power of Mary to confer kindnesses, “ and how great a measure of grace God bestows on those, “ whom she visits and for whom she prays effectually, when she has been interceded with to take them under ber protection. “ Hence it is, that Christians have so much hope in her interces“sion, and apply themselves so zealously with devout prayer, “ that they may obtain her as a protectress.?

The intercessors with her on behalf of the petitioners, would, of course, turn out in due time to be their reverences, the Jesuits. This is breaking ground in honor of the Virgin. At page 58 we meet with a morsel of classical history, which appears to have undergone the same process of remodelling with the gospels ; for we are told, that Octavius Augustus was the successor of his father-in-law Julius Cæsar. The authority of contemporary writers cannot of course be of any weight against the revelations of the Jesuit and Inquisitor Xavier, who affords us a striking instance of the fullness and accuracy of his information in the following passage. He describes the toils and difficulties encountered by Joseph and Mary on their way to Bethlehem. “Although they had encountered much misery on their journey, they suffered much more in the city-after the greatest search and inquiry, they discovered outside the city, a poor mean dwelling with one side fallen in, and quite ruinous : a place of shelter for cattle in times of rain and storm. This hut was attached to an inn, which on this occasion was much crowded. They were obliged, therefore to descend into that hut for cattle. They swept out and cleaned, and put in order their apartment." Near this, occurs a passage, which I shall not present, even in the mantle of a dead language : it must surely have edified the Emperor and his court.

What we present now from p. 65 will, it is presumed, so speak for itself, that no comment will be necessary :

“On the night of Sunday, in the year 5957 after the flood, in the 2510th year after the going forth from Egypt, the 1302d year from the anointing of David, and the 702d year from the building of Rome!!! exactly at midnight, when all things are most profoundly silent, the Holy Virgin was absorbed in meditation. She felt in her heart an audible joy: She cast her eyes upon the ground, and saw the Majesty of Jesus before her born."

It has not been without much hesitation, that this passage has

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been permitted to see the light here; but it seemed advisable, on reflection, that this fruit of the grossness of a Jesuit-mind should be plainly seen.

The practice of fraud and deception brings a curse with it: the offenders become at length incapable of discerning between right and wrong : their judgments grow distempered, and at last, they offend so grossly against all probability, and consistency, and de. cency, that they defeat themselves by disgusting their hearers. Passages in connexion with the above present an interesting example of this loss of tact, and deadness of mental taste. Such would not have been made by an artful man, in possession of his judgment, to any but persons of judgments enfeebled by long prostration, and habituated to such absurd and useless assertions. To a person already indisposed, as the Emperor must have been, to receive these doctrines, the declaration so anxiously worded for the saving of the Virgin's honor, must have appeared ludicrous. The subject is continued in a pointed style of laboured antithesis, which would suggest the idea, that Xavier was a strenuous Franciscan.

“ And though the Son wished in every thing to be like a man, and to suffer sor-rows; yet in this instance he had resolved on being born as the Lord, both that his mother might remain pure and inviolate, as she had been, and that he should confer* on his mother, who was to suffor so many calamities on his account, that joy and dignity, by which she was to be distinguished from all women, in this, that she should be a Virgin in such a manner, that she should also be a mother; and be a mother so, that she might also remain a Virgin ; and as in the Son, two most oppo-site properties met, divinity and humanity, so in his mother should be found co-exist- . ent maturity and virginity. Wherefore, the Blessed Mary remained a virgin at the time of the birth, and before the birth, and after the birth.

The importance of this in the Father's judgment, appears in the studied repetition of the phrase above. He proceeds to mention some miracles that accompanied the birth.

“On that night ofthe nativity, two wonderful things occurred: one, that at the very same time, when Christ was born at Bethlehem, a fountain of olive oil sprang up in Rome, and became a torrent, and flowed into the sea, continuing thus for some days—the other, that in consequence of the victories of Augustus, the temple of Janus was shut, and the people enjoying the peace and prosperity that ensued, began to think that Cæsar should be adored as a God. They persisted in the notion, and went to him, to request that he would permit them to worship him. But, as he was a just and moderate man, and was conscious that man is altogether mortal, he would not consent that they should offer him the adoration and honour due to the IMMORTAL. Notwithstanding the more earnest be was in denying and avoiding the honour, the more eagerly they urged on their purpose. As they contigued urgent, Cæsar sent for a certain Sibyl, (this name is given to a female who reveals secret and future things,) and asked her, what thinkest thou of this matter ? Examine if there be any greater being in the world than I. She said : on such a day I will answer thee. She went away, and was busied with the Lord, and on the day appointed, which was the ninth day, Cæsar collected to his house all the great men of Rome, that they might hear what she should say. The Sibyl came, and led Cæsar into a corner, and shewed him what she herself saw. At noon, she saw a golden circle round the Sun, and in the centre a virgin, very beautiful, and bright

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