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times, an Irishman disdains to enquire how many murders were committed-bow much blood was spilled. The pollution of his native island, by the spilling of one drop of innocent blood excites his indignation, and his blood freezes, and be turns away with disgust and horror from every incendiary who would attempt to justify, or to palliate ona massacre by the commission of another.

“But when he finds that the infamous rebellion of 1641, was planned in the dark, by those who claim a superior rigbt to judge and decide in secret Synods, on all matters touching faith and discipline, by men who taught that a Papal excommunication, however unjust, must be obeyed; and that this was the grand lever of the whole rebellion, and of all the perjuries and violations of public faith which have marked their characters with such indelible disgrace, he thinks it a duty which he owes to bis country, after having read so much of its history as I have, to state fairly who these incendiaries were, and by wbose persuasions the rabble were stimulated to such unparalleled atrocities.

“ Freret charges these atrocities on the intolerant spirit of the Catholic Religion; Bergier answers, that religion bad nothing to do in the matter, and was only the pretext. Rousseau acknowledges that all the wars called religious, have taken their rise in the courts, amid the cabals of intriguers, aud the grimaces of hypocrites. And I answer briefly, that the Irish massacre is not to be imputed to either the religion or the character of Irishmen, who abhor and abominate its memory, but to the intrigues of the foreign-influenced, and to the principles which they profess.

“ Not above one dozen of those thousands who were stimulated to the masacre of 1641, knew the extent of the design in which they were embarked. Until the 231 of October, the design, says Corta, was confined only to the old Irisb, and not communicated to above half a score of those, till almost the very moment of execution.

“The Chiefs were Ebber M‘Mahon, Bishop of Clogber; Father Crolly, who took the Newry; a Friar, who went by the name of Christoir Ultach, and who appears from my MSS. to have been Christopher Dunlavy; Toole O'Connolly, who was R. O'More's chaplain; Sir Phelim O'Neil, and six of the Chiefs of Ulster, who depended on their vassals to follow them, as they said to the gates of hell. It was only when their unfortunate followers bad stained their fingers with blood, and having levelled the barriers of morality, and been taught that it was too late to desert their colours, for that no faith could be reposed in them by Government—that they plunged beadlong into every barbarity, hardening their hearts against that natural reverence which Irishmen feel for old age ; steeling their nature against that gallantry wbich, even at the worst crisis of their last rebellion, they manifested for the

It is a fact as certain as any in bistory, that they were taught to expect impunity only from extirpation. Fearing that their men might disperse and throw themselves on the king's mercy, the leaders resolved that all should be equally guiltythat they should embark in wickedness beyond redemption—that an Island bitherto famed for generosity and piety, should become a scene of tumult and massacre, at which humanity startles, patriotism shudders, and Christianity forbids us to find a name. Irishmen repress your feelings—the sun himself is sometimes eclipsed in the heavens, and the brightest sky is often dimmed and darkened by a passing cloud. Our ancestors have been guilty of a formilable crime, and that too at a time of profound peace-great good-will on the part of the King's Government, and when the graces had been conferred ! But yet, I contend that this was not a national crime: it was contrived by a few foreign individuals. The mass of our population, misled by artifice, were governed, not by Christian and canonical rules, but by druidical and well-worshipping excommunications, and miracles by which they were hoodwinked, and wben hoodwinked, they were ballooed on to wickedness, which, if they had not been so hoodwinked, they would bave never dreamt of, and which if they had not been so ballooed at they would have for ever abborred. Be it remembered, that few ages more abounded in religious iniquity than the 17tb—that its peculiar and distinguishing iniquity, was that species of religious canting which brought Strafford, Law, and Charles to the block, that never was more detestable rancour masked by more plausible words-never was more disloyal and treacherous conduct mantled with more loyal professions-never were more crooked designs against the independence of our country, attended with more perjured, and yet holy intrigues, for subjecting us to a foreign yoke, or with consequences more fatal to the Catholic Religion; for it was soon discovered, says Clarendon, that the foreign influenced Irish had rendered themselves incapable of any trust; for what security could they give which they had not given for the observation of that which so infamously they had receded from.”

sex.

RABBINICAL NOTES ON CERTAIN PASSAGES OF THE PSALMS.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CHRISTIAN EXAMINER. SIR,-Your readers may probably be interested by the following specimens of Jewish comments, many of which contain very remarkable concessions in favour of Christianity. They are taken principally from the Diban 0171 Midrash Tehillim, a mystical commentary on the book of Psalms, consisting of memorable sayings, and remarks of celebrated Rabbis applied to the illustration of the Psalter. Should any of your readers wish to consult the original Hebrew of the passages I have quoted, they will find them in a work entitled Augustini Justiniani, Genuensis Predicatorii Ordinis Episcopi Nebiensis, in Octaplum Psalterii Annotationes, 1516,” dedicated to Pope Leo X. It has been reprinted, I believe, in the valuable collection of annotations published in several folio volumes, under the title of Critici Sacri.

I remain, Sir,
Your's, &c.

όμικρον Trinity College.

66

PSALM II.

V. 2. Against his anointed.] Rab. Solomon comment in loco. « Our Doctors interpret it of King Messiah.”

V. 7. I will declare the decree.] Midrash Tehillim, in loc :

“Its mysteries are declared in the Scriptures of the Law, and in the Scriptures of the Prophets, and in the Hagiographa : in the Scripture of the Law, (Ex. iv. 22.) Israel is my Son, my first born : in the Scripture of the Prophets, (Is. lii. 13.) Behold my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled: in the Hagiograpba, (Ps. cx. 1.) Jehovah said unto my Lord.

V. 12. Kiss the Son.] Midrash Tehillim, in loc:-

Kiss the Son : this is like a king who was offended with his subjects; his subjects therefore went and besought the King's Son to appease the anger of the King : the Son went and appeased his Father, and after he had been appeased by the Son, tbe subjects assembled to give thanks to the King; but the King said to them, do ye give thanks to me? Go and give thanks to my Son ; for had be not besought me, I would have utterly destroyed your city. And this is Kiss the Son.

PSALM III.

V. 3. My glory, and the lister up of my head.) Midrash Tehillim in loc :

My glory-thou hast made thy Shechinas to dwell in the midst of us, as it is written, (Ex. xxv. 8.) And they shall make me a sanctuary, and I will dwell among them. And the lifter up of my head, because that we were obliged to lift up the head to thee, thou hast given to us suspension of the head, as it is said, Since I will suspend the head of the children of Israel.

PSALM X.

V. 1. Why bidest thou thyself.] Midrash Tehillim in loc:

"R. Jobannan hath said, three years and a half stood the Sbechinah on the Mount of Olives, and cried ont, seek ye Jehovah while he may he found; but they cared not. As it is written, (Is. Ixv. 1.) I am sought of them that asked not for me; I am found of them that sought me not. This is likened to a company of travellers, who walked on the way, and when evening drew near, an inn-keeper came to them saying, Enler now into the inn, because of the beasts and because of the robbers. But they said unto him, It is not our wont to sojourn in an inn. But wben they had departed on, bebold a night tempestuous and dark came upon them, and they returned, and demanded that the inn should be opened to them by the innkeeper. But he said unto them, an inpkeeper is not wont to open the inn by night; for he admits not any man by night; wbat time I sought to receive you into the inn, ye would not, but now ye seek and I will not admit you. In like manner speaketh the Holy and Blessed Jehovah, Seek ye Jehovah while he may be found, return ye backsliding children-but there was not one who sought him and returned. The Holy and Blessed Jehovah said unto them, I will go and will return unto my first place. But when they are betrayed they are made like unto beasts, and begin to cry out, Why standest thou asar off, O Jehovah? The oly and blessed Jehovah said to them, when I sought you, ye sought not me, but now ye seek me, but I will not hear you-turn for turn."

PS ALM XVIII.

Title. A psalm of David, the servant of the Lord, who spake unto the Lord the words of this song, &c.] Midrash Tehillim in loc :

“Thus Israel, when King Messiah shall come, in hastening on, in hastening on, until the reproaching be to King Messiah, as it is written, (Ps. lxxiv. 12.) Thy enemies have reproached thee, O Lord : and until the four kingdoms fall before him, as it is written, (Zech.xiv. 2.) For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle-and Jehovah shall go forth and fight against those nations. Then shall be sung a song, as it is written, (Ps. xcviii. 1.) O sing unto Jehovah a new song, for he hath done marvellous things.

V. 35. Thou hast given me the shield of thy salvation.] Or, " thou shalt give me,” Midrash Tehillim in loco :-“Rabbi Joden in the name of R. Chia, said, it is in the future, because the holy and blessed Jehovah will make the King Mes. siah to sit at his right band, as it is written, Jehovah said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand.

V. 50. Great deliverance giveth he to bis king. ] Literally, “He bath multiplied salvations :” or, if it be differently pointed, it will be rendered a tower of salvations: on this latter pointing the Midrash Tehillim comments : “And what is the tower that is made unto them? The King Messiáb, as it is written, A tower of salvation ; and again, it is written, (Prov. xviii. 10.) The name of Je. hovah is a strong tower : the righteous runneth into it and is safe.

PSALM XXII.

V, 29.] Rabbi David Kimcbi in bis commentary on this Psalm says :

“This Psalm the Nazarenes interpret of Jesus, and they enumerate all the evils that Israel inflicted on him ; and they introduce the Son crying out to the Father to deliver him from all troubles, and saying, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me, on to the end of the Psalm-but they corrupt the writing of the word "98) and read 1) which signifies to dig a well, to pierce, since forsooth they drove nails into bis bands, and into his feet, when they bung him. But this verse, (ver. 29.) is to them a calise of stumbling, And he will not keep alive his soul. And they say that he is God, because all they that go down to the dust shall bow before him, and that he would not make alive his soul, since for this cause he descended to assume flesh, that his flesh might die, and thereby all might be saved wbo descended into the grave, therefore he would not make alive his soul, but chose rather to deliver himself up into the hands of bis murderers. But let Christians hear what they say, and let them understand themselves, Behold, they say that he would not make alive his soul, and he would not be delivered from his murderers ! how then did he exclaim, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? Why art thou so far from helping me? if he would not be helped ! Behold, how he is forgetful of his covenant, and seeks to be heard, and yet desires not to be heard !Moreover, if he be God in substance, let him save his substance. Again, he inhabiteth the praises of Israel, and yet Israel reproaches him, and say that they praise God! Again, Our fathers trusted in thee, who nevertheless asserted that that there was only one God. Again, God saith of himself, I am a worm, and no man! Moreover, say they, he rolled himself on Jehovah, to deliver him, and to free him : but indeed Christ Jesus as to his flesh was not rescued nor delivered, and as to bis Divinity, the Divinity cannot suffer evil so as to need deliverance. Again, Thou art he that took me out of the womb, my hope from my mother's belly. Can one and the same person be the taker out and the taken out? Again, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, but God can by no means have brethren. Again, praises are offered up, and thanksgivings are returned for deliverance, but Jesus was not delivered. Behold how all that they assert is proved false, Again, All ye the sced of Jacob, glorify him, for he hath not despised nor abhorred the offliction of the afflicted, yet he afflicted bim, and held him in contempt. Lo! all is false. Again, All the kindreds of the nations shall worship before thee : Lo! this also is false ; for neither the Hebrews nor the Arabians worship him.

PSALM XXXIX. V. 1, I will take heed unto my ways that I sin not with my tongue.] Midrash Tehillim in loc :

“ This is that which is written, A soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words stir up anger. An evil tongue is worse than idolatry. When the children of Israel sinned in the wilderness, the sentence of judgment was not passed upon them until they had committed the sin of the mouth, And this is that which is written, and Jehovah heard the voice of their murmuring : therefore he said, As truly as I live, saith Jehovah, as ye have spoken in mine ears so will I do unto you. (Num. xiv, 28.) And he said, Ye have provoked Jehovah to anger with your words: with your words, be saith-be hath not suid, with your works, And this is that wbich is written, Mine heritage is unto me as a lion in the forest ; she hath uttered her voice against me, therefore have I hated her. (Jer. xii. 8.) Is it not on account of ber voice that be hateth ber? Again it appears that on account of her voice he will love her. For it is written, Make me to hear thy doice.

Thus is that reconciled, A voice is worthy of love, and a voice is worthy of hatred. Say now therefore that death and life are laid up in the power of the tongue. It came to pass that the King of Persia was afflicted with a mortal disease. And the physicians spake to him, O King, tbou never canst be healed, until thou procurest the milk of a lioness, which alone can work the cure. One of the servants of the King gave answer, if it please tby Majesty, command that ten kids be given me, and I will bring thee the milk of a lioness. And when be had received the kids, the man went to the cave

lions and found a lioness milking her cubs. And on the first day, the man stood afar off ; but on the second day he came nearer,

and gave to the lioness one ol the kids, which she devoured. And when he bad so done many days, the wild beast became tame, and he milked from her milk. But before he returned home he saw in a dream a contention of all bis members. For the feet said, unless we had performed our office, he could not have gone to carry the milk, we therefore are chief among all the members. But the hands said, nay, but we are chief; for by us alone could be bave milked the milk. But the eyes exclaimed, we are above all the members ; for bad not we shown the way, nothing could have been done. But the heart said, nay, but I am to be preferred to you all, because by my counsel the deed was attempted

perfected. Lastly, stood up the tongue, and said, if I had not spoken ye could bave done nothing. The other menibers were moved to anger against the tongue and said, thou who art bound, and shut up in a dark place, and, as it were in disgrace, art deprived of bones, darest thou to murmur against us. The tongue answered them, this day shall ye be constrained to conless that I am chief and queen of you all.

And when the man had seen in his sleep this contention, he was afraid, and went to the King, and said, Lo, I have brought you the milk of a bitch. And the King was inflamed with anger, and ordered the man to be crucified.

And now as they were leading him to the cross, the members wept and wailed bitterly ; but the tongue said unto them, Did ye not say that I was the least among you—nay, that I was of no worth ; behold, now if I will this day deliver yoll, will ye confess that I am chief among you? And when they had answered yes, the tongue said, let us return unto the King. And when they came before bim, it said, wby commandest thou me to be hung? Because, said he, thou broughtest to me the milk of a bitch, for the milk of a lioness. But the tongue said, How does this matter, provided thou receivest a cure by my aid: but knowest thou not that a lioness is sometimes called a bitch. Moreover, it was found, upon trial, that it was the milk of a lioness. And then the sentence of death was recalled, and the members confessed that the tongue was chief ; because, without doubt, death and life were placed in the power of the tongue.”*

REVIEW

The Difficulties of Romanism. By GEORGE STANLEY FABER, B. D. London:

John Mucray, Albemarle-street. If the extraordinary state of Ireland, and the peculiar aspect of the times, force on Christian Examiners the duty of reviewing controversial works, we confess that from the mass of polemics

* The advocates for the Oriental origin of Fable, will be pleased to see this East. ern Version of Livy's fable of the Belly and Members.

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