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fuse, and he therefore maintained, that he who should refuse must of necessity hold—that the Pope might depose him--that he might give authority to a Foreign Prince to invade his dominionsthat the Pope had power to absolve his subjects from this oaththat it is not heretical or impious to hold, that Princes being excommunicated may be killed by their subjects—sundry other legitimate consequences James drew from a refusal of this oath.
As soon as the oath and Act of Parliament were published, a large body of secular Romish Priests met in London, where the Archbishop Blackwell presided, and then and there they agreed with him in opinion, that this oath might with a safe conscience be taken, and accordingly the greater part along with Blackwell look it; and they, moreover, sent over a despatch to an English Priest at Rome, earnestly desiring him to use his influence, with some Cardinals, that the Pope might be persuaded not to send to England any bull or breve contrary to the taking of the oathbut the Jesuits and foreign intriguers were an overmatch for these peaceful Priests, and under their instigation a breve was drawn up and sent to England and Ireland, which was supposed to be mainly procured by Cardinal Bellarmine and Father Parsons; subsequently, this oath was twice condemned by Paul the Fifth, and again by Innocent the Tenth ; and the whole horde of Jesuits were so hot against it, that they procured the deposition of
poor Blackwell, and thousands of pens were dipped in gall to write it down; it was made to appear in the eyes of all Catholics as if the overthrow of their whole religion was in this oath secretly intended; though still the gentle James assured them and the world, that no decision on any one point of religion was involved in it, for, says he, as for the Catholic faith, can there be one word found in all that oath, tending to or sounding of matters of religion ? doth he that takes it promise there to believe, or not to believe any article of religion-or doth he so much as name a true or false Church there; and as for Peter's primacy, I know of no Apostle's name that is therein named, except the name of James, it being my Christian name.
But no-as if this oath tended to render the Pope no more powerful than his predecessors were in the first three centuries ; ihis angry breve tells the people, that such an oath cannot be taken without wrong to the Catholic Faith, and the salvation of their own souls.
The writers for and against this oath were numerous and loud; Cardinals Bellarmine and Perron, the Jesuits Suarez, Becanus, Andrew Eudeman. The English Bishops powerfully defended it, but none took up the cause of the oath so effectually as Thomas Preston, a Benedictine Monk, who under the feigned name of Roger Widrington, opposed Suarez, baffled Bellarmine, confuted Gretser, and for his pains was persecuted, hunted, and his life assailed by the Jesuits; and when at last he found he had no other way of escape from their plots and attempts at his liberty and his life, he flew, as a bird will ity for refuge into a man's bosom, when pursued by a hawk, and hid himself in the Clink prison in London, and intreated the Protestant gaoler to keep him safe.
But not only did the Jesuits write down and hunt down these favourers of this oath ; but as the Church of Rome has in her armoury many weapons, they did not disdain the use of miracles and visions; and accordingly one night, as Mr. Thomas Newton, a Romanist, who refused the oath, and Mr. Edward Sutton, a pretended Protestant, who had taken it; after an evening spent in conversation on the lawfulness of this oath, concerning which, they agreed to differ, they went to bed together, and about midnight, Sutton cried out, that he was damned for taking the oath, and that Newton was blessed for refusing it. Newton awakening, bids him make the sign of the cross, which Sutton cleverly did, and then crept down to the bottom of the bed, crying, that he dare not peep out for fear of seeing a vision; upon which, Newton, bolder, because told he was blessed, looks
and sees the room full of light; the whole mystery of the Trinity presented plainly before him, and the Virgin Mary surrounded with an innumerable company of Angels holding a crown on her head, and singing “Gloria in Excelsis," and then the Virgin speaks out and says, “behold, see, and believe my assumption in body, take not the oath, but rather endure all torments, for I will assist thee, and be with thee in all.” This vision continued for half an hour, and a little before it vanished there came a fresh multitude of Martyrs and Saints, offering up as it were, incense to Almighty God; and a voice came, which said unto him, “ double thy devotion unto Saints, for nothing is more acceptable to God.” Thus Newton was confirmed in three important Popish points, in primis, not to take the oath; 2dly, not to doubt of the Virgin's assumption; and 3dly, to make prayers unto Saints. The vision ended, Newton and Sutton, roared as loud as they could, Allelujah, and thus they continued bawling for three or four hours, Sutton every now and then saying, that now, and not until now, he had learned how to pray !!!
By such diablerie as this, did priestcraft work on poor Papists to confirm on their necks the yoke of an Italian Priest, and thus they still endeavoured to maintain that Pope's temporal power in the British isles, as a principle of religion, and an article of faith.
C.'0. (To be continued.)
GLEANINGS FROM ASIA.
(FOR THE CHRISTIAN EXAMINER.) SUPERSTITION.-During the infancy of almost all societies, the ministers of religion have been much consulted in the treatment of constitutional diseases. This circumstance may, perhaps, arise from the prevalent belief of the uninformed, that many misfortunes and diseases owe their origin to the vengeance of good or bad spirits--under this impression it becomes very na tural for the afficted, to apply to the Priests, as the best qualified persons, to invoke offended spirits, for the purpose of suspending a manifestation of their displeasure. The art of healing is still in this primeval state among the Kandyans, or inbabitants of the interior of the Island of Ceylon. They affect to consider it a business of much importance, to ascertain whether disease be caused by a God, (good spirits,) or a Devil, (bad spirits) ; this point, they say, is learned by the aid of incantations, &c. It is not easy to comprehend the distinctions between the attributes with which they invest these two classes of spirits. When it has been decided that sickness arises from the malignant influence of a devil, the assistance of a Yak-desa, (devil-dancer,) or priest of the devil, is requested. It is remarkable, that almost all savage tribes are disposed, on particular occasions, to devote a portion of food to the deity, and the quality of the sacrifice is generally in conformity with the taste of the people. Many communities immolate different species of the animal kingdom. The Kandyans sometimes sacrifice a red cock, but their ordinary of. fering is a portion of their common food, namely rice. The poorer classes content thenselves with hanging up a small bag of rice, in a corner of their hut, and allowing it to remain in this situation for a night; during which the devil is presumed to have appropriated to himself a portion of the offering ; eventually the rice is eaten by the Yak-desa, and the person who is sick. The more opulent of the Kandyans propitiate the favor of a devil by preparing an apartment immediately adjoining that in which the sick person is accommodated, and placing rich curries together with a profusion of dressed rice in it; here the sacrifice is permitted to remain, until the Yak-desa announces the period when the devil has had the share, which he does by saying "come let us eat," the Yak-desa and the friends of the sick person then devour the offering
For the cure of diseases which are supposed to be inflicted by a good spirit (Genesis xx. 17--- 18. Deut. xxviii 58---59. Exod. xv. 26.) offerings are made at the temples (dewales,) of the brahminical deities. Temples of this kind abound in every part of the country ; they are sometimes found under the same roof with the images of Buddhu, affording a singular example of toleration between the followers of these two sects, although they entertain very dissimilar tenets.
Diseases occasioned by accident, the Kandyans profess to cure by means of medicines, &c. but in tedious, or long protracted disabilities, all the means of recovery are put in requisition.
The Yak-desas are sometimes accused of inflicting disease through the influence of their incantations, upon persons who have been unkind to them. Their power, in this respect, was dreaded by some of the kings of Kandy; one of these Monarchs directed their magical books to be burned, and according to report, caused some of them to be executed on account of their supposed destructive power.
Saul the King of the Israelites appears to have been influenced by similar terrors, when he cut off those that had familiar spirits, and the wizards out of the land.* (1 Samuel xxviii. 9.)
* Our Correspondent could have found a better reason by consulting Exod. xxii. 18.-Lev. xix 37, xx, 17.- Deut. xviii. 10, 11.-Ed.
The Abbe Grozier, informs us that in Tonquin, if the Conjurer. announces that disease comes from the devil, they invite the father of lies to a grand feast, which is given at the expense of the sick person's family; they assign to him the most honourable place, pray to him, invoke him, and offer him presents; but if the disease does not abate, they load him with injuries, and fire twenty or thirty musquets, to drive him from the house.
Specimen of the Medical Literature of the Inhabitants of Ceylon:-(Extracted from
one of their Medical Books.) UNFAVOURABLE INDICATIONS OF RECOVERY.-Should the Vedicale (native doctor,) observe the messenger, who comes to call him to visit a sick person, make many deviations from a straight course, or should he, when on the road look back over his shoulder; when he reaches the Vederali, should he present his left side to him, or break the ground with his toes, or carry in his hand a dry stick ; or stand with his left foot in advance of the right; or put his hand on his head; these are unfavourable prognostics. If
of these inauspicious circumstances occur in one case, the Vederali is to decline to accompany the messenger, because the patient will not recover.
FAVOURABLE INDICATIONS OF RECOVERY. -Should the messenger stand with his right side towards the Vederali, or stand upright, or place his right foot in advance of the left.
When a Vederali is requested to visit a patient during night, it is incumbent on him to obey the summons, because, on account of the absence of light he has it not in his power to observe the motions of the messengers, and thereby to prognosticate the fate of the sick person,
On reaching a patient the Vederali is to take a little cold water and sprinkle it on his face. Should the patient then raise his hand, and place it on his chest, he is likely to recover ; it is also a good sign if he opens his eyes and looks at the Vederali.
When the messenger places his hand on either thigh, or one hand above the other, the sick person's disease is caused by the god of Katteragam; but should he spit betel on the ground, the complaint is occasioned by a devil.
The Irish Pulpit; a collection of original Sermons, by Clergymen of the Estab
lished Church of Ireland, 8vo. p.p. 357. Curry Jun. & Co., Dublin: and Seeley & Son, London.
We have long seen announced the publication of a Volume of Sermons, to be contributed by living Clergymen of our own church and country:
We cannot say that we were amongst those who expected in it, a Volume of peculiar excellence, or one likely, in the reading, to afford peculiar pleasure. In a Volume of Sermons by the same hand, there is an opportunity of systematic arrangement, of judicious selection of subjects, and of wise balancing of apparently opposing truths, which cannot be exhibited in the promiscuous throwing together of Sermons from various authors, who are unacquainted with the companions they are to have in the compilation, and entirely ignorant of the subjects which other's might select, and the views of those subjects which they might put forward.
In the very nature, then, of such a Volume as that before us, there is an inherent evil which there will be much difficulty to overcome. At the same time, we feel that it will excite interest from other causes, and that many will open it with no little curiosity, as a means of acquiring a more intimate acquaintance with the Irish Church, and as affording an opportunity of ascertaining the real character of the preaching of men with whose names they are familiar, but whose Sermons they had never heard.
The Publishers seem to have been aware of the objection to the nature of their Volume, and they thus speak of it in their advertisement:
“ Into such a plan as that of the Pulpit, must be obvious that unity of design cannot enter; and perhaps, shades of doctrine may be discovered in it, such as will ever mark the progress of independant minds, that bring energy and piety to the examination of Divine truth.
“The Publishers, however, trust that one species of unity will be found : the unity of Scriptural truth ; and that the exertions of all will be found to harmonize in one comnion end, “glory to God, peace on earth, good will towards men.”
For the credit of the Volume, we would have wished that this unity here spoken of had indeed been observed, and we cannot but wonder where was the discernment of those who conducted the publication, if, after a careful perusal of each discourse, they really considered that there was an unity of Scripture truth.
This, however, makes not the Volume less interesting to us, as Christian Examiners. It affords us an opportunity, and, indeed, imposes upon us an obligation of contrasting the Sermons of different preachers, and calling most seriously the attention of our readers, and their hearers, to the different statements which are made, that they may judge for themselves which are " workmen that need not be ashamed,” which rightly divide the word of truth.”
We confess, that in entering upon our Review, we feel peculiar difficulties arising from the nature of this work. When call. ed to speak in one breath of the productions of different authors, some known to us—some unknown; and of those known to us, some endeared by every Christian tie, we feel the difficulty of seeing things clearly, and speaking of them honestly and fairly, and are deeply impressed with the necessity of guarding against affection and prejudice, and in every instance speaking the truth in love.
The Volume opens most auspiciously with two Sermons of the worthy Rector of Fethard, the Rev. H. Woodward. We consider these discourses fair samples of his correct views, his deep piety,