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which my meanness can produce, is worthy of this

long attention. But I am come to the last petition of Lithical allusin




Abraham; if there be ten righteous lines, in this vast Preface, spare it for their sake; and also spare the next city, because it is but little one.

I would excuse the performance of this translation, if it were all my own; but the better, though not the greater part, being the work of some gentlemen, who have succeeded very happily in their undertaking, let their excellencies atone for my imperfections, and those to of my sons. I have perused some of the satires, which are done by other hands; and they seem to me as perfect in their kind, as anything I have seen in English

The common way which we have taken is not a literal translation, but a kind of paraphrase; or some 5 what, which is yet more loose, betwixt a paraphrase and imitation. It was not possible for us, or any men, to have made it pleasant any other way. If rendering the exact sense of those authors, almost line for line, had been our business, Barten Holyday had done it 20 already to our hands: and by the help of his learned notes and illustrations not only of Juvenal and Persius, but what yet is more obscure, his own verses, might be understood.

But he wrote for fame, and wrote to scholars : we 25 write only for the pleasure and entertainment of those gentlemen and ladies, who, though they are not scholars, are not ignorant: persons of understanding and good sense, who, not having been conversant in the original, or at least not having made Latin verse so much their 30 business as to be critics in it, would be glad to find if the wit of our two great authors be answerable to their fame and reputation in the world. We have, therefore, endeavoured to give the public all the satisfaction we are able in this kind.


And if we are not altogether so faithful to our author, as our predecessors Holyday and Stapylton, yet we may challenge to ourselves this praise, that we shall

be far more pleasing to our readers. We have followed 5 our authors at greater distance, though not step by step,

as they have done: for oftentimes they have gone so close, that they have trod on the heels of Juvenal and Persius, and hurt them by their too near approach.

A noble author would not be pursued too close by a 10 translator. We lose his spirit, when we think to take

ed his body. The grosser part remains with us, but the soul is flown away in some noble expression, or some delicate turn of words, or thought. Thus Holyday, who

made this way his choice, seized the meaning of Juvenal; 15 but the poetry has always escaped him.

They who will not grant me, that pleasure is one of the ends of poetry, but that it is only a means of compassing the only end, which is instruction, must yet

allow, that, without the means of pleasure, the instruc20 tion is but a bare and dry philosophy: a crude prepara

tion of morals, which we may have from Aristotle and Epictetus, with more profit than from any poet. Neither Holyday nor Stapylton have imitated Juvenal in the

poetical part of him, his diction and his elocution. Nor 25 had they been poets, as neither of them were, yet, in the

way they took, it was impossible for them to have succeeded in the poetic part.

The English verse, which we call heroic, consists of no more than ten syllables; the Latin hexameter some. 30 times rises to seventeen; as, for example, this verse in Virgil

Pulverulenta putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. Here is the difference of no less than seven syllables in

a line, betwixt the English and the Latin. Now the 35 medium of these is about fourteen syllables; because

the dactyl is a more frequent foot in hexameters than the spondee. But Holyday, without considering that he wrote with the disadvantage of four syllables less in every verse, endeavours to make one of his lines to comprehend the sense of one of Juvenal's. According 5 to the falsity of the proposition was the success.

He was forced to crowd his verse with ill-sounding monosyllables, of which our barbarous language affords him a wild plenty; and by that means he arrived at his pedantic end, which was to make a literal translation. 10 His verses have nothing of verse in them, but only the worst part of it, the rhyme; and that, into the bargain, is far from good. But, which is more intolerable, by cramming his ill-chosen, and worse-sounding monosyllables so close together, the very sense which he 15 endeavours to explain is become more obscure than that of his author; so that Holyday himself cannot be understood, without as large a commentary as that which he makes on his two authors. For my own part, I can make a shift to find the meaning of Juvenal without his 20 notes: but his translation is more difficult than his author. And I find beauties in the Latin to recompense my pains; but, in Holyday and Stapylton, my ears, in the first place, are mortally offended; and then their sense is so perplexed, that I return to the original, as the more 23 pleasing task, as well as the more easy.

This must be said for our translation, that, if we give not the whole sense of Juvenal, yet we give the most considerable part of it: we give it, in general, so clearly, that few notes are sufficient to make us intelligible. We 30 make our author at least appear in a poetic dress. We have actually made him more sounding, and more elegant, than he was before in English ; and have endeavoured to make him speak that kind of English, which he would have spoken had he lived in England, 35 114 The Original and Progress of Satire and had written to this age. If sometimes any of us (and 'tis but seldom) make him express the customs and manners of our native country rather than of

Rome, 'tis either when there was some kind of analogy 5 betwixt their customs and ours, or when, to make him more easy to vulgar understandings, we give him those manners which are familiar to us. But I defend not this innovation, 'tis enough if I can excuse it. For to

speak sincerely, the manners of nations and ages are so not to be confounded; we should either make them

English, or leave them Roman. If this can neither be defended nor excused, let it be pardoned at least, because it is acknowledged; and so much the more

easily, as being a fault which is never committed without 15 some pleasure to the reader.

Thus, my Lord, having troubled you with a tedious visit, the best manners will be shown in the least ceremony. I will slip away while your back is turned,

and while you are otherwise employed; with great con20 fusion for having entertained you so long with this

discourse, and for having no other recompense to make you, than the worthy labours of my fellow-undertakers in this work, and the thankful acknowledgments, prayers, and perpetual good wishes, of, MY LORD, Your Lordship's Most obliged, most humble, and most obedient Servant,

JOHN DRYDEN. Aug. 18, 1692.





[1695] It may be reasonably expected that I should say something on my own behalf, in respect to my present undertaking. First, then, the reader may be pleased to know, that it was not of my own choice that I undertook this work. Many of our most skilful painters, and 5 other artists, were pleased to recommend this author to me, as one who perfectly understood the rules of painting ; who gave the best and most concise instructions for performance, and the surest to inform the judgment of all who loved this noble art: that they who before 10 were rather fond of it, than knowingly admired it, might defend their inclination by their reason; that they might understand those excellencies which they blindly valued, so as not to be farther imposed on by bad pieces, and to know when nature was well imitated by 15 the most able masters. 'Tis true, indeed, and they acknowledge it, that beside the rules which are given in this treatise, or which can be given in any other, that to make a perfect judgment of good pictures, and to value them more or less, when compared with one 20 another, there is farther required a long conversation with the best pieces, which are not very frequent either in France or England; yet some we have, not only

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