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and vi. 48: Quod tam grande sophos clamat tibi turba togata,

Non tu, Pomponi, cena diserta tua est.' P. 101, l. 23. pad, saddle.

P. 102, 1. 32. underplot. See Dedication of the Spanish Friar, and of the Third Miscellany.

P. 103, 1. 1. Copernican system. See above, p. 225, 1. 37, note. Sir William Temple writing On Ancient and Modern Learning a few years before this, is not quite sure of the Copernican system: “There is nothing new in Astronomy, to vie with the Ancients, unless it be the Copernican system ; nor in Physic, unless Harvey's circulation of the blood. But whether either of these be modern discoveries, or derived from old fountains is disputed : nay it is so too whether they are true or no; for though reason may seem to favour them more than the contrary opinions, yet sense can very hardly allow them; and to satisfy mankind both these must concur. But if they are true, yet these two great discoveries have made no change in the conclusions of Astronomy, nor in the practice of Physic, and so have been of little use to the world, though perhaps of much honour to the authors.'

1. 4. Mascardi (Agostino). Cameriere d'Honore di N. Sig. Urbano Ottavo'; see his Prose Volgari, Ven. 1630 (the Preface is dated 1625), Discorso Settimo: dell'Unità della Favola Drammatica : a good specimen of formal criticism, and of the use of such common. places as Nature and Imitation: "the imitative arts follow in their operation the custom of Nature; now the custom of Nature is at times to follow two ends, one principal and one accessory.' Unity he finds to be fruitful of debate in literature: “This is the point on which so many contests of the modern Academies are found to turn, this the trenchant weapon of the partisans of Tasso against Lodovico Ariosto; under this law Ariosto is banished, along with the other writers of Romances, from the senate of the Epic Poets.'

1. 6. Il Pastor Fido. See above, vol. i. p. 273, 1. 7.
P. 105, 1. 17. Hudibras. Dryden seems to have borne no grudge
to Butler for his charges against the Heroic Play. Compare The
Hind and the Panther :

6" Unpitied Hudibras, your champion friend
Has shown how far your charities extend”:
This lasting verse shall on his tomb be read

He shamed you living, and upbraids you dead.”' Compare also the well-known phrase in Dryden's letter to Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester (? August, 1683): ''Tis enough for orde age to have neglected Mr. Cowley, and starv'd Mr. Butler.'

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P. 106, l. 31. Tassoni and Boileau. Compare Dean Lockier's




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account of his visit to Will's, given in Spence's Anecdotes : 'I was about seventeen when I first came up to town, an odd-looking boy, with short rough hair, and that sort of awkwardness which one always brings up at first out of the country with one. However, in spite of my bashfulness and appearance, I used now and then to thrust myself into Will's to have the pleasure of seeing the most celebrated wits of that time, who then resorted thither. The second time that ever I was there, Mr. Dryden was speaking of his own things, as he frequently did, especially of such as had been lately published. “If anything of mine is good,” says he, “'tis Mac-Flecno, and I value myself the more upon it, because it is the first piece of ridicule written in heroics.” On hearing this I plucked up my spirit so far as to say in a voice but just loud enough to be heard, that Mac-Flecno was a very fine poem, but that I had not imagined it to be the first that ever was writ that way. On this Dryden turned short upon me, as surprised at my interposing; asked me how long I had been a dealer in poetry, and added with a smile : “Pray, sir, what is it that you did imagine to have been writ so before ?” I named Boileau's Lutrin and Tassoni's Secchia Rapita, which I had read, and knew that Dryden had borrowed some strokes from each, "'Tis true," said Dryden, “I had forgot them.” A little after Dryden went out ; and in going spoke to me again, and desired me to come and see him the next day. I was highly delighted with the invitation; went to see him accordingly, and was well acquainted with him after as long as he lived.'

11. 31, 32. Alessandro Tassoni, of Modena, 1565–1635. The Secchia Rapita was published in 1622 ; translated by Perrault, Le Seau Enlevé, 1678. There are several editions of the Italian text printed in England; one in 1710, with a translation by Ozell. Tassoni's critical writings are an important section of the documents for * Ancients and Moderns,' and may have been known to Dryden (Quisiti, Modena, 1608; Dieci Libri di Pensieri Diversi, Roma, 1620, &c.).

1. 33. The Lutrin of Boileau was published in the 1674 edition of his works; four cantos, along with L’Art Poëtique; the fifth and sixth cantos were added in 1683.

1. 33. Teofilo Folengo, Merlinus Cocaius, the chief of all poets in the Macaronic language, born in 1491 ; his poems were published in Venice, in 1517 and 1520; they are the Zanitonella, the Maccaronicum, which is Baldus, the Moschæa, or War of the Flies and Emmets, and Epigrams. He also wrote the Orlandino per Limerno Pitocco da Mantova, Ven. 1526; and the history of his life in the Chaos del triperuno (i.e. Merlinus, Limerno, Teofilo) overo dialogo de le tre etadi da Teofilo Folengo da Mantoa, Venice, 1527. Baldus is a noble hero brought up in the cottage of a villein, where his youth is nurtured in the favourite romances, Sir Bevis, Ogier the Dane, &c.:

Legerat Anchroiam, Tribisondam, Gesta Danesi,
Antonaeque Bovum, mox tota Realea Francae



Vidit ut Angelicam sapiens Orlandus amavit,
At mox ut nudo pergebat corpore mattus,

Cui tulit Astolfus cerebrum de climate Lunae.' So Baldus goes out on adventures, with his friendly giant Fracasse and other companions. The Orlando Furioso had been published the year before, in 1516. A translation of Folengo's work was published in Paris in 1606 : Histoire maccaronique de Merlin Coccaie, prototype de Rabelais; plus l'horrible bataille advenue entre les mouches et les fourmis. P. 107, l. 2. stanza of eight; the Italian octave, ottava rima.

1. 9. Scarron (Paul), 1610-1660, author of Don Japhet d'Arménie and other dramatic versions of “Spanish plots,' and of the Roman Comique, published his Virgile Travesti in 1648–53. It was imitated in England by Charles Cotton; Scarronides, or Virgile Travestie, 1664, &c. ('a mock Poem ').

P. 108, 1. 17. turns of words and thoughts. Compare the Dedication of the Æneis, p. 219 (speaking of the French poets), the turn on thoughts and words is their chief talent; but the Epic Poem is too stately to receive those little ornaments,' &c. And Preface to Fables, p. 257 : •As for the turn of words, in which Ovid particularly excels all poets, they are sometimes a fault and sometimes a beauty.... Chaucer writ with more simplicity and followed Nature more closely than to use them.' Compare also Dr. Herford's Introduction to Spenser's Shepherd's Calendar. Butler's Characters, A Quibbler (written probably about 1665): “There are two sorts of quibbling, the one with words and the other with sense, like the rhetorician's figurae dictionis et figurae sententiaethe first is already cried down, and the other as yet prevails, and is the only elegance of our modern poets, which easy judges call easiness; but having nothing in it but easiness, and being never used by any lasting wit, will in wiser times fall to nothing of itself.'

1. 22. Sir George Mackenzie, of Rosehaugh (1636-1691), Lord Advocate for Scotland ; see Wandering Willie's Tale in Redgauntlet : 'the Bloody Advocate Mackenzie, who for his worldly wit and wisdom had been to the rest as a God.' His character and that of his writings have been explained by Mr. W. A. Raleigh in Sir Henry Craik's English Prose Selections, vol. iii. p. 261 ; and by Mr. Taylor Innes (Studies in Scottish History, 1892). He wrote Aretina or the Serious Romance, 1661; Religio Stoici, Edin., 1663 ; Moral Gallantry, a Discourse

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proving that the Point of Honour obliges a Man to be Virtuous, Edin., 1667; Institutions of the Laws of Scotland, Edin., 1684 ; and other works.

P. 109, 1. 22. Mr. Walsh. William Walsh, 1663-1708 : 'He is known more by his familiarity with greater men than by anything done or written by himself' (Johnson). Dryden had written a Preface for Walsh's Dialogue concerning Women, 1691, in which the author of the Dialogue is highly praised.

P. 110, 1. 26. prosodia. Dryden explains in the Dedication of the Æneis that he had collected materials for an English Prosody. Compare also the Preface to Albion and Albanius for his interest in syllables,



P. 117, 1. 19. Bellori (Giovanni Pietro) published his Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, &c. (Vite de Pittori), at Rome in 1672, with a Dedication to Colbert, who was also the patron of Fresnoy's poem, De Arte Graphicâ.

P. 118, 1. 13. This Idea, &c.; in the original a conceit: 'questa Idea, overo Dea della Pittura.'

1. 23. Cicero. Ut igitur in formis et figuris est aliquid perfectum et excellens cuius ad excogitatam speciem imitando referuntur ea quae sub oculis ipsa cadunt, sic perfectae eloquentiae speciem animo videmus, effigiem auribus quaerimus.' Orator 9.

1. 30. Proclus. Proclo nel Timeo, i. e. Proclus in his commentary on the Timaeus.

P. 119, 1. 12. Maximus Tyrius. His Discourses, Aladéters, were edited by H. Stephanus in 1557, and by Heinsius in 1607. He lived in the second century.

1. 25. Caravaggio, &c. Come in questi nostri tempi Michel Angelo da Caravaggio fù troppo naturale, dipinse i simili, e Bamboccio i peggiori.'

1. 28. drawn the worst likeness ; i. e. drawn people at their worst. In the account of Modern Masters appended to Dryden's Art of Painting, p. 326, there is an account of Bamboccio: 'Pieter van Laer, commonly call’d Bamboccio or the Beggar-painter' (1584-1644). "He had an admirable Gusto in colouring, was very judicious in the ordering of his Pieces, nicely just in his Proportions, and onely to be blam’d, for that he generally affected to represent Nature in her worst Dress, and follow'd the Life too close, in most of his Compositions.'

P. 120, 1. 7. Seneca. The rhetorician : 'Non vidit Phidias lovem, fecit tamen velut tonantem, nec stetit ante oculos eius Minerva: dignus tamen illa arte animus et concepit deos et exhibuit.' Controv. x. 5. 8; cf. Cic. Orat. 9.

P. 120, 1. 9. Apollonius of Tyana ; his Life was written by Philo. stratus.

1. 14. Alberti. One of the great Florentine humanists of the fifteenth century; wrote on architecture, education, and other branches of learning.

1. 19. Castiglione, Baldassarre, the author of Il Cortigiano. Raphael painted his Galatea in 1514 for the villa of Agostino Chigi the banker, which is now the Farnesina. Raphael's words are: “per dipingere una bella mi bisogna veder più belle . .. ma essendo carestia e di buoni giudici e di belle donne, io mi servo di certa idea che mi viene alla mente. Se questa ha in sè alcuna eccellenza d'arte, io non so: ben m' affatico d'averla.'

1. 24. Guido Reni; his St. Michael is in one of the Chapels of the Capuchins' church at Rome (Santa Maria della Concezione).

P. 121, l. 2. the contrary idea. “Si trova anche l'idea della bruttezza, ma questa lascio di spiegare nel demonio'; i.e. “I forbear to render this in the picture of the Fiend.'

1. 20. Cyllarus. Ovid, Metam. xii. 393 sq.
1. 29. Apelles. Si Venerem Cous nusquam posuisset Apelles.'

Art. Amand. iii. 401. P. 123, 1. 20. Philostratus; the

younger. 1. 20. This Proem is quoted by Bellori, after his own Preface to the Lives of the Painters. P. 124, 1. 27. merchants ; 'i.e. merchant vessels.

The passage seems to be so worded as to contain a sneer at the negligence of King William's government in protecting the trade. Perhaps Dryden alluded to the misfortune of Sir Francis Wheeler, in 1693, who being sent with a convoy into the Mediterranean, was wrecked in the Bay of Gibraltar.' Scott.

P. 126, 1. 17. St. Catharine ; in Tyrannic Love.

P. 127, 1. 11. Lentulus, in the apocryphal Epistle to the Roman Senate. Fabricius, Cod. Apoc. N. T. t. i. p. 301.

P. 128, 1. 10. The Marquis of Normanby's opinion; in the Essay on Poetry : ‘Reject that vulgar error which appears

So fair of making perfect characters;
There's no such thing in Nature, and you'll draw

A faultless Monster, which the world ne'er saw.'
P. 129, 1. 8. Catullus ; quoted by Dryden in the Dedication of
Limberham :

castum esse decet pium poetam

Ipsum; versiculos nihil necesse est.' 1. 14. Vita proba est. Martial, i. 5. P. 130, 1. 2. Annibale Caracci, 1560-1609. His work in the Farnese Palace is described by Bellori in detail ; the Choice of Hercules (Ercole Bivio) at p. 33 of vol. i. of the Vite de' Pittori.

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