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on the natural history of Cant (i. e. slang) in the Staple of News, and the Essay of Victor Hugo on the same subject in Les Misérables. P. 210, l. 5. guardian angels. Compare the Preface to Juvenal,

1 p. 34, and notes; and Fables, p. 272.

1. 13. which Tasso has not ill copied. Gerusalemme Liberata, xviii. st. 92-97, where St. Michael shows Godfrey the heavenly host :

* But higher list thy happy eyes, and view
Where all the sacred hosts of Heaven appear,
He look’d and saw where winged armies flew,
Innumerable, pure, divine, and clear ;
A battle round of squadrons three they show,
And all by threes these squadrons ranged were,
Which spreading wide in rings still wider go:
Mov'd with a stone, calm water circleth so.'

Fairfax (st. 96). P. 213, 1. 24. non me tua turbida. Inaccurately quoted for ' Non me tua fervida terrent Dicta ferox.' Aen. xii. 895.

P. 214, l. 35. ornari res ipsa negat. Manilius, iii. 39 (Malone's reference).

P. 215, 1. 17. Cæsura. Here used for elision of vowels; synalepha in Third Miscellany. P. 217, l. 14. nobis non licet esse tam disertis. Again. See p. 103, 1. 9.

1. 25. Dic, quibus in terris; Eclogue 3, 106.

1. 31. Though deep, yet clear, &c. This couplet was no longer left unnoticed, after Dryden's quotation of it. It had even to be put in the Index of things too often repeated :

• If Anna's happy reign you praise,
Pray not a word of halcyon days :
Nor let my votaries show their skill
In aping lines from Cooper's Hill;
For know, I cannot bear to hear,
The mimicry of deep, yet clear.'

Swift, Apollo's Edict, 1720. This poem of Swift's, by the way, is another proof of the influence of Boccalini; it is occasioned by News from Parnassus.'

P. 218, l. 25. Formerly the French . . . had but five feet. Dryden probably judged hastily, from the decasyllabic verse of the Franciade, that the Alexandrine was not of long standing in French poetry:

• Charles, mon Prince, enflez-moy le courage;
En vostre honneur j'entrepren cet ouvrage;
Soyez mon guide et gardez d'abysmer

Ma nef, qui flotte en si profonde mer.'
P. 219, 1. 6. The turn on thoughts and words. Above, p. 108, 1. 17.

I. 23. The want of genius. Although the ordinary genius of

the French appears indifferent enough, it is certain that those who distinguish themselves amongst us, are capable of producing the finest things,' &c. (Some Observations upon the Taste and Judgment of the French, in the volume of St. Évremond's Miscellaneous Essays, for which Dryden wrote the Introduction, 1692 ; Euvres, iv. p. 205.) Compare also another passage of St. Évremond about the want of

th in French imaginative work: ‘En effet nous nous contentons des premières images que nous donnent les objets ; et pour nous arrêter aux simples dehors, l'apparent presque toujours nous tient lieu du vrai et le facile du naturel' (St. Évremond, De la Comédie anglaise, 1677: see vol. i. p. xv.).

P. 220. 1. 7. Non si santo, &c. Orlando Furioso xxxv. st. 26, from the discourse of St. John the Evangelist to Astolpho in the Heaven of the Moon.

1. 20. the two brothers. "Robert et Antoine le Chevalier d'Agneaux, frères, de Vire en Normandie,' 1582 : new edition, 1607, with sonnets by Vauquelin de la Fresnaye : already referred to, p. 189, 1. 19.

1. 21. Hannibal Caro. See above, vol. i. p. 256, 1. 19, and vol. ii. p. 29, I. 34.

1. 25. Le Clerc. Jean Le Clerc (1657–1736) in Bibliothèque Universelle et Historique, t. ix. p. 219 (de l’Année 1688): Essai de Critique, l'on tâche de montrer en quoi consiste la Poësie des Hébreux.

1. 27. arrant. Common in the sense of genuine, thorough-going. P. 221, 1. 7. the white; the middle of the target.

1. 10. Doctor Morelli. Dr. Henry Morelli, one of the College of Physicians in our author's time; whose name appears among the Subscribers to the scheme for a publick Dispensary in 1696.' Malone.

1. 22. Sorti Pater æquus utrique. Aen. X. 450 : • "My father will be able to bear either extreme of fortune”; an answer to Turnus' speech, v. 443' (Cuperem ipse parens spectator adesset). Conington.

P. 222, 1. 3. Sic ait; ibid. v. 473. Conington refers to Dryden here, and disapproves of Ruæus. Waller translated Aen. iv. 437-583.

1. 26. Sir John Denham, Mr. Waller, and Mr. Cowley. Denham did the Second Book (The Destruction of Troy, an Essay on the Second Book of Virgils Æneis, 1636); also a free version of the Passion of Dido. Cowley, the Second Georgic from v. 458.

P. 223, 1. 10. in a former dissertation; i. e, in the Parallel of Poetry and Painting, p. 147.

1. 30. These are mob readers. “Mob'was not yet quite established in 1692; ‘mob, as they call them,' Preface to Cleomenes. Two years before in Don Sebastian it is the mobile (Act i. sc. I ; Act iii, sc. 3.

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''Tis a laudable commotion; the voice of the mobile is the voice of Heaven ').

P. 224, 1. 12. like the Mançanares. From Bouhours' Entretiens d'Ariste et d'Eugène : II. La Langue Françoise. ‘Pour moy je n'entends jamais ces mots et ces expressions de la langue Castillane, que je ne me souvienne du Manzanares. On diroit à entendre ce grand mot que rivière de Madrid est le plus grand fleuve du monde : et cependant ce n'est qu'un petit ruisseau, qui est le plus souvent à sec; et qui, si nous en croyons un Poëte Castillan, ne mérite pas d'avoir un pont. Je me souviens des vers Espagnols, et vous ne serez peut-être pas fasché de les apprendre en passant :

“Duelete dessa puente Mançanares
Mira que dize por ai la gente,
Que no eres rio para media puente
Y que ella es puente para treinta mares."

LUIS DE GONGORA. Voilà ce que c'est que le Mançanares, et voilà aussi à peu près ce que c'est que la langue Castillane.'

1. 22. Owen's Epigrams. See above, note on p. 27, 1. 25.

1. 25. a bladdered greatness. See vol. i. p. 247, 1. 11 : 'swelling puffy style.' P. 225, 1. 3. as a wit said formerly. Lord Rochester; see p. 258.

1. 24. imagination only. Imagination has been degraded in meaning since Dryden explained its functions in the account of Annus Mirabilis ; what here is called Imagination is there called Fancy, or Invention and Fancy.

1. 28. Marini's Adone. Published at Paris in 1623, with a Preface (in French) by Chapelain : L'Adone, poema del Cavalier Marino. The poem has been fully described by Mr. J. A. Symonds in his Renaissance in Italy. Marino was known to English poets, though his influence has been unduly exaggerated. He is seen at his best in Crashaw's version from his poem on the Slaughter of the Innocents. In the Guerre di Parnaso, 1643, by Scipione Herrico, 'one who imitates Boccalini,' Marino is the leader of a revolt against Aristotle and Apollo.

P. 226, 1. 11. Dampier. His Voyages came out in this year: A New Voyage round the World. Dampier is speaking of Quito, in the year 1684 : 'I know no place where Gold is found but what is very unhealthy.'

1. 28. Mr. Creech. See vol. i. p. 264, 1. 19. P. 227, 1. 5. Philarchus, I remember, taxes Balsac. More accurately Phyllarchus i. q. dux foliorum, with an equivoque · Head of a house of Feuillants': according to the Segraisiana, Balzac's sagacity at once discerned in this name the Feuillant his adversary. See

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for the whole controversy Emile Roy, De Ioan. Lud. Guezio Bal. sacio contra Dom. Ioan. Gulonium disputante, 1892. Phyllarchus was Jean Goulu de St. François; his criticism of Balzac's style appeared in 1627, Lettres de Phyllarque à Ariste il est traicté de l’éloquence françoise ; a second Part in 1628. Balzac in these Letters is Narcisse. Dryden refers to a passage in Letter xxi: "Le mesme Quintilian enseigne que la suitte de plusieurs monosyllabes est vicieuse, d'autant qu'elle fait sauteller le discours entrecoupé de petites particules et le rend comme raboteux: et que partant il faut esviter la continuation des petits mots comme aussi par raison con. traire on doit fuir l'entresuitte des parolles qui sont longues, à cause qu'elles apportent une pesanteur des-agréable à la prononciation. Voyons si Narcisse n'a point encores péché contre cette reigle. Il parle de la sorte en la mesme Letre (en la Letre 20 du 4 livre). Qui est-ce qui peut dire cela de soy? Où sont ceux qui se sont tenus fermes, &c. ? Ariste, tu peux remarquer la suitte de quinze petits mots dont les treize sont monosyllabes; ce qui montre ou qu'il est ignorant des préceptes de la Rhétorique, ou qu'il y a des reigles qui sont particulières à luy, et incognues à tous les Orateurs.' P. 229, 1. 1. a Pindaric; i. e. an Alexandrine.

1. 5. Chapman has followed him. Triplets in Chapman's Odyssey, e.g. i. 399, iv. 27, v. 361, vi. 351.

1. 7. Mr. Cowley. Cf. Johnson's Life of Cowley: 'Cowley was, I believe, the first poet that mingled Alexandrines at pleasure with the common heroick of ten syllables, and from him Dryden borrowed the practice whether ornamental or licentious.' • Of triplets in his Davideis he makes no use, and perhaps did not at first think them allowable; but he appears afterwards to have changed his mind, for in the verses on the government of Cromwell he inserts them liberally with great happiness.'

P. 230, 1. 10. Staff, i.e. stave, stanza. See note in vol. i. on p. 12, 1. 35: Davenant's views in the Preface to Gondibert.

P. 231, l. 19. the excuse of Boccace. In the Epilogue to the Decameron (Conclusione dell'autore): che maestro alcun non si tryova da Dio in fuori, che ogni cosa faccia bene e compiutamente, E Carlo Magno che fu il primo facitore de' paladini non ne seppe tanti creare, che esso di lor soli potesse fare hoste.'

P. 232, l. 14. hammered money, for want of milled. Compare Letter xvii. in Scott's Dryden (to Tonson; Feb. 1696 ?) on the difficulties about the currency: 'I shall lose enough by your bill upon Mr. Knight; for after having taken it all in silver, and not in half-crowns neither, but shillings and sixpences, none of the money will go; for which reason I have sent it all back again, and as the less loss will receive it in guinneys at 29 shillings each.' And again


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May 26 (Leter xviii), “Sir Ro. Howard writt me word, that if I cou'd make any advantage by being paid in clipp'd money,

he woud change it in the Exchequer.' See Macaulay, History of England, c. xxi. 1, where Dryden's phrase is quoted from this Essay. P. 233, 1. 8. for Cupid read Ascanius :

'Lull'd in her Lap, amidst a Train of Loves
She gently bears him to her blissful Groves :
Then with a wreath of Myrtle crouns his Head,

And softly lays him in a flow'ry Bed.'
1. 21. quisquis studet. Hor. Od iv.

1. 22. Aude hospes. Aen. viii. 364. P. 235, 1. 6. The late Earl of Lauderdale. Richard Maitland (16531695), fourth Earl, sent over his translation from Paris, where he was living doubly exiled, outlawed in England, and not received at St. Germain's by reason of his opposition to the extreme Catholic policy of King James. His work was published in 1737.

1. 30. Two other worthy friends of mine. Dr. Knightly Chetwood and Mr. Addison. Dr. Chetwood wrote the Life of Virgil, and the Preface to the Pastorals ; see Dryden's letter to Tonson, No. xxvi. in Scott's edition : 'I have also this day written to Mr. Chetwood, and let him know that the book is immediately goeing to the press again. My opinion is that the printer shou'd begin with the first Pastoral, and print on to the end of the Georgiques, or farther if occasion be, till Dr. Chetwood corrects his Preface, which he writes me word is printed very false.' Addison wrote the Preface to the Georgics. P. 236, 1, 12, why I writ not always in the proper terms.

See Introduction to Annus Mirabilis, and compare Warton on Dante, History of English Poetry, cxlix : “We are surprised that a poet should write one hundred cantos on Hell, Paradise, and Purgatory. But this prolixity is partly owing to the want of art and method ; and is common to all early compositions, in which everything is related circumstantially and without rejection, and not in those general terms which are used by modern writers.' l. 23. the four preliminary lines :

'Ille ego qui quondam gracili modulatus avena
Carmen et egressus silvis vicina coegi
Ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono

Gratum opus agricolis at nunc horrentia Martis.' 1. 19. Tucca and Varius. The story being that these editors retrenched' the four opening lines, leaving Arma virumque at the head of the first book.

P. 238, 1. 28. A Sixth Pastoral (Silenus), translated by Lord Roscommon; Pharmaceutria (the Eighth Pastoral).


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