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mighty conflict between the church and her enemies—the most violent struggle of Satan and his adherents in opposition to true religion, and the most general commotion that ever was in the world, since the foundation of it to that time—and many particular christians may suffer hard things in this conflict. But in the general, Satan and Antichrist shall not get the victory, nor greatly prevail ; on the contrary, they shall be entirely conquered, and utterly overthrown in this great battle. So that I hope this prophecy of the slaying of the witnesses, will not stand in the way of a compliance with the proposal made to us in the memorial, as a prevalent objection and discouragement.
That the fall of Antichrist is at a great distance, answered.
A late very learned and ingenious expositor of the Revelation, Mr. Lowman, sets the fall
of antichrist, and consequently the coming of Christ's kingdom, at a great distance; supposing that the twelve hundred and sixty years of antichrist's reign did not begin till the year seven hundred and fifty-six ; and consequently, that it will not end till after the year two thousand; and this opinion he confirms by a great variety of arguments.
If this objection be allowed to be valid, and that which ought to determine persons in an affair of this nature, in connection with the duty before proved, then the following things must be supposed ; viz. That it is the will of God his people be much in prayer for this event; and particularly, that a little before its accomplishment his people be earnestly seeking, and importunately crying to God for it; but yet that it was God's design, before this time of extraordinary prayer and importunity, his church should understand precisely when the appointed time should be; and that accordingly he has now actually brought the fixed time to light, by means of Mr. Lowman. But is it reasonable to suppose, that this should be God's manner of dealing with his church ; first to make known to them the precise time which he has unalterably fixed for shewing this mercy to Zion, and then make it the duty of his church, in an extraordinary manner, to be by prayer enquiring of him concerning it, and saying, How long, Lord! that he would come quickly, hide himself no longer, have mercy upon Zion, awake as one out of sleep, openly manifest himself, and mak bare his holy arm for the salvation of his people? That " they who make mention of the Lord should not keep silence, nor give him any rest, till he establish and make Jerusalem a praise in the earth ?"
ny:" and observes, that the original may mean the time of their testimony as well as the end of it.-I might here observe, that we have other instances of God shortening the days of his church's captivity and bondage, either at the beginning or end, very parallel with what has been now supposed in the case of the witness
Thus the proper time of predicted bondage to the posterity of Abraham in, Egypt, was four hundred years; Gen. xv. 13. But yet God in mercy deferred the beginning of their bondage ; whereby the time was much shortened. So the time wherein it was foretold, that the whole land of Israel should be a desolation and an astonishment, and the land should enjoy her sabbaths, by the Babylonish captivity, was seventy years ; (Jer. xsv. 11, 12.) and these seventy years are dated (2 Chron. xxxvi ž0, 21.) from Zedekiah's captivity; and yet, from that captivity to Cyrus's decree, was but fifty-two years; though it was indeed seventy years before the more full restoration of the Jewish church and state by Darius's decrec, Ezra vi. So the proper time of the oppression and bondage of the Jewish church under Antiochus Epiphanes, wherein « both the sanctuary and hosts should be trodden under foot by him, was two thousand three hundred days ;" Dan. vii. 13, 14. The time from Antiochus's taking Jerusalem, and polluting the sanctuary, to his death, seems to have been about so long But God shortened the days, by granting remarkable help to his people by means of the Maceabees, before that time. Yea, the temple and sanctuary were restored, and the altar rebuilt, and dedicated, before that period.
And that the church should then say to Christ, “Make haste, my beloved, and be thou like a roe or a young hart on the mountain of spices ?"
It may be many ways for the comfort and benefit of God's church in her afflicted state, to know that the reign of antichrist is to be no more than one thousand two hundred and sixty years; and some things in general may be argued concerning the approach of it, when it is near: as the Jews could argue the approach of Christ's first coming, from Daniel's prophecy of the seventy weeks, though they knew not precisely when that seventy weeks would end. But it is not reasonable to expect that God should make known to us beforehand, the precise time of Christ's coming in his kingdom. The disciples desired to know this, and manifested their desire to their Lord; but he told them plainly, that "it was not for them to know the times and seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power;" (Acts i. 6. 7.) and there is no reason to think that it is any more for us than for them; or for Christ's disciples in these days any more than for his apostles in those days. God: makes it the duty of his church to be importunately praying for it, and praying that it may come speedily; and not only to be praying for it, but to be seeking for it, in the use of proper means; endeavouring that religion may now revive every where, and Satan's kingdom be overthrown; and always to be waiting for it, being in a constant preparation for it, as servants that wait for the coming of their Lord, or virgins for the coming of the bridegroom, not knowing at what hour he will come. But God's making known beforehand the precise time of his coming, does not well consist with these things.
It is the revealed will of God, that he should be enquired of by his people, by extraordinary prayer, concerning this great mercy, to do it for them, before it be fulfilled. And if any suppose, that it is now found out precisely when the time is to be, and (the time being at a considerable distance) that now is not a proper season to begin this extraordinary prayer, I would on this supposition, ask, When we shall begin? How long before the fixed and known time of the bestowment of this mercy comes, shall we begin to cry earnestly to God that this mercy may come, and that Christ would make haste and be like a roe, &c.? For us to delay, supposing that we know the time to be far off, is not agreeable to the language of God's people in my text, “Come let us go speedily, and pray before the Lord, and seek the Lord of hosts."
I acknowledge that Mr. Lowman's Exposition of the Revelation is on many accounts excellently written, giving great light into some parts of that prophecy; and especially his interpretation of the five first vials : yet his opinion with respect to the time, times, and half a time of antichrist's reign, is the less to be regarded, because it is expressly declared it should be sealed up and hid, and not known till the time of the end of this period. " Daniel, in the last chapter of his prophecy, gives us an account how the angel told him of a future time of great
trouble and affliction to the church of God, and then said to him, ver. 4. “But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end." And then the prophet proceeds to give an account of a vision he had of one earnestly enquiring of the angel of the Lord “how long it would be to the end” of this remarkable time of the church's trouble, saying, “How long shall it be to the end of these wonders ?" ver. 5, 6. The answer was, that " it should be for a time, times and an half,” and that when so long a time was past, then this wonderful affliction and scattering of the holy people should be finished, ver. 7. But then Daniel tells us, in the next verse, that " he heard, but he understood not," and said, “O, my Lord, what shall be the end of these things ?" He did not understand that general and mystical answer, that those things should have an end at the end of "a time, times and an half;" he did not know by it, when this period would have an end, and therefore he enquires more particularly what the time of the end was. But the angel replies, ver. 9.
"Go thy way, Daniel, the words are closed and sealed up, till the time of the end." I do not know what could have been more express. The angel gently rebukes this over inquisitiveness of Daniel, very much as Christ did a like inquisitiveness of the disciples concerning the same matter, where he said to them, “ It is not for you to know the times and seasons, that the Father hath put in his own power.”
I think there can be no doubt but that this
of the church's great trouble, about the end of which Daniel enquires, is the same with what is spoken of, chap vii. 25, and Rev. xii. 14, as the time of antichrist's reign, and the church's being in the wilderness; and not merely the time of the church's troubles by Antiochus Epiphanes. But we see, when Daniel has a mind to know particularly when this time would come to an end, he is bid to go away, and rest contented in ignorance of this matter: for, says the man clothed in linen, “the words are closed up, and sealed, till the time of the end." That is, very plainly, the matter that you enquire about shall not be known, but be kept a great secret, till the time of the end actually comes, and all attempts to find it out before shall be in vain. And therefore when a particular divine appears, who thinks he has found it out, and has unsealed this matter, we may well think he is mistaken*.
Though it is not for us to know the precise time of the fall of antichrist, yet I humbly conceive that we have no reason to suppose the event principally intended in the prophecies of antichrist's destruction to be at so great a distance as Mr. LOWMAN places it; but have reason to think it to be much nearer.
Not that I would set up myself as a person of equal judgment with Mr. Lowman in maiters of this nature. As he differs from most other approved expositors of the Apocalypse, in this matter; so I hope it will not appear vanity and presumption in me to differ from this particular expositor, and to agree with the greater number. And since his opinion stands so much in the way of that great and important affair, to promote which is the very end of this whole discourse, I hope it will not look as though I affected to appear considerable among the interpreters of prophecy, and as a person of skill in these mysterious matters, when I offer some reasons against Mr. LowMan's opinion. It is surely great pity, that it should be received as a thing clear and abundantly confirmed, that the glorious day of antichrist's fall is at so great a distance, so directly tending to discourage all earnest endeavours after its speedy accomplishment (unless there be good and plain ground for it.) I would therefore offer some things to consi. deration, which I think may justly make us look upon the opinion of this learned interpreter, not so indubitable, as to hinder our praying and hoping for its being fulfilled much sooner.
* Mr. LOWMAN's own words in his preface, p. 24, 25, are here worthy to be repeated : “ It will says he) ever be a point of wisdom not to be over busy, or over confident in any thing, especially in fixing periods of time, or determining seasons ; which it may be are not to be determined, it may be are not fit to be known. It is a maxim of greater wisdom than is usually thought, ‘Seek not to know what should not be revealed. Such are many future events. The precise time of our Saviour's coming to judgment was not revealed, because not fit to be revealed. The uncertainty of his appearance was of greater service to preservo a care of religion, than the revelation of it would have been; for the uncertainty itself gives many useful exhortations : 'Watch, for ye know not what hour the Son of man cometh.' Suppose then some of the events described in this prophecy should be of doubtful application-suppose the precise time of the downfall of the beast, the slaying and resurrection of the witnesses, and the beginning of the thousand years' happy state of the church, should not be so deterinined, but it would admit of different calculations; may it not be wise, and therefore fit it should be so ? The certainty of those events in a proper time, though that time should not be precisely determined, will answer the greater ends of useful instruction. And if the revelation should go no further than this, it would yet be a revelation of great benefit and advantage ; as the certainty of the day of judgment in its proper time surely is, though of that day and hour knowcth no man."
The period of antichrist's reign, as this author has fixed it, seems to be the main point insisted on in his exposition of the revelation ; which he supposes a great many things in the scheme of prophecies delivered in that book concur to establish. But there are several things in that scheme which appear to me justly liable to exception.
Whereas it is represented, Rev. xvii. 10, 11, that there are seven different successive heads of the beast; that five were past, and another was to come, and to continue a short space, that might on some accounts be reckoned a seventh ; and that antichrist was to follow next after this, as the eighth ; but yet the foregoing not being properly one of the heads of the beast, he was properly the seventh. Mr. Lowman does not think with others, that by the seventh that was to continue a short space, which would not be properly one of the heads of the beast, is meant Constantine, and the other christian emperors ; for he thinks they are reckoned as properly belonging to the sixth head of the beast, but that hereby is intended the
government of Rome under the Gothic princes, and the exarchate of Ravenna, after the imperial form of government in Rome ceased in Augustulus, till the Pope was invested with his temporal dominion, called St. Peter's patrimony by Pepin king of France, in the year 756. And he supposes that the wounding of one of the heads of the beast with a sword of death, ch. xiii. 3— 14, was not fulfilled in the destruction of the heathen empire, and the giving of the imperial power unto christians, but in the destruction
of the imperial form of government by the sword of the Goths, in the time of Augustulus. But it seems to me to be very unlikely, that the spirit of God should reckon Constantine and the christian emperors as proper members, and belonging to one of the heads of that monstrous wild and cruel beast, compared to a leopard, a bear, and a devouring lion, that had a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies, and that rules by the power and authority of the dragon, or the devil ;* which beast is represented in this
* The word Therion, signifies a wild savage beast, as Mr. LOWMAN himself observes, page 187.