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which happens to be the first ac- from different points of view, their complished will greatly accelerate fears subside, and they become rethe accomplishment of the other. conciled by degrees:- Nay, it is Indeed, almost all people are apt not an uncommon thing for them to to startle at first at bold truths : adopt those falutary measures afterBut it is observable, that in propor- wards with as much zeal and ardor tion as ihey grow familiarized to as they had rejected them before with them, and can see and eonsider thein anger and indignation.

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An Essay on the CHARACTER of the Present Age. T has been common, in all ages, determined. It has, indeed, been af,

for interested writers to give such frmed, by a late writer to be that of à colouring to their representations a luxurious effeminacy; and perhaps as they juded would be most agreea- some appearances concur which seemble to the eye of their Patron, while ingly justify this peremptory concluthe uninfluenced part of mankind have lion. generally concurred in condemning the But, if we extend our views, it present times and extolfingthe past. will, perhaps, appear to be at once

If we, however, turn over the an both hasty and erroneous : And we nals of antiquity, we shall find that ought to be careful how we judge they who exifted, at the several dif- of a national character from a few tant periods daily recominended to our particular circumstances, too inconadmiration, have been no less severe fiderable to warrant a general deterin censuring those times than our mo- mination. dern Patriots are in ftigmatising the It is true, indeed, as he observes, present.

that we too often see warriors decoHuman nature has undoubtedly rated with all the delicacies of dress, been the fame in all ages; a mixture with all the trappings of effeminacy, of vices and virtues has always com- swimming in sedan-chairs, and exposed the characters of nankind, hibiting i he appearance of a hero in ihough they have appeared, at diffe- an Italian opera ; but it is also as true tent times, under various modes ; but that we frequently behold men of the the general character of particular first rank and fortune wading through nations has been constantly determin. the dirt of London, disguised in a ed by the example of the great and garb almost too mean for the apparet ruling men of the State: If they have of a porter. been wife and virtuous, the people

If we attend them into the country, have been good and honest; if they we may see them, in the heat of a have been vigilant and brave, the peo- dangerous fox.chace, fly over fivehave been bold and enterprising. barred gates with intrepidity, and

That the character of the present run, with furious speed, down a danage is neither glorious, nor amiable, gerous steep at the hazard of their is a melancholy truth which seems to Tiecks: At other times we may view be universally admitted : Yet, with- thein, from the rising to the setting out doubt, here is as much spirit of the sun, Naving over hedge and and virtue in individuals now as in ditch in quest of feathered prey: Somethe days of heroism.

cimes we may behold them ride their There is, however, reason to think own horses at Newmarket, and pant that the diftinguishing characterittic round the course with Olympic spirit, of the present age has not yet been enjulous to seize the noble prize of March, 1774

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jockeyship

jockeyship. These robust exercises taught every man to act as if he lived are not the criterions of effeminacy: for himself alone, without any confiNor dues that appear to be the reign deration of the duty he owes to focieing quality to which we are to prefer ty; this has been the bane of honour, the seeming want of spirit and the ab and has destroyed all those noble senfence of other virtues.

timents which teach us to sacrifice Lifeminacy is refined in its plea- our own pleasure and convenience, fures, gentle in its manners, and palo nay even to hazard our lives, for the sive in its obedience. But, what- good of the Public. ever progre's some individuals may If we trace the fource of this dehave made towards this soft refine- teftable sellishness, we shall find that ment, yet, as a nation, we are still it owes its rise to the fatal administraindelicate in our enjoyments, uncur tion of foriner Ministers, who have teous in our behaviour, and daring introduced that abominable system of in disobedience.

corruption which, unless it is utterly Mightihe Writer of this little Essay destroyed, will, at last, inevitably presume to determine the real cha- prove the ruin of this kingdom. racters of the age, he would not he By this men have been thought to sitate to declare that seLFISHNESS ridicule public virtue to that degree, is the ruling principle. However that, if we do but mention the love men are attached to different vices of our country, every one is ready to and follies, yet the majority concursneer at the expreslion: Seeming Pain this, that they are all actuated by triots have often had it in their this fordid and pernicious quality. mouths, but the event of their conIt has taken such deep root in Britain dućt has sufficiently proved that hythat it is become a part of modern pocrisy lurked all the while in their wisdom, and included under that hearts. fashionable summary of all accom

We have seen them pursue corrupt plishments, called knowledge of the Ministers with unremitting vengeance, world.'

till they have forced them to resign, A man who is said to know the and then, strange to believe! we world is one who makes his own have known then desert the Public, private advantage the rule of all his and conclude a shameful compromise actions ; one who laughs at the zeal for the sake of titles and pensions. of patriotisim, and the care of pofte These examples have spread their rity, as the ridiculous reveries of idle destructive influence : Men in inferi. speculation, only calculated to amuse or stations find that the Great regard confcientious fools, while free-think- only themselves, and make a jest of ing knaves are sharing the plunder principle: Therefore they are readiof the common-wealth.

ly inclined to imitate ihe conduct of This is modern wisdom, that left- their Superiors, whom they conceive handed wisdom which has long held to be better judges of moral rectitude the rudder of the state, and debased than themselves. the spirit of the nation; this has

THOUGHTS

on the LIBERTY of the PRESS. Addressed to Lord

Mansfield.

A he liberty of the press

, 19.canS to any formed design against importance to a king of Great Bri

tain, than (if possible) to any of his not suffer myself to be at all appre- subjects ; and this alone fuffices with henfive of it: it is of more use and me to ftifie and keep down every rif

ing

pa

ing jealousy. In abfolute despotic mation from others. For, I suppose, governments, where the will of the it will be no farire upon any particprince is the law of the country, ular court, that now is, or ever was, where all things are administered by to fay, that there never was a prince force and arms, and where the glory who was told by any of his fervants of the grand monarque is the sole end all those truths, which'it concerned and object of the monarchy, it mat him to know. At least this is a proters not much for him to know, what position 1 take to be so well groundthe condition of his subjects is, and ed, that I do not think the severe what they fay or think about him : plain dealing of a Clarendon or the bur in a qualified and limited monar honeft bluneness of a Sully, fufficient chy, like ours, where the king is no to form an exception to it. The more than the first magistrate appoint- emperor Diocletian made the difficuled by the people, where he is as bound ty of reigning well, to confiit chiefly to obey the laws as the meanest of in the difficulty of arriving at the real his fubjects, and where the well-be- knowledge of affairs.

is Four or ing of these subjects is the sole end five courtiers, fays he, form themof his appointment-surely to such felves into a cabal, and unite in their a prince it must be of the last conse- counsels to deceive the emperor. quence to know, as minutely as he They say what will pleafe their mafcan, what is doing in every corner ter: who, being fhut up in his of his kingdom; what the state and lace, is a perfect ftranger to the real condition of his subjects; whether truth; and is forced to know only, they enjoy plenty, proportioned to what they are pleased to tell him." their industry; and whether, in short, Now this great hindrance to goodthe end of his kingly government be government, as Diocletian justly in every respect answered. All this, thought it, is almost, if not altogeI say, and more, a king of Great ther, removed by the glorious priBritain must know as he can: but – vilege of the British constitution, of how muft he know it?

which we are speaking, the liberty A king, let his discernment of of the press. By means of this, the Spirits be what it will, fet him pry lowest subject may find access to the ever fo acutely into the heads and throne ; and by means of this, the hearts of those about him, will never king has a key, if I may so call it, be able to pierce through the mani to all manner of intelligence : nor is fold disguises, which courtiers al- there any thing, of the least imporways know how to wrap themselves tance to government, of which his in By courtiers are not meant those majesty can long reinain uninformed gaudy painted images which flutter and ignorant. It is not meant; that about a palace, and are really no. he should suddenly adopt as real truth thing more than the moving furniture and matter of fact every thing, which of it; but those, who are entrusted may be read in the public prints; and with the great offices, to whom the many perhaps may think, that amidst adıinistration of affairs is committed, so much inisrepresentation and error, and who for the most part manage so much partiality and disguise, so and direct the reins of government as much indiscriminate fcurrility and they please. And as he cannot dif- abuse, he can hardly depend upon cover, by any natural fagacity in any thing at all, or take any meahimself, the latent principles of sures from such a chans of truth and things, any more than ihe real cha- falsehood. But of this chacs, were racters of persons ; so he must not it ten times more so, it is indisputaexpect to receive any effectual infor. bly certain, that very much use and

very

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very many advantages may be made. rupt courts, to stop up these chan, The king inay be directed to find nels of intelligence to the prince, things, which he would never have They know that by them a com thought of looking for: more than merce, correspondence, and union glimmerings will ever and anon ap as it were, are maintained between pçar, wbich will enable him to puih ţhe prince and his people. They his discoyeries far, and to trace ma know, that while there are so mainny things to their fource, which tained, they vainly attempt to cabal, would otherwise have lain hid from and to impose upon their master ; and him. In short, from these public if notwithstanding they will not tell intelligencers, some things will be him all the truth they should, yet they hinted, others spoken out more freely, dare not abule him grossly with mil and others presented in their full representation and lies. Why? Beglare; and thus, upon the whole, cause a discovery is instantly at hand, all concerns of moment, relating ej- and likewise because disgrace and ther to persons or things, will be ruin will tread upon the heels of it. fufficiently unfolded, and laid open So that, all things laid together, the before him.

advantage to the fovereign from the Wicked and selfish ministers know liberty of the press is my great secu. all this so well, that we have often rity for the continuance and preserheard of great management, in cor- Yation of it,

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YORALY is no Beauty; nay, her cheek burns with indignation,

in the vulgar eye, she is jult the she has a manner fo irrefittably alreverse; but she has every mental tractive, so peculiarly her own, that grace in perfection, and beauties of admiration follows it, as naturally as the mind seldom fail to diffuse beau- effect its cause. ries - indefinable beauties over the With a native propensity to railleperson. Coraly has few of those ry, and an intuitive perception of charms that constitute personal excel- the ludicrous, Coraly is ever ftudilence — her cheek is pallid her eye ous to avoid offence, and is generalno brilliant; but when the latter ly successful. A nice observer will beams benevolence, or sparkles with perceive how often she curbs this mirth - when the former is fuffufed propenfity, and suppresses the rising with the captivating blush of model- ridicule, and will give her credit for ty, or vermilioned with the glow of the suppresion. Her face is a never the tender passion, there are none failing index to her heart; and whenemore pleasing

ver she means to indulge. is sure to Nothing is more natural than for afford previous intimation. The Distress to comnand attention, and smile of complacency quivers on her excite the tributary tear. In gene- lip, and a certain wanton archness is ral, this attention has few attractions seen playing in her eye that elules

- there is little in the rear to admire. description. She lets Ay the pointed
But when Coraly listens to the tale arrows of her wit; and even where
of the mourner, her paflions rise and they are directed, they commonly
fall in such perfect unison with those extort applause. The lines,
of the narrator, that were you to “ Çursd be the verse, how well-foc'er
trust the evidence of sight alone, it

it flow,
would pose you to determine whose Which tends to make one worthy mar,
grief was the greater of the two.

my foe,When her eye gliftens with pity, and the often repeats delighted; and ra

ther

ther than give even the shadow of afflicted; her congue is ever prompt
offence to any well meaning person, to adminifter the vivifying balın of
would forego (hard takk for a Fe- confolation; and her hand“ open
male!) every opportunity of being as day to melting charity.” Such
admired. Her car is ever open to the is Coraly! There are many who
prayer of the unfortunate, and ever possess inore of the outward and vi-
closed to the suggestions of calumny; fible fignof beauty, but in the inward
her feet are ever winged to visit the and spiritual Grace the has few rivals.

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A DISCOURSE on the different kinds of A IR, delivered at the Anniversary

Meeting of the Royal Society, Nov. 30, 1773. By Sir John Pringle,
Bart. President.
HIS discourse chiefly relates to had found the mephitic air sufficient

to diffolve any calcareous earths,
nual prize-medal of 1773 was confer- “ Nothing," says the President,
ed on the Rev. Dr. Prielley, namely, seemed now to be wanting to the
the many curious and useful experi- triumph of art, but an easy method
ments contained in his Observations of joining, as there should be occa-
on different kinds of Air, read at fion, one or both of those princis
the society in March, 1972, and ples to common water, in order 10
inserted in the last volume of the improve upon nature in the more ex.
Pbilosophical Iranfa&ions.

teolive ule of her medicine: and
In this discourse the learned Pre; this was effected by Dr. Priestley, af.
fident has traced the progress of the ter some other important discoveries
most important discoveries of the had been made in this part of poeu,
properties of air from the time of matics, first by Dr. Black, professor
Bacon and Galileo to the present of Chymistry at Edinburgh, ard
time; and has comprized in a few then by Mr. Cavendish, a member
pages the result of innumerable ex of the Royal Society."
periments. In fact, the discourse Of all these facts, and others
may be considered as a compendious which the President enumerated,
bistory of common and factitious air, Dr. Priestley carefully availed him,
to far as the essential properties of self; and conceiving that common
either have yet been discovered. water impregnated with this mephi-

To Lord Bacon the President af- tic fuid alone, might be useful in
cribes the discovery of factitious or medicine, particularly for failors on
artificial air. To Sir Isaac Newton, long voyages, for curing or prevent-
tbai true permanent air arising from ing the sea-scurvy, for this purpose
fixed bodies by heat and fermenta- he made a simple apparatus for ge.
tion. To Dr. Hales, the air abound- perating this species of air from
ing in the Pyrmont waters. To Dr. chalk, and mixing it with water,
Broworig, the qualityofthat air which in such quantities, and in fo speedy
is of the mepbiricor deadly kind, such a manner, that having exhibited the
as is found in damps, deep wells, ca- experiment before the Royal Society
verns, and coal-pits, so often fatal to and the college of physicians, it med
migers. To Dr. Black, ibat of fixed with so much approbarion, that, ia
air. And to Mr. Lane, the discovery order the public right the sooner
of the chalybeate principle in the Spa reap the benefit of it, he was induc-
and Pyrmont waters, in consequence ed to detach this part of his labours,
of a conversation with Dr. Watson, and, in a leparate paper, to present
jun. on an experiment of Mr. Ca- it to the Admiralty.
vendith's, by which that gentleman ?o the discovery of the differenc

kin

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