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family in this nation, above the rank to the profit than another man. But of a labouring man, who dines with- it is not for the unfeeling I wish to out one servant at least, either man write. or majd, to attend, who, of course, Perhaps there could not be a higher pick up the Virtues and Vices of their affront put upon any one, than hinting berters.
that they are of no consequence in the When a man of superior education world. Why then do we put so gross is about to display his wit in laugh- an affront upon ourselves? However ing at those who fancy it of conte- low, however secluded, however inquence to frequent the Church, to hear fignificant we may be, or appear to the man in black pretend to instruct many, there are, there mult be some him in his duty; he would do well to whom our actions are of the greatto reflect that his servant has no eft consequence. To the Public every chance of learning his duty in any o. individual is answerable for his behather place; and that, when he sets up viour as a niember of the body politic. his understanding above a Locke, à To his Maker every man is answerable Newton, an Addison, &c. &c. he is for his own faults, and, as far as he is teaching his domeftics to assume the the efficient cause, not only for his own, fame superiority over himself, and to but likewise those of others ; whether find argoments equally good with he is acceffary by commanding, perthose he hears from the company, for suading, or neglecting to prevent evil , any species of wickedness he is inclin- and I will venture to affirın, in oppoed to pursue. If the conversation fition to an Atheistical writer of the last furns upon the defects of his neigh- age, that private virtues are public bour, and depreciating the characters benefits, and private vices tend ineviof his acquaintance, can he, with any tably to the ruin of every communidegree of propriety, be angry that his ty, and are, in effect, the bane of Soservants divert others with his failings, ciety. Were there no honest men in and those of his family?'
the world, what would becomeof pubMrs. Mode, the other day, at table, lic credit ? and, was there no such mentioned, with exultation, the op- thing as benevolence, the aged and deportunities she had, when she resided crepid poor must perish for want of at her father's near Hastings, to pro- that which every man may be felfish cure French Glks and run tea ; for, enough to spend wholly upon bis own said the • I never thought there was gratiñcations. any harm in cheating the King.' As members of society, we ought to hope, Madam, (said a blunt relation, do all in our power to mend others ; a Captain in the Guards) your ser- but, as we are not certain of succeed vant will profit by this lesson; for, I ing in that attempt, let us set ourselves dare answer for them, they think to do that which we are capable of themselves as little culpable in cheat- performing, the mending that one' ing their Mistress! And indeed, why for whose every fault we must be anwould they not? For, surely, no good swerable to hiin who has placed us reason can be given why his Majesty here for our own benefit, and with the is pitched upon as the only individual benevolent design of our adding to the in his kingdom that may be robbed happiness of our fellow-creatures. with impunity.'
From our great Creator we are moralIt is a Itrange attempt to exculpate ly certain that we shall receive a reourselves by laying. - If I did not do ward adequate to the pains we have it, others would : Like the Dutchman taken to perforın his will ; and it is his who made intereit to sell the rope will that we should, if we accept his which must have been purchased, to terms, be happy here and enjoy perhang his own father, from some one petual felicity hereafter. elle, and thought he had a better right
qually laudable, he made his place of THE
begin with, 20,000l.-- he has now left Apicius. 4 Character.
the business nominally to a relation of PICIL'S is one of those mortals, his own, but is still in reality concern
who are kappy in themselves a- ed in it-he lives now on the best of lone, and never fcels a disagreeable the land, indulges in gluttony and efenfation on account of any thing that very other vice, to which he always happens to the rest of the world, if it had a propensity, though before he has no connexion with their own per- never dared to shew it—but forgetful fons or eftates.
of his former situation he is now imRaised from the lowest degree from perious, proud, and oppressive, and the very dregs of the earth-brought though he will squander hundreds upfrom the coal mines at - Api- on luxury, will never give a penny to cius was conveyed to London, and put an object of charity in distress. apprentice by a friend to a reputable Such is the character of Apicius, and prchuable business.-Roughly as many as good men are fentenced to he was bred, he was one of thole who suffer transportation ; yet he is held easily imbibe the aris of dillimulation, in high esteem, merely because he pays he ingratiated himself with his master, his bills when he pleases, and will not and without any real merit, as to skill acknowledge himfelf to be obliged to or application in his business, yet fuc- any body. cecced so well in his arts, that he was The following is an Epitome of tbe Bofmade foreman as soon as he was out
ton Bill. of his time.---By oppressing the labour
"HE bill sets forth, that danger
ous commotions and infurrectimore worth than it was generally con ons have been fomented and raised in ceived to be, at the same time that he the town of Boston by divers ill-affecftill continued to recommend himself ted persons, to the subversion of his to his employer, till finding him by a majesty's government, and to the utlingering illness weakened both in bo- ter deftrudion of the public peace and dy and mind, he resolved to play off good order of the said town; in which likewise upon him with the customary commotions and insurrections, certain fill, those aris which he had other- valuable cargoes of teas, the properwife fo successfully practifed ; and ty of the East India company, on board managed in luch a manner as by in- certain vessels lying in the harbour of finuating that he himself meant to set Boston, were feized and destroyed. up in business, to get the promise of That in the present condition of the buñiness from many ; the period of his said town and harbour, the commerce master's death, he means to make the of his majesty's subjects cannot be æra from whence he was to date the safely carried on there, nor the cufadvanceinent of his fortune, which toms payable to his majesty duly colhowever he found he must raise upon lected ; and it is therefore expedient a borrowed capiral, but it happened that the officers of the customs should orkerwise, for when the old gentleman be forthwith removed from the said vied heleft him 500l. for his services, town. bur the bulk of bis fortune and busi And therefore the bill enacts, that nels to his Nephew ; as to the latter ii Mall not be lawful for any person however, it happened that Apicius or persons to lay on board any ihip or setting up drew all the trade to him veifel from any part of the town of felf, as he did with regard to other Botion, between Nahant Point and tradesmen, by finding fault with their Alderton Point, any goods, wares or work and other such base methods, merchandize, to be transported to any by there in the course of twenty years, other country, or into any other part he acquired from so small a capital 10 of the province of Malfachuset's Bay,
or to discharge or lay on land within jesty.--Declaring that every charterthe said town, or upon any of the party, bill of lading and other contract places aforesaid, out of any ship or for consigning, hipping, or carrying vessel, any goods, wares or merchan any goods or merchandize to or from dize, to be brought from any other the said town or harbour, made or to country, or from any other part of be made, or entered into, so long as the said province, upon pain of for- the act shall remain in force, fhall be feiting the goods, and of the ship or void; empowering the King, whenevessel into which the same shall be put, ver it shall be made appear to him in or out of which the same shall be his privy conncil that peace and obetaken.
dience to the laws shall be so far reThere are clauses inflicting penal- stored in the said town of Boston, that ties on Wharfingers fuffering goods to the trade of Great Britain may be be landed, shipped off, or water-borne fafely carried on there, to assign and at or from their wharfs, or for aiding appoint the extent, bounds and limits and assisting in the shipping and un- of the said port or harbour ; and also shipping goods, wares or merchan- to aflign and appoint quays and wharfs dize; for obliging ships moored or for the landing and discharging, ladlying at anchor, or hovering in the ing and shipping of goods, as his mabay, or within a certain distance from jefty shall judge neceffary, and to apthe same, to depart to some other har- point such officers of the customs as bour or ftation, except ships laden his majefty shall think fit.- Declaring with military stores for the King's use, that the bill shall not extend to enaor laden with fuel of vi&tuals for the ble the King to appoint such port, subsistence of the inhabitants of the quays, wharfs, or officers in the faid lown of Boston, or ships having on town, unless full satisfaction shall have board goods at the time mentioned in been made to the company for the the bill. - Directing that all seizures, damage sustained by them, by the depenalties and forfeitures,shall be made ftruction of their goods, sent to the and prosecuted by an admiral, chief said town on board certain ships, and commander, or commission officer of to the officers of his majcły's revehis majesty's fleet or ships of war, or nue, and others who suffered by the by some of the officers of the customis, riots and insurrections in November, or some other person authorised by the December, and January last; allowcommissioners of the treafury ; and ing the general issue to be pleaded inflias penalties on such officers and in actions brought in pursuance of the persons as shall take any bribe to con
bill. nive at such lading or unlading, or doing any other act whereby the goods, The following Petition was presented wares, and merchandize prohibited in the House of Commons, figned by Shall be suffered to pass inwards or most of the Gentlemen of North Ame outwards, or whereby the penalties rica, who are in London: and for feitures infiated by the bill may To the honourable the Commons of Great be evaded. ---Directing that the for
Britain, in Parliament assembled. feitures and penalties inflicted by the bill shall be prosecuted for, and ap- The humble Petition of several Natives plied in the fame manner as other pe and Inhabitants of North America. nalties and forfeitures inflicted by any act or acts relating to the trade or re Sherweth,
WHAT tations in America, are directed to be natives profecuted for, recovered, and appli- nions in America, are deeple interested by two acts of the 4th and 8th ed in every proceeding of this honouryears of the reign of his present ma able house, which couches the lite, li
berties or property of any person or asperate the people, and disturb the persons in the laid dominions.
course of justice, Captain Preston and That your petitioners conceive his soldiers had a fair trial, and fathemselves and their fellow subjects vourable verdie. While the due course entitled to the rights of natural justice, of law holds out redress for an injury and to the common law of England, sustained in America, they apprehend as their unalienable birthright that the interposition of parliamentary they apprehend it to be an inviolable power to be full of danger, and withrule of natural justice, that no man out any precedent. If the persons who 1hall be condemned unheard, and committed this trespass are known, that according to law no person or then the East India company have perfons can be judged without being their remedy against them at law; if called upon to swear, and being per- they are unknown, your petitioners mitted to hear the evidence against cannot comprehend by what rule of them, and to make their defence. justice the town can be punished for
That it is therefore with the deepest a civil injury committed by persons sorrow they understand, that this ho- not known to belong to them. nourable house is now about to pass a Your petitioners conceive that there bill to punish with unexampled ri- is not an instance, even in the most gour, the town of Boston, for a trespass arbitrary times, in which a city was committed by some persons unknown, punished by parliamentary authority, upon the property of the East India without being heard, for a civil ofcompany, without the said town's be- fence not committed within their juing apprised of any accusation brought risdiction, and without redress having against them, or having been permite been fought at common law. The ted to hear their defence. Your pe- cases which they have heard adduced titioners conceive such proceedings to are directly against it; that of the King be directly repugnant to every princi- against the city of London was for a ple of law and justice, and that under murder committed within its walls by such a precedent, no man, or body of its citizens in open day. But even men in America, could enjoy a mo- then, arbitrary as the times were, the ment's security : for if judgment be tryal was public in a court of common immediately to follow an accusation law, the party heard, and the law laid against the people of America, fup- down by the judges was, that it was ported even by persons notoriously at an offence at the common law to sufenmity with them, the accused unac- fer such a crime to be committed in quainted with the charge, and from a walled town, tempore diurno, and the nature of their situation utterly none of the offenders to be known or incapable of answering and defending indicted. The case of Edinburgh, in themselves, every fence against falle which parliament did interpołe, was accusation will be pulled down, jus- the commillion of an atrocious murder rice will no longer be their shield, nor within her gates, and aggravated by innocence an exemption froin punish- an overt act of high treason, in exement.
cuting againft the express will of the Your petitioners beg leave to re crown the King's laws. It is obserpresent, that law in America mini- vable that these cities had by charter iters redress for any injury sustained the whole executive power within there, and they can most truly affirm, themselves, so that a failure of justice that it is executed in that country necessarily ensued from their conniwith as much impartiality as in any
In both cases, however, full other part of his majesty's dominions. time was allowed them to discharge In proof of this they appeal to an in- their duty, and they were heard in stance of great notoriety in which, un their defence. But peither has time der every circumftance that could ex- been allowed in this case, nor are the
accused heard, nor is Boston a walled not get out of prison, he may do very town, nor was the fact committed well within, and at last come out a within it, nor is the executive power wiser man than he entered;' but these In their hands, as it is in thofe of Lon- confolations did not fall to the lot of don and Edinburgh; on the contrary, , the Count de Lauzun. At a distance the governor himself holds that power, from the voice of friend or relation; and has been advised by his majesty's without any sounds, except his own council to carry it into execution. If fighs ; without any light, except the it has been neglected, he alone is an- glimmering through the ruins of the swerable; if it has been executed, per- roof; without books, means of occu-haps at this instant, while punishment.pation, or possibility of exercise ; a is inflicting here on those who have prey to hope deferred, corroding lannot been legally tried, the due course guor, and uninterrupted horror ; he of law is operating there to the dis-, at last, as the only means of prelerycovery and prosecution of the real of- ing himself from insanity, had recourse fenders.
to the expedient of taming a spider. Your petitioners, think themselves - Misery, says Trinculo, inakes bound to declare to this honourable a man acquainted with strange comhouse, that they apprehend a pro- panions.' The spider received his ceeding of excessive rigour and in- fies every morning with gratitude, jaftice will fink deep in the minds of carried on his webs through the day their countrymen, and tend to alienate with alacrity, and engaged the whole their affections from this country. attention of his benefactor ; until the
That the attachment of Ainerica gaoler, conversant in scenes of wretchcannot survive the justice of Great edness, and consequently steeled a
gainst every tender sensation, accidenThat if they see a different mode tally discovered this amusement of his of trial eftablished for them, and for prisoner, and, in the wantonness of the people of this country, a mode tyranny, officiously destroyed the fubwhich violates the facred principles ject of it. of natural justice, it may be produc
M. de Lauzun afterwards declartive of national distrust, and extinguish ed that he conceived his agony on this those of filial feelings of respect and occasion to have been more painful, affection, which have hitherto attach- than that of a fond mother on the lots ed them to the parent state.
of a darling child, Urged, therefore, by every inotive of affection to both countries; by the The Rapacity of Courtiers: An Apalogue. most earneft desire, not only to preserve their own rights, and thole of their countrymen, but to prevent the the Kings of Persia, being opdissolution of that love, harmony, and pressed with hunger, one day, as he confidence, which was their mutual was hunting, longed to eat part of the blessing and support.
game he had killed. Being unprovidYour petitioners do moft earnest- ed with salt, however, he lent his ly beseech this honourable house attendants to the next Village for not to pass the said bill.
fome, but denounced the most severe Anecdote of the Count de Lauzun.
penalties on them if they omitted to
pay for it. " What harm,” cried HE Count de Lauzun passed the one of these, “can there be in not 1672 to 1681, in the prison of Pigne- King,” replied Nourthivan,“ should sol. It has been well observed by pluck an Apple in the garden of onc the celebrated Dr. Sterne, ‘chat with of his subjects, his Courtiers, the next pen, ink, and paper, albeit a man can- day, would cut down the Tree." April. 1774