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distracted state of the French monar- owing to the great numbers of Gerchy, after the death of of Henry II. nans, of Scotch, of Iri:h, and of Ahad not even the spirit of making the mericans, who served in our fleets and smallest effort for the recovery of armies, paid indeed by English money, Calais,

but English money is neither English The author next briefly considers ftrength nor courage : if we add to the state of the English [pirit under these confiderations the wretched inthe Stuart race, and whether it ap- capacity of the French ministry, unpeared to advantage in the important der the direction of a weak woman, event of the Revolution. In survey the war, on their side, itrangled in its ing these periods of our history, he en birth by the want of an imrnediate contertains no high opinion of any oppo junction in the houses of Bourbon, the sition to arbitrary government that is one disabled before the other moved, not immediately supported by an in- which could then do little more than furrection of the people. For a nati give additional splendor to the trion to submit to despotism rather than umphs of Britain ; these things confihave recourse to arms in defence of dered, from the uncommon lustre of their liberties, would certainly argue the war we speak of, a superior coua degree of the most contemptible pu- rage of the prefent English, to their fillanıınity; but when we reflect on the courage at former periods, cannot by inconveniencies and horrors unavoid- any means be inferred, nor even an ably attending a civil war, the resort equality.' to that expedient can never be juftifi This writer inveighs with particu. ed, except upon the principle of ne- larseverity against the prevailing mancessity, and after every other means ners of the nobility and gentry in this of preserving the constitution has been country, whom he describes as totaltried.

ly immersed in luxury and dissipation, The author's opinion of the English

which he also observes are every day in the present age, will appear from extending their pernicious influence the following passage :

among the people in general. In this It being clear that the bravery of degenerate ftate, he appears to be of such a nation as ours is inversely as opinion, that the yet untainted virtue the power which the enervaring ef- of the Scots is the best security which fects of soil and situation is permitted the inhabiiants of England at present to exercise over its people, it is no enjoy for the continuance of public Jess certain than the bravery of such liberty. That the people in the north a nation may degraduate into rank part of the island are as yet less corcowardice: to say the English are fal rupted by luxury than their southern Jen so low would be unjust, and to neighbours, we believe will be gene. deny that they are much beneath the rally admitted; but it is certain that fame key of real courage, at which the contagion makes perceptible prothey formerly were, would be truly gress among the former; and we ridiculous. The luftre of the late war ihould be forry to think that the Engwill be urged to the contrary, but lith fpirit were so much degenerated, there are many reasons why the en as to be entirely dependent for protire credit of the war should not be tection upon the inhabitants of any given to Englih bravery. Its suceefs part of the united kingdom. was, in a great measure, owing to the extraordinary expence attending it, by On the Modefly and Cbaffity of W/owhich it was so perfectly served in every quarter of the globe; it was owing io the extensive genius of the man Let then the Fair one beautifully cry who planned its operations; it was In Magdalene's loose hair and lifted




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Or dress’d in smiles of sweet Cecilia ing defaced with time, are as letters shine,

graved on the bark of young trees, that With fimp’ring angels, palıns, and grow and collect strength with them. harps divine;

The fear of having their reputatiWhether the Charmer finner it or on blalted is the third principle of saint it,

the modefty of women.

This we If Folly grow romantic, I must paint Niall have no difficulty of believing, it.

if we reflect but a moment that repuPope's Moral Essays. tation is so powerful a curb, and so

capable of restraining women, that "HOUGH all virtues are com- they who are led away by the spirit

mon to all men, there are not- of intriguing bave recourse to all withstanding fome, as magnificence forts of artifices to hide them from the and liberaliiy, which cannot be exer- knowledge of the world, in order to cised by those who are poor, or have make their reputation chime in with but a scanty fortune ; and hence it the satisfaction they find in that comhappens likewise that there are virtues merce. But there is nothing which peculiar men, and others that be- degrades so forcibly, and ruins so long to wi ven, because nature has much the reputation, as to exhibit given them in 'inations and dispofiti- fpecimens of diffolute morals, so as ons which facilii. 'e to them the exer to have no fear of speaking words cise of those virtut Thus, whilst that openly are offensive to modesty. the heat of constitute makes inen For which reason none need by surbrave and bold, and give them acti- prized at seeing a great nuinber of vity for inartial exploits, the cold women, who thew themselves quite complexion of women, and their na- untainted by that depravation, for tural timidity, help them wonderful- fear of being placed in the rank of ly to practice modesty and chattity. loose and dilorderly courtesans.

This coldness of constitution is then There are some also who, to put the most ordinary principle of the re- themselves upon the footing of prudes, serve and modesty of women, because affect so great a modesty that not onno force is like that of natural incli- ly they cannot endure words that carnations, which we cannot resist with- ry too much impudence on the face out doing violence to ourselves; and of them, but even those expressed because we suffer thereby, and can with delicacy, yet, in their import, not hold out in a state of violence. conveying an idea rather loole than Besides, there is no way of acting that free from vicious affection. This fort is tweeter and more agreeable than to of modesty is usually met with in perfollow, in our actions, the bent nature fons of Quality, and it is a defire in gives us; neither is there any that is them to make it appear that they have more commodious.

not a less advantage over women of Good education is the second prin- mean condition by the politenets and ciple of the modesty of women; for decency of their inanners, than by inaidens have scarce attained to the their birth. In those of an intriguing ufe of reason, when they are general- disposition, it is a desire to engage ly inspired with a true horror for im- men who. by their merit or forrune, modest words and actions, and are seem to have a fitness for gratifying made to observe that such of their their vanity; but this is a lubject on sex as hold imniodest speeches, or which it is here unnecessary to enlarge make the least few of an indecent further. action, are despised by every one, and The passion that young women regarded as persons that have re- have for being inarried contributes nounced all shame. These impreffi- much to their modesty. This paffior ons, which they receive in their first is indeed so itrong that it makes the and most tandar en

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196 On the Modesty and Chastity of Women. April,
continually watchful over themselves gainst the orders of reafon. By the
to conform all their words and actions first we shew that we fear to commit
cu the severelt rules of modelty. For, actions that offend the eyes of men ;
as their state is a state of subjection, by the last, which Plato calls a di-
as it is an insupportable restraint on vine timidity, we cannot suffer any
them not to be mistresses of their con- thing within ourselves which may dif-
duct, and as they hope to find in please God,
marriage the happiness of independen Again, it is clear that the integrity
cy, they wish to marry with an incon- of the body does not of itself alone
ceivable ardor: So that their modesty constitute chastity; and that even this
is a means whereby they insinuate integrity is of little value whee the
themselves into the good graces of heart is corrupted by vicious affećti-
the men, and a sort of warrant they ons. Suppose a woman in a married
give them of their virtue.

ftate: Can the chastity and fidelity
I have taken care to specify all that divine and human laws impose
these kinds of modesty which are ef- upon her be compatible, in any wife,
teemed in the world, that it may be with a love for any other man but
seen that there is not one of them her husband ? No; and it may be faid
which is truly virtuous, or, properly that a married woman, truly chaste
speaking, among Christians, conforun and faithful, ought not to impose fi-
able to what is recommended by their lence on vain pallions, but likewise to
religion. For it is visible that the stifle them in their birth, and to in-
modesty of women, who are natural- spire all who look on her with pure
Ty modeft, is the virtue of their con- and respectful sentiments. For honest
ftitution and not their own ; because women have no occasion to be watch-
none are virtuous by a blind impulse ed by the jealous eye, nor guarded
of inclination, and because to be by rigorous treatment, as roses by
really fo they should be so by choice thorns ; but they ought to preserve
and ihe esteem of virtue. It is visible themselves as things sacred by the
also that the modesty which proceeds veneration they impress ; and this is
from education is the effect of a foreign a sufficiently strong fence against keep-
impression, and not of any love enter- ing all raih men against approaching
tained for that virtue. It is not less them. A chaste and faithful woman
easy to perceive, likewise, that the also should; by her prudent and na-
affectation of modeft behaviour in tural conduct, give to understand that
the view of being clailed with prudes, she is so lite turned, and so little fit
is a vanity; and that to be modest for for the commerce of frivolous palli-
thaking off the yoke of dependency, ons, that she even is no way intelli-
and for being settled by marriage, gent in the language of these parlions,
argues a love, in a multiplicity of nor in the signs performing the duty
cares not justifiable, for living, if of that language.
not with more case, at least with more The violence women offer to them-

selves, who love tenderly, when they It is therefore evident that modest are levere, appears worthy of admibehaviour in the sex should not only ration to the authors of romance, bebe the regularity of external actions, cause they take it to be an extraordibut also the rule of thoughts, incli- nary piece of fortitude. What denations; and sentiments; and that, if ceives them, and what deceives almost there be a visible (haine whereby a every one is, that the effect is looked blush is raised at whatever is done a to, and not the cause of that violence. gainst decency, there is also a shame I mean, that they consider that the of the foul which forces her into a violence which they do to their inclisecret blush at all the thoughts and nations preserves their honour, and all the sentiments that rise in her a- that they have not informed them


selves of that which makes them so that a man is charitable, to know careful in that respect, and whence that he has compassionated that forcomes the power they have over lorn state of a beautiful young Lady themselves. It is iinpossible to seek whose family has been ruined, and ever fo little into the cause without that he has made ample provision for seeing clearly, that it is not the love her wants. · We should also strive to of their honour which makes them so get some ecclaircissement of his intenretentive of it, but the desire of be- tion, to be assured whether the allife' ing long loved; for they well per- tance he gives is not a snare laid by ceive they cannot be objects of love him to rob her of her chastity: bur so long as they shall be esteem It is by this rule we muft judge of ed, and that their complaisance for the chastity of women. It is not ethe desires of their lovers, when they nough to know that their morals and proceed too far, is the fall of their sentiments are honeft; we should still empire.

endeavour to discover what has obligIf there be women, not only irre- ed them thereto, and establish beforeproachable in their conduct, but so hand the motive that renders them chafte, that their most secret thoughts virtuous. do not dread the light, as it must be A woman cannot therefore be truconfessed that there are, if we are not ly modeft and chaste, if she is not jutt and equitable, where can their pure both in body and soul; and, if virtue be attacked, and what can be lo, as all muft confefs this is a requisaid against a chaftity which suffers site inculcated by the Christian dispenno weakness in the soul, nor any irre- fation, it would not he amiss to take gularity in external acts.

a cursory view of all the species of The human heart is a great mys- chaste and modest women whose virtery. Thoughts and desires rise on tues receive a general eulogium, and its furface, and may be perceptible. to see if this name can with justice be For this reason it is that there is no given to them. one who does not know what he The firft fort is of ambitious wothinks and desires, but the m ves of men, who bearing a secret grudge thoughts and desires are hidden in the that men thould have so many means depth of the heart, which cannot be for signalizing themselves by arts, pierced but by the eyes of God. sciences, and a diversity of other comThere it is that secret counsels are mendable qualities, embrace a modest held, and thence it comes to pass, and chaste demeanour with so much says Ariftotle, that true intentions are the more ardour, as it is the only long unknown to us, and, though we road that lies open to them for acoften know what men may desire, we quiring glory. They therefore conduct never fee clearly into their will. themselves in it with so much vigiThus it is with the human heart as fence and discretion as to seem that with the celestial bodies ; for, as their they alin at leaving a very wide motions are perceived by every one, space between themselves and the yet none see the intelligence that common class of women ; and, not ihakes them move: So all know that satisfied with being chafte, they affect the human heart makes, and that it quite particular ways of chastity, that bears sometimes towards one object, they might be reputed prudes. Hence and sometimes towards another, but it likewise happens, that, when they net one knows the spirit that pushes find in then selves a propensity to galit on. It is notwithstanding on the lantry, and an occasion occurs capaknowledge of this bidden principle of ble of tempting them, they make reall human actions that depends the cret efforts to curb their desires, the judgment we ought to form of it. It better to preserve the rank they placis not enough, for instance, to judge ed themselves in, and still to be dita


unguished by others. In short, these better it should be exposed to the reambitious Ladies may be said to bear proach of being styled hypocritical, some resemblance to the Vestals of human, pagan, than to be marked old, who devoted their virginity to with nothing to recommend them, or the service of false gods ; for they on to set them in an amiable light to the their side must be reputed to devote it eyes of the world. The modest and to glory, which is one of the false chaste character, abstracting from all divinities this world adores.

motives, will be ever highly laudaThe second sort is of proud women, ble; while its reverse, an impudent who imagine nothing worthy of them. effrontery, will be stigmatized with 'Tis from this proud difpofition that an indelible odium and infamy. The they new themselves averse to in- sex in general are sensible of all this, trigues and amusements, the favourite or may be sensible of it on a short reoccupations of many others : So that flection ; whence it may not be amiss it may be averred their chastity arises for them to conclude, that there is from the persuasion they are in of no modesty but that of Christian wothe excellency of their merit, and men which is a true virtue, because therefore, noi to diminish it a titile they alone understand that the moin value, they chuse to remain defty of words is the chastity of the virgins.

tongue, and that to be entirely pure Indolence and timidity make a and chaste they ought to be so in third species of chalte women. Those, their conversation. They are not who set their minds on gallantry, are also ignorant that they ought to be so obliged to so much care and precau- in their actions, because modeA actition, to use so many feints, so much ons are significative of chastity. They fineffe and artifice, that the fatigue know, in fine, that they ought to obappears alınost insupportable to all serve modefty at all times, in all plawho are of an unactive temper. They ces, and on all occasions, to give a are besides afraid of the anger of a good example, and to expre!s, as far mother, the violence of a husband, the as may be in them, the pure brighthatred and desertion of their family, nefs of that Eternal Goodness, which and the ill name they are branded will not fail of being their reward in with by the world. All these confi- Heaven. derations help to persuade them, that it is less difficult to be oblervant of On the Origin of Chivalry. By Dr. one's duty, than to be led aftray by

T. W'barton. a pallion, which condemns the women that indulge it lo so many anxie WHERE is no peculiarity which ties, pains, uneasiness, and vexation. more strongly discriminates the

Laitly, ihe quality of constitution manners of the Greeks and Romans has almost the whole iliare in the cha- from those of modern times, than that ftity of a great nuinber of women, es- small degree of attention and respect pecially of those, who having no with which those nations treated the ideas to quicken them into the dissipa- fair sex, and that inconsiderable share tions of life, suffer themselves to be which they were permitted to take in guided by their own confined inclina- conversation, and the general comtions. This fort of women are chatte merce of life. For the truth of this with fo little merit, that it might be observation, we need only appeal to well seen they would not be so with the classic writers : in which their a different constitution, and that their women appear to have been devoted virtue is nothing more than the result to a state of leclusion and obscurity. of their natural habit of body. One is surprized that Barbarians

But, be the virtue of the sex what should be greater masters of complaisit may, if not truly Christian, it is far ance than the most polished people



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