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was the eldest son of Oliver, and was bridgeshire. He resided after his marbora October 4, 1626, and married in riage at Whitehall, till he was appoint1649, Dorothy, daughter of Richard ed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, in which Major, Esq; of Hursley in Hants, by he also resigned the regency of Ireland, whom he had several children, but only and retired to Chippenham, the seat of three daughters lived to maturity: the his brother-in-law, Sir John Russell. firit, Elizabeth, born March 26, 1650. After he had lived five years or fix years She spent the latter part of her life in there he removed to his estate at ŚpinBedford-row, and died there unmarried, ney-abbey, near Soham in CambridgeApril 8, 1731, aged 81 years.
shire, where he spent the remainder of The second daughter, Anne, born his days, descending from the toilsome March 27, 1659, became the wife of grandeur of governing men to the humDr. Thomas Gibson, a fellow of the ble and happy occupation of husbandry, College of Physicians. The doctor died in which King Charles II. found him about 1704, and his wife died without employed, in an excursion he made for issue, Oct. 27, 1727.
that purpose from Newmarket, in the Dorothy, the third daughter of Rich- month of September, 1671. The time ard Cromwell, Esq; was born Aug. 1, of Mr. Henry Cromwell's death cannot 1660. She married John Mortimer, exactly be determined, though, if placed Efq; of Somersetshire, F. R. S. author about the year 1680, the conjecture canof the Whole Art of Husbandry ; but not be remote. she died in child-bed, May 14, 1681, aged 20. It is worth observing, that this gentleman, by his third wife, Eliza. Extraci from Political Disquisitions : or, abeth, daughter of Samuel Sanders, an Enquiry into public Errors, Defrels, of Derbyshire, Esq; was father of the and Abuses. Illustrated by, and efiaJate Cromwell Mortimer, M. D. and blished upon Facts and Remarks, exsecretary to the Royal Society, who died tracted from a Variety of Authors, Jan. 7, 1752, leaving one son, the pre antient and modern. sent Hans Mortimer, Esq; of Lincoln'sInn.
our readers may be enabled It is unnecessary to mention, that
form a judgment of this work, Richard Cromwell, Esq; fucceeded his we shall present them with part of what father in the protectorate, and that he is advanced on the subject of excluding did not long enjoy that exalted flation. auditors from the house
of commons, and Indeed, it was not till his father was punishing those who publish the speeches confirmed in the protectorate that he there delivered. was called to court, and made chancel Another consequence of the inadelor of Oxford, having till that time quate state of parliamentary representalived privately at Hursley in Hamp- tion, and of too long parliaments, is a danshire, upon the fortune his wife brought gerous power aflumed by the commons, him
of clearing their house, and excluding, After the Restoration he went to their conftituents from the satisfaction of France, and continued some years in knowing how their deputies behave obsecurity at Paris ; but, upon a rumour themselves, and whether they consult of a war between France and England, the public intereft, or play the game inhe removed to Geneva. About the to the hands of the ministry. Upon the year 1680, he returned to England, and fame principie they found the practice of lived many years at an house near the punishing all persons who publish any church, at Cheshunt in Herts under the speeches made in their house. assumed name of Clark, where he died “ As to the house of lords, supposing it July, 13,1712, in the eighty-sixth year once granted, that it is wise to allow any
set of men a power of consulting for We now come to Henry Cromwell, themselves, without regard to the pubEsq; fecond fon of Oliver Cromwell, lic, and putting a negative upon the most born about 1628. In 1653 he married salutary national proposals, if thought Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Francis by them likely to entrench upon thie's Ruffel, Bart. of Chippenham in Cam- particular privileges (a point, the May, 1774
of his age.
of which I should be sorry to have im- that august assembly, to shew that they posed on me) supposing, I say, a house were better bred than the commons. of lords upon the foot of the British, “Hakewel says, the commons finding it follows, that they have a right to ex- persons in their house who had no right clude all, but peers, from their deliber- to be there, have obliged them to takean ations; because they are doing their own oath, that they would keep secret what business, and not the public ; they are they had heard. atting for themselves, and are principals, « Of right the door of the parliment and not deputies.
ought not to be shut, but to be kept by " But surely the faithful representa- porters, or king's serjeants at arms to prerives of the people, cannot dread the vent tumults at the door, by which the parpeople's knowledge of their proceedings liament might be hindered.” in the house. An aristocracy of persons, “ It was common in former times for whose interest may be different from that the members themselves to publish their of the people, a court of inquisition, or speeches made in the house. Accordingly a Venetian council of Ten might be ex- there are extant to this day, many of them pected to shut themselves from the light in pamphlets of those times, and in Ruthof the people, but not a house of repre- worth's, Nelson, and other collections. sentatives, assembled, by the people's or In our times it is punishable to publish der, to do the people's business. How any of their doings, although they do not are the people to know which of their themselves publish them, and the very delegates are faithful, and ought to be gallery is cleared, that we may not know trusted again, or which otherwise, if which of our deputies is faithful to us, they are to be excluded the house? nor which betrays us.
· Even in the house of peers, this cus “ The order of the house of commons tom has been blamed.
against printing the speeches was made, “ It is not, my lords, said the earl of A. D. 1641, in times which our courtly Chesterfield on this subject, A. D. 1740, men will hardly allow to be of good by excluding all sorts of strangers that you authority. The order itself is not justiare to preserve the antient dignity of this fiable upon any principles of liberty, or assembly: it is by excluding all manner of of representation, unless the debates were quibbling, impertinence, deceit, weak- regularly published by the members, ness, and corruption. These, I hope, are for published they ought undoubtedly 1trangers here. I hope your lordships to be; if delegates ought to be responwill take care never to admit any one of sible to their constituents. My lord. them within these walls; but by excluding mayor, therefore, and Mr. alderman other strangers, when you have nothing Oliver were severely dealt with in being of a secret nature under considera- fent to the Tower, A. D. 1571, for de tion, you will only raise a jealousy of the fending the printers in doing only what dignity of your proceedings; and if this ought to have been done by the memjealousy shoud become general, without bers. doors, you will in vain leek for respect a “ Sir Edward Dering's speeches were mong the people.”
published by himself, A. D. 1641. “ There were many strangers in the “ Resolved, that they are against the gallery of the house of peers, on occasion privilege of the house, and shall be burnt of the enquiry into lord Peterborough's by the hangman in Westminster, Cheapconduct in Spain, A. D, 1711. Amo- fide, and Šmithfield ; himself disabled tion was made to clear the gallery. But during the parliament, and to be imthe duke of Buckingham opposed it, and prisoned in the Tower, during the pleathey were suffered to stay.
sure of the house.” He was released, " The commons, A. D. 1714, hav- however, in a few days. ing cleared their house of all strangers, A. D. 1720, the proprietors of the not excepting peers, it was moved in the redeemable funds being discontented, pehouse of peers, that the house be cleared titioned to be heard by council against of all ftrangers not exceptiog members of a bill then before the house.
They the house of commons. The duke of Ar- went in considerable numbers to the gyle opposed the shutting of the house of lobby, to wait the event. The justices p.ite, and said it was for the honour of were ordered to clear the passages.
They read the riot-act. On which oc- heard, says he, Bradshaw the Judge casion, some of the petitioners said, It say to his majesty, “ Sir, instead of seemed to them a strange proceeding, to answering the court, you interrogate treat a set of peaceable subjects, people their power, which becomes not one in of property, who attended the house to your. condition:" these words pierced complain of grievances, as a riotous my heart and soul, to hear a subject mob; and that the commons first picked thus audaciously to reprehend his fovetheir pockets, and sent them to jail for reign, who ever and anon replied with complaining.
great magnanimity and prudence,' " Whatever has been advanced in : As to the parliament, it grew, says fupport of printing the Votes and jour- he, odious unto all good men *; the nals, is equally itrong against clearing members thereof became infufferable in the house. The house of commons is their pride, covetousness, self ends, lathe people's house, where the people's ziness, minding nothing but how to endeputies meet to do the people's business. rich themselves. Much heart-burning For the people's deputies, therefore, to now arose betwixt the Presbyterian and shut the people out of their own house, Independant, the latter fiding with the is a rebellion of the servants against their army, betwixt whose two judgments masters. That the members of parlia- there was no medium. Now came up, ment are, according to the constitution, or first appeared, that monstrous people servants, is manifeit from the notorious called Ranters : and many other novel fact of their constantly receiving wages opinions, in themselves heretical and for many centuries together, which scandalous, were countenanced by memmembers, accordingly, forfeited by ab- bers of parliament, many whereof were sence, neglect, &c. “ Who lent us hi- of the same judgment. Justice was neyther?” says Sir F. Winnington, in the lected, vice countenanced, and all care debate upon this subject, A. D. 1681, of the common good laid aside. Every “ The privy-council is constituted by judgment almost groaned under the heavy the king; but the house of commons by burthen they then suffered; the army the choice of the people. I think it not neglected; the city of London scorned; natural, nor rational, that the people who the ministry, especially those who were fent us hither, should not be informed of orthodox and serious, honest or virtuous, our actions.” Suppose the directors of had no countenance; my soul began to the East-India company were to shut loath the very name of a parliament, out the proprietors from their house, and or parliament-men. There yet remainthen dispose of their property at their ed in the house very able, judicious, and pleasure, defying all responsibility, how worthy patriots ; but they, by their fiwould this be taken by the proprietors ? lence, only served themselves: all was The excluding the people from the house carried on by a, rabble of dunces, who of commons, and punishing the publith- being the greater number, voted what ers of their speeches, is precisely the seemed best to their nonintelligent fanfame incroachment on the people's cies.' rights; only so much the more atrocious From these passages it appears, that in consideration of there being no regu- Lilly was no enemy to his sovereign, lar appeal from parliament, whereas no creature of the parliament, no violent there is from the directors of a trading or unreasonable bigot to either party ; company."
we shall therefore extract some of his
general observations relative to the chaObservations upon the Life and Death of racter of king Charles.
King Charles I. Extracted from the • Favourites he had three; Fucking life of that eminent Antiquary and ham, stabbed to death ; Williain Laui. Astrologer Mr. William Lilly, who and Thomas earl of Strnad, both bewas born 1602, and died 1681. headed. Bishop: and ciergymen, whom Juft Published.
he most favoured, anú whoiiy advanced,
and occasionally ruined, he lived to fee N several places of his memoirs he sleir bishopricks fold, the bishop: them. of this unfortunate prince, : When I
* About the year 1652 ,
K k 2
I speaks aith refpect and compaffion
selves fcorned, and all the whole clergy other matter ; and made a query in his of his party and opinion quite undone, drink.
"The english noblemen he cared not The Swede extremely complained much for, but only to serve his own turns of him for nonperformance of some seby them : yet such as had the unhappi- cret contract betwixt them, and uttered ness to adventure their lives and fortunes high words against him. for him, he lived to see them and their * The Protestant princes of Germany families ruined, only fr his fake. Pity loathed his very name, &c. it is many of them had not served a
The Portugal king and he had litmore fortunate master, and one more tle to do; yet in one of his own letters grateful.
to the queen, though he acknowledges The Scots, his countrymen, on whom the Portugal's courtesy unto him, yet he beitowed so many favours, he lived faith, that he would give him an answer to see them in arms against himself ; unto a thing of concernment that should to sell him for more money than the Jews signify nothing. did Christ, and themselves to be hand The Hollanders being only coursomely routed and sold for knaves and teous for their own ends, and as far as Naves. They made their best market his money would extend, furnished him of him at all times, changing their af- with arms at such rates as a Turk might fection with his fortune.
have had them elsewhere : but they • The old prince of Orange he almost neither loved or cared for him in his beggared, and yet to no purpose, the par- prosperity, or pitied him in his adverliament one time or other getting all lity, which ociafioned these words to arms and ammunition which ever came drop from him, If he ere came to his over unto him. It is confidently averred, throne, he would make Hans Butterif the king had become absolute here in box know, he should pay well for his England, Orange had been king, &c. fishing, and satisfy for old knaveries,' &c.
The city of London, which he had • In conclusion. He was generally so fore oppressed and sighted, he lived unfortunate in the world, in the esteem to see thousands of them in arms againit both of friends and enemies : his friends him; and they to thrive, and himself exclaim on his breach of faith ; his eneconfume unto nothing. The parliament, mies would say, he could never be fast which he fo abhorred, and formerly enough bound." He was more lamented fcorned, he lived to know was fuperior as he was a king, than for any affection unto him ; and the scorns and Nights he had unto his person as a man. had used formerly to Elliot, and others, · He had several opportunities offerhe saw now relurned upon himself in ed him for his restoring. First, by fefolio.
veral treaties, all ending in finoke, by · With Spain he had no perfect cor his own perverseness. By several oprespondency, since his being there ; lefs portunities and victories which he proafter he suffered their fleet to perith in fecuted not. First, when Bristol was his havens ; least of all, after he receiv- cowardly surrendered by Fines : had he eil an amballador from Por:ugal; the then come unto London, all had been Spaniard ever upbraiding him with fal his own; but loitering to no purpose at thood, and breach of promise. Indeed, Glouceste: she was presently after well the nativities of both kings were very banged by Eliex.
When in the west, viz. Cornwall, With France he had no good amity; he worsted Effex: had he then imme
Protestants there abhorring his le- diately hafted to London, his army had fordermain and treachery unto Rochelle; be 'n without doubt masters of that city ; The Papias as little loving or trusting for Manchester was none of his enemy him, for some hard measure offered unto at that time, though he was general of those of their religion in England. He the associated counties. cunningly would taðour to please all, . Or had he, ere the Scots came into but in effect gave fatisfaction to none. England, commanded Newcastle to have
· Denmark could not endure hini; - marched fouthward for London, le fent him little or no assistance, if any at could not have missed obtaining the city, all: besides, the old king suspected an and then the work had been ended,