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dear bis name to all the friends of ge- the consequences of keeping up a standnius, and all the lovers of liberty. ing army for any number of years, and
“ Our Stage,” said he, " ought cer- particularly in time of peace. tainly to be kept within due bounds; “ It is the machine," -- continued he, but for this purpose, our laws, as they -" by which the chains of Slavery Nand at present, are sufficient. If our are riveted upon a free people. They Players, at any time, exceed those may be secretly prepared by corruption; bounds, they ought to be prosecuted; but, unless a fanding army protect those they may be punished. We have pre- that forged them, the people will break cedents, we have examples of persons them afunder, and chop off the pollupunished for things less criminal than ted hands by which they were prepafome pieces which have been lately re- red. presented. A new law must therefore By degrees a free people must be be unnecessary; and, in the present accustomed to a standing army; by decase, it cannot be unnecessary without grees that army must be made strong ebeing dangerous. Every unnecessary re- nough to hold them in subjection. Eng. ftraint is a fetter upon the legs, is a land has been for many years accustomed Tackle upon the hands of Liberty. One to a ttanding army, under the pretence of the greatest blessings we enjoy; one of its being necessary to afsift the civil of the greatest blessings a people can power; and, by degrees, the number enjoy, is Liberty : But every good has and strength of it have been encreasing. its alloy : licentioufness is the alloy of At the accession of the late King, it liberty. It is an ebullition, an excref- did not exceed fix thousand : it soon Cence, it is a speck upon the eye of the amounted to twice that number; and political body, which I can never touch has since been augmented under various but with a gentle with a trembling pretences.". hand, left I injure the body; lett I hurt He therefore conclueed, that llavery, the eye upon which is is apt to ap- under the disguise of an army for propear.
tecting the liberties of the people, was “ If the Stage becomes at any time creeping in upon them by degrees. licentious; if a Play appears to be a “I shall not be surprised," -added he,, libel upon the government, or upon any satirically—“ if the same system of particular man, the King's courts are licy is continued, to hear in a few years open, the law is sufficient to punish the fome minister, or favourite of a minifter, offender: If Poets and Players are to terrifying the House with imaginary plots be restrained, let them be restrained as and invalions, and making the Tour of other subjects are, by the known laws Europe in quest of poflible dangers, to of the land; if they offend, let them be shew the necessity of keeping up a mertried as every Englishman ought, bycenary standing army three times as nuGod and their Country. Let us not merous as the present.” subject them to the arbitrary will and In the same year 1738, his Lordship pleasure of any one man. A power attacked Sir Robert Walpole's inglorilodged in the hands of a single person, ous Convention with Spain ; with all the 10 judge and determine without limita- weight of argument, and all the poigtion, controul, or appeal, is a sort of nancy of satire ; nor did the Danish fubpower unknown to our Laws, and in- lidy in 1739 escape his keenest indignaconsistant with our constitution: it is a tion : but the boldest speech that he ever higher and more absolute power than we made, and perhaps the boldest ever truft even to the King himself; I muft made in a British House of Peers, was therefore think, we ought not to veft in 1743, on the Hanoverian Contract. any such power in his Majesty's Lord The troops of that Electorate had been Chamberlain."
taken into the pay of Great-Britain for The next remarkable appearance one year only; and, what is almost inwhich Lord Chesterfield made was in credible, though none of them had been 1738, in a spirited harangue against a new-levied,—though they had been raistanding army. After Thewing the op- sed for the security of their own counpressive taxes it occasioned, he affirmed try, and would have been maintained hat Navery and arbitrary power were though Britain had never engaged in
the affairs of the Continent, yet levy- which is still worshipped by the inhabimoney was charged to the account. tants of that INand, and which has ne
After enlarging on the ruinous effects ver, perhaps, been equalled by any of continental wars to this country, his Irish Viceroy. Lordship observed, that while Great
In April, 1746, his Lordship returnBritain exhausted itself almost, in pur- ed to England; on on the fourth of suance of schemes founded on engage- November following, he was sworn one ments to the Queen of Hungary, the of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of Electorate of Hanover, though under State. This office he continued to exthe same engagements, and governed by ercise with equal ability and integrity, the same Prince, did not appear to con- but without any remarkable effort, till tribute any thing as an ally to her affift- February 4, 1748, when he chose to ance, but was paid by Great-Britain for resign. While his Lordship was Secreall the forces it had sent into the field, tary, Admiral Hawke gained a confiat a very exhorbitant price; that nothing derable victory over the French; and, could be more absurd or iniquitous than being less of a scholar than a sea-capto hire these mercenaries, while a nume- tain, in his Letter to the Admiralty he rous army lay inactive at home, and the expresses himself thus : “ I have given Nation groaned under a load of taxes. the French a hearty Drubbing.". This He concluded thus :
Letter the Earl of Chesterfield having may
be proper to repeat, what occasion to read to the King, his Majesperhaps may be forgotten in ihe multi- ty asked what the Admiral meant by tude of other objects, That this Nation, Drubbing. To which his Lordship witafter having exalted the Elector of tily replied: Hanover from a state of obscurity, to the “ I refer your Majesty to the Duke Crown, is condemned to hire the troops of Bedford, who can give you an ample of that Electorate to fight their own bat- definition of it :"-alluding to some tlos; to hire them at a rate never de- rough treatment his Grace had lately manded before; and to pay levy-money met with at Litchfield races. for them, though it is known to all Eu The Earl of Chesterfield heneeforth rope, that they were not raised for this renounced all connexion with the Court, occasion !"
and in a great measure with the Gay In January, 1745, the Earl of Chef- World, living chiefly in retirement, and terfield was appointed Lord Lieutenant in the most frugal manner. His motives of Ireland ; soon after which he was for such a conduct were truly laudable. nominated Ambassador Extraordinary to In the earlier part of life he had been the States General, to persuade them, very profuse; and an itch for gaming in if possible, to engage more heartily in paiticular, had somewhat impaired his the war. He accordingly set out for the fortune. He had no children, it is true, Hague; and on leaving it, which he by his Lady, who was a natural daughdid in the May following, he presented ter of King George I. but he had a lon a Memorial to the States, which at once by Madame du Bouchet (a French Ladiscovered his eminent abilities, his ar- dy) whose education and settlement in dent attachment to the intereft, and his life engrossed his whole attention, and spirited concern, and even jealousy of to whom he wrote the Letters just pubthe Honour of his Country,
lished. He could not leave his estate to On his Majesty's going abroad in the this promising youth, as he was not lesame year, 1745, the Earl of Chester- gitimate; he therefore endeavoured to field was declared one of the Lords raise him a fortune by prudent economy, Justices for the administration of the and replenish his mind with the fruits of Government in his absence : but his that experience which he had gleaned in Lordthip's presence being wanted in the World. Ireland, he set out for his Viceroyship, Young Stanhope, however, did not and landed at Dublin the month of Au- live to be much benefited by his father's gust; where he was received with the frugality ; nor did his inttructions turn loudest acclamations of joy, and conti- to to much account as might have been nued every day to increase in esteem, till expected : but, perhaps, a few yeers he attained that extraordinary character might have brought them to maturity
From the death of his son, Lord Chef- Steals through the soul, and without terfield was almost entirely denied to : pain corrects." the World, seldom appearing in public, and associating only with a few friends, That his Lords ip's wit was genuine, This melancholy humour was much in-' will be disputed by no-body; but his creased by the total loss of his hearing, ftile is generally too artificial, and the · which bappened a considerable time be- number of French and Latin phrases fore his death. His health hath been with which it abounds, gives it an air likewise long declining; and this great of affectation. His elegant ideas and man paid the debt of Nature on the 25th happy method will, however, always day of March, 1773, in the seventy- please; and it would not, perhaps, be eighth year of his age ; lamented by his too much to say, that his Letters to his friends, but as little noticed by the Son contain more good fense on the World as if such a man had never lived. subject of Politeness, than all the books Not a Muse wept over his urn, though that have hitherto been written on the inany had distilled their incense in his
“ Art of Pleasing." ear, and many had fed at his board. The fingularity of his Lordship's So true it is, that if we forget the Will, as it Thews the state of his World, we shall be forgotten by it, mind in his latter years, and his fentihowever great our merits; and his Lord- ments upon several subjects, cannot fail Thip might truly say,
to intereit the Curious. We shall there
fore transcribe the subitance of it, mark“ I've been so long remember'd, I'm ing such words as are copied verbaforgot.”
" Satiated with the pompous follies Lord Chesterfield, not only distin- of this life, I am unwilling any pompous guished himself as a Statesman, an Ora- ones thould be displayed in my Funeral; tor, and a Man of the World, but as and therefore will not have above one a polite Writer, both in prose and verse; hundred pounds laid out upon it.” and he was at a certain time looked up He bequeaths to Mrs. Elizabeth Du to as the pattern of elegant compofition, Bouchet, mother to his late natural son, as well as of elegant manners. Mr. as some small reparation for the injuThomson, the celebrated Author of the ry he did her,” the sum of five hundred Seasons, addresses him thus :
To Mrs. Illey, twenty-five pounds à “ Permit the rural Muse, year. O Chesterfield ! to grace thee with her
To his Brother's natural son, Willisong;
am Stanhope, one hundred a year. Ere to the shades again she humbly flies, He chuses that his god-son and heir Indulge' her fond ambition in thy train, Philip Stanhope, thould travel through (For every Muse has in thy train a France, Flanders, Holland, and Gerplace)
many; and he may visit the northern To mark thy various, full, accomplish'd Courts ; but by no means Italy, mind;
foul sink of illiberal manners and To mark that spirit, which, with British vices." scorn,
If ever his god-son keeps a pack of Rejects th' allurements of corrupted hounds, running horses, Heeps one night Power ;
at Newmarket during the races, or loses That elegant politeness, which excels, at one fitting five hundred pounds, he Ev'n in the judgment of presumptuous is to forfeit five thousand for every such France,
offence to the Dean and Chapter of The boasted manners of her shining Westminster. Court;
The Earl of Huntingdon and Sir That wit, the vivid energy of sense,
Charles Hotham are nominated to superThe truth of Nature, which with Attic iniend his god-son's education, his Lordpoint,
ihip judging them to be properly qualiAnd kind, well-temper’d, satire, smooth- fied to make him a complete Gentlely keen, mun,"
His capital diamond ring, left him by or intimates, indeed, have given us a the late 'Dutchess of Marlborough, he faint outline of the first part of his life ; bequeaths to his god-fon: his role-dia- but the Public are yet to learn the inmond-ring to his lifter : the rest of his cidents which laid the foundation of his jewels to his Lady; and, after her de- future fame and success. These tell us, misé, to go with the title.
that he was born in Ireland ; was enThe capital mansion in May-fair, in tered a Student in Trinity College, Dubtrust for his Lady; after her death, the lin, where he took a Batchelor's degree ; furniture, pictures, &c. to Sir Charles that he set up Physician in a country Hotham. His seat at Blackheath also town in England, but not meeting with to his wife.
encouragement, went from thence to the To ‘his Secretary three 'hundred Univerlity of Edinburgh, where he atpounds.
tended the Professors in the different To his Valet-de-chambre, named branches of medicine with great assiWalsh, eighty pounds per annum, and duity; that he went from Edinburgh to twenty pounds a year to his son, with the Continent, and travelled over most all his wardrobe,
parts of Holland, France, Switzerland, To his menial servants, “ whom he and Germany ; and on his return to confidered as his unfortunate friends, England, was employed as an Usher equal by birth, and only inferior by by the late Rev. Di: Milner, who kept fortune," two years wages, besides what an academy at Peckham. Here too his may be due at his demise.
laudable endeavours proved unsuccessTo the Hospital, near Hyde-park, ful; owing, perhaps, to fome unfavouone hundred pounds: to the Protestant rable peculiarity in his manner and de• Charter-schools in Ireland, two hundred portment. Finding him to have a turn pounds: to the Magdalen Hospital, two to literature, Dr. Milner. warmly rehundred pounds.
commended him to a Bookseller in the Such is the substance of his Lordship’s city as a promising young author. Mr. WILL, which would admit of an ex- Goldsmith's afpečt, deportment, and tensive commentary: but it will be fuf- aukward manner of expressing himself in ficient here to say, that it breaths that conversation, .were such as rather tendHumanity and Knowledge of the World, ed to prejudice the Bookfeller against for which he was so much famed ; and him; nevertheless, out of regard to Dr. proves, that the Great STANhope en- Milner's earnest recommendation, he joyed, amid all his affli&tions, what took Mr. Goldsmith into employment. ought to be the first wish of an intelli It was at the close of the year 1759, gent Mind, his Virtues and FĄ- that I first knew. the Doctor as a CandiCULTies to the last.
date for employment among the Book
sellers. At this time Doctor (then Mr.) Bon Mot.
Goldsmith lived in a smoky, miserable
one-pair of-stairs room, in Green ArTHEN the late Lord Chesterfield bour Court, near the Old Bailey, and
was extremely ill, a very hand- where he continued to live till about fome lady was talking with him, and the middle of the year 1762. During the suddenly exclaimed, “ I am as cold this time he wrote for the British Magaas death 1"%!! If so, (he answered) I zine, (of which Dr. Smollet was then shall have no objection to his embraces." Editor) most of those Essays and Tales;
which he afterwards collected and pubLiterary Anecdotes of the Late Dr, lished in a seperate Volume: He also Goldsmith.
wrote occasionally for the Critical Rea
view ; and it was the merit which he I la
public prints for some biographical Nation of Ovid's Falti, by a pedantic Anecdotes of the late Dr. Goldsmith, Schoolmatter; and his Enquiry into the whose reputation, when living, as a present state of polite Learning in Europe, Poet, Playwright, Essayist, and Com- (a small octavo, published by Dodily) piler, have rendered his death an object which first introduced him to the acof public attention. Some of his friends quaintance of Dr. Smollet, who after
wards recommended and introduced him He is said to have died in consequence to several Literati, and most of the ref- of an improper use of Dr. James's Powpectable Bookseller; by whom he was ders in a slight Fever, with which he was afterwards patronized. Among these, attacked on the 25th of March, and the Doctor's most fortunate connection which carried him off on the 11th was with the celebrated Mr. John New- instant. bery, of philanthropical memory, who In his private character he was gene(being a principal proprietor) engaged rous, friendly, and humane; but vain, him at a salary of iool. per annum, to indolent, and unthinking. His speech write a Paper (on the plan of the Spec- was pompous, and his manner pedantator) for the Public Ledger, which he tic. While he was possessed of any executed under the title of the Citizen of money, he devoted himself entirely to the World; and which papers were af- indolence; and never thought of resumterwards collected and published in two ing or performing any literary engageVolumes. On his embarking in this ments with printers or booksellers, till he undertaking, he quitted his hovel in had exhausted it on his own necessities, Green Arbour Court, and removed to or those of any distressed object that soan elegant apartment in Wine-Office licited his assistance. In a word, he was Court, Fleet-itreet, dropped the plain a good natured, feeling, thoughtless man; Mr.-dubbed himself, and was after.. a pleasing writer; and—no man's enemy wards known as Dr. Goldsmith. Here but his own*, he wrote his Vicar of Wakefield, The History of England, in a Series of Letters Strictures on Jealousy. from a Nobleman to his Son, The History Brookes's System of Natural History, anda O Fall the passions and inclinations
to which mankind in their present a variety of other Pieces for Booksellers state are subject, I don't know any one and Printers. Indeed, his name was more fatal to the general peace of the almost wholly unknown to any other mind, or more destructive to our happersons, till the publication of his Tra- piness, than jealousy, especially when veller, which established his reputation, the object by which it is excited, is of and extended his connections to persons very near alliance. in a higher sphere of life.
Jealousy, is that pain which a man feels Fron this time, (when he lived in the from the apprehenfion that he is not Temple, where he died) he numbered equally beloved by the person whom he the firft literary Personages in this king- entirely loves ; and as our inward passidom among his friends and acquaintance; ons and inclinations can never make but it was to the detestable Nyky whose themselves visible, it is impossible for a pilfered Love in a Village made its ap- jealous person to be entirely cured of his pearance much about the same time, suspicions. The jealous man's disease that he owed the representation of his is of so malignant a nature, that it conGood-natured Man at Covent Garden verts all it takes into its own nourishTheatre, and his future intimacy with ment; a cool behaviour sets him on the the Managers of both Theatres. The rack, and is interpreted as an instance of Public are acquainted with most of his aversion or indifference; a fond one other publications since that period; as raises his fufpicions, and looks too much after the success of his Traveller, and like dissimulation and artifice; if the Deserted Village, the Booksellers always person he loves be chearful, her thoughts amply paid him for owning his produc- must be employed on another ;
and if tions.
sad, she is certainly thinking on himself: He had lately formed a wild plan of an so that if we consider the effects of this Encyclopedie, in which, however, he could not persuade one Bookseller to be * The History of a Philosophic Vaconcerned, knowing that he had not the gabond, in the Vicar of Wakefield, is perseverance neceilary for such an ex- laid to contain the outlines of some parts tensive and laborious work. His System of his own life, as well as a delineaof Natural History was actually com- tion of his own character, pleted before his death, and he has left a Grecian History nearly finished.