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passion, one would rather think it pro- disquisition on the nature of jealousy, ceeded from an inveterate hatred, than and pointed out the persons who are an excessive love, as it never fails to most subject to it, I must now apply mydisturb the breast where it is fortered self to your fair correspondents who dewith the atmost pain and anxiety. fire to live well with a jealous husband,
But the great unhappiness of his pas- and to ease its mind of its suspicions. fion is, that it naturally tends to alienate The first rule I shall offer to their the affections, which it is so solicitous to consideration, and earnestly intreat them engage, and that for two reasons, be- to obt e, is, that they never seem to cause it lays too great a constraint on dislike in another what the jealous man the words and actions of the person suf- is himself guilty of, or to admire any pected, and at the same time shews you thing in which he himselfdoes not excelí. have no honourable opinion of her; both A jealous man is very quick in his apof which are very strong motives of a- plications, he knows how to find a douverfion.
ble edge in an invective, and to draw Nor is this the worst effect of jea- a satire on himself out of a penegyrick lousy, for it often draws after it a more on another. He does not trouble himself fatal train of consequences, and makes to consider the person, but to direct the the person you suspect guilty of the very character; and is fecretly pleased or crimes you are so much afraid of; as the confounded as he finds more or less of woman who suffers wrongfully in a man's himself in it. The commendation of opinion, has nothing to forfeit in his any thing in another, which he himself eiteem, and therefore resolves to give wants, inflames him more, as it shews him reasons for his suspicions, and to en- that, in some respects you prefer others joy the pleasure of the crime, since the before him. The jealous man is not muft undergo the ignominy.—Therefore, indeed angry if you dislike ano.
Where this paffion is predomimant, or ther, but if you find those faults has any influence on the conduct of the which are to be found in his own chaman, it is certain there cannot be a more racter, you discover not only a dislike miserable being, or a person on whom fo of another, but of himself.' In Thort, much censure is cast by his neighbours ; he is so desirous of engrossing all your as it not only tends to make him unhappy, love, that he is grieved at the want of but is a sure means to cause the person any charm which he believes has on whom his jealousy is exercised, to to raise it; and if he finds by your cenbe wretched too : but it should be a mat- fures on others, that he is not so agreeater of our enquiry, before we accuse ble in your opinion as he might be, he ourfelves with this dreadful passion, to naturally concludes you should love him know whether we are the only people better if he had other qualifications, and subject to it, or more extempt from it that by consequence your affection does than any other nation.-It is plain, from not rise so high as he thinks it ought. If frequent observations, that it is no nor- therefore his temper be grave or fullen, thern paffion, but rages molt in those you must not be too much pleased with nations that lay nearest the fun. It is a a jeft, or transported with any thing misfortune' for a woman to be born be- that is gay and diverting. If his beautween the tropics, for there lie the hot ty be none of the best, you must be a teft regions of jealousy, which as you professed admirer of prudence, or any come northwards cools all along with other quality he is master of, or at least the climate, till you scarce meet with vain enough to think he is. any thing like it in the polar circle, In In the next place, you must be sure consequence thereof, our own nation is to be free and open in your conversation very temperately Gtuated in this re- with him, and to let in light upon your fpećt; and it we meet with some few actions, to unravel all your designs, and disordered with the violence of this paf- discover every secret however trifling fion, they are not the proper growth of and indifferent. A jealous husband has the country, but are many degrees nearer a particular averfion to winks and whisthe sun in their conftitution than in their pers, and if he does not see to the botclimate.
tom of every thing, will be sure to go Having entered into a speculative beyond it in his fears and suspicions. He
will always expeet to be your confidant, mentally how much love goes along with and where he finds himself kept out of a this passion, and will belides feel lomesecret, will believe there is more in it thing like the satisfaction of revenge, than there should be. And here it is of in seeing you undergo all his own torgreat concern, that you preserve the tures. But this indeed is an artifice fo character of your sincerity uniform and difficult, and at the same time lo dilinof a piece: for if he once finds a glofs genuous, that it ought never to be put put upon any single action, he quickly in practice, but by such as have fkill suspects all the reft ; his working ima- enorgh to cover the deceit, and innogination immediately takes a false hint, cence to make it excusable. and runs off with it into several remote A woman of virtue ought to consider consequences, till he has proved very herself as united with a man who emingenious in working out his own mi- barks with her in the same social and sery.
civil concerns, and therefore ought not If both these methods fail, the belt way to make use of counterfeit thoughts or will be to let him see you are much cast actions, or put on an outside hypocrisy down and afflicted tor the ill opinion he to win the elteem of her husband; and entertains of you, and the disquietudes though she would not be at so much pains he himself suffers for your fake. There to wear the appearance of virtue, if the are many who take a kind of barbarous did not know it was the most effectual pleasure in the jealousy of those who means to gain the love and good opinion love them, that insult over an aching of her partner : yet this kind of itrataheart, and triumph in their charms which gem ought never to be fixed upon as the are able to excite so much uneasiness. method to retrieve your character; for But these often carry the humour so far, if it Thould happen to miscarry, you till their affected coldness and indiffe- forfeit in a much greater degree the opirence quite kills all the fondness of a nion he had of your 'virtue, and give lover, and are then sure to meet in their him an excellent opportunity to upbraid turn with all the contempt and scorn you for insincerity, and will belides fint that is due to so insolent a behaviour. it extremely difficult to make him think On the contrary, it is very probable a well of you for the future. melancholy, dejected carriage, the usual I shall conclude these remarks with effects of injured innocence, may soften observing to your fair readers, that, as the jealous husband into pity, make him in them centre all the charms with which senlible of the wrong he does you, and the men are captivated, so likewise work out of his mind all those fears and should lay all the qualifications necessary suspicions that make you both unhappy : to make the captive pass away his life at least it will have this good effect, that in contentment and quiet ; for if a wohe will keep his jealousy to himself, and man has all the engaging allurements repine in private, either because he is that beauty, birth, wit and youth can fenfible it is a weakness, and will there- raise, yet these are not sufficient to make fore hide it from your knowledge, or easy the marriage ftate, or secure the because he will be apt to fear some ill affection of her husband ; but the must effect it may produce, in cooling your diligently strive to avoid all appearanlove towards him, or diverting it to a. ces of attatchment to any object which mother.
may tend to raise the leait doubt of her There is still another secret that can lincerity, or on which he may hinge the never fail, if you can once get it be- remoteit suspicions of inconstancy. lieved, and which is often practised by I must now intreat the ladies to conwomen of greater cunning than virtue : fider this matter candidly, and beg that this is to change sides for a while with "they will take every ftep essential tothe jealous man, and to turn his own waids passing the union agreeably. patsion upon himself; to take fome occasion of growing jealous of him, and “ Own marriage sweet, but owning to follow the example he himself hath
" add this fing, set you. This conterfeited jealousy will " When mixed with jealousy, 'tis bring him a great deal of pleasure, if • deadly too." he thinks it real; for he knows experi
Then opleft apprehension that we
Elay on Poetry and Romances: With an mance I mean is JULIA, a Poctical Ro-
But before I speak of this no
velty in literature, it will be necessary THE
to say something more of romances in can form of poetry is, an over- general. fowing of the soul ; a description of ex The romances of chivalry, as has been ternal objects or internal sensations, in observed, were our first prose fables ; a language above the tone of common to these succeeded the mock romance ; life. This may be done either with, or to the mock romance, the heroic; and without measure, but most perfectly with to the heroic, the satirical, which has it; as the harmonious disposition of the still great hold of the public taste; but words, when in concord with the senti- in the mean time, the genuine charms ment, affects the mind more ftongly with of nature and passion were not allowed the images presented to its view. Hence to pass unnoticed ; they were painted the praise of gods, heroes, and women, first in short stories, or novels, and afhas always been the province of verse; terwards at greater length, with much and hence the Greeks and Romans af- truth and propriety, particularly in signed to it the empire of fable. France by Marivaux. The serious ro
But tafte has taken a different direc- mance, howeve still wore its historical tion among the moderns. Verse is now form: it wanted the compacted fable of in possession of little more than the tra- the epopee, and the animated dialogue gic fable; while every fiction of great
of the drama. Richardson saw its imer extent, and many of less, are deli- perfections, and in a great measure revered in prose. A variety of reasons medied both: he substituted letters inmay be assigned for such a practice ; but stead of narration, which gave the the principal seem to be the unskilfulness whole the air of dialogue, and kept the of our first poets, and the harsınefs of author entirely out of sight; nor was modern languages: for in Italy, where he wanting in attention to the fable, inthe language is more harmonious, and, troducing every event by the most natuperhaps, the fancy more lively than in ral and happy circumstances, but withFrance or England, we find few profe out that general dependance which is fables, and in Germany almost none in neceffary to please a classic taste, or that verse.
unity of design which is essential to conThe origin of any custom, however, ftitute what the critics call a perfe& fignifies little; its eligibility is of more whole, and of which every intelligent importance: and, in this respect, prose reader will feel the force, however fable must be allowed to have its advan- much a stranger to Aristotle, Horace, tages. If it is less calculated to display or Boffu. the atchievements of romantic heroism, Richardson has been followed in his to which it was first applied, it is better epistolary manner, by a variety of wriadapted to the scenes of domestic life, ters, but by none so successfully as where fome of the most interesting of Rousseau, whose new Eloisa may juftly human situations are to be found. It be considered as one of the greatest works admits of more minute particulars, mo of genius. This performance the auTal reflections, and polite notices, but thor of Julia has chosen as the foundait is certainly much inferior to verse in tion of his poem ; but he has very much vigorous description ; in communicatiny altered its construction; and, in my othe emotions of love, of rage, of jny, pinion, every alteration is for the betor sorrow, unless it degenerates altoge- ter, while every circumstance is heighther from its character, and becomes tened by a fine glow of poetical fancy. what is nut improperly termed prose run Instead of retailing things at second mad: and even then, however strongly hand, as is commonly practised by Richit may paint, it wants the native energy ardson and others, he has brouht eveof poetry, while it displays a oníte ry material sentiment and circumstance in composition.
to view, in a warm and animated.correI was led into these reflections by pondence between the lovers: nor has reading a bold attempt to retrieve the he, like Rousseau, made his heroine dignity of modern fable. The perfor- happy in the arms of one man, after the May, 1774,
has granted favours to, and still conti- " With horror now my danger I forenues to love another; and he has taken care not to destroy the unity of his fa “ Nor apk indulgence—but restraint ble by a dull system of domestic æcono from thee." my, after the transports of love, the tears of repentance, and the strug les Julia makes no answer to this letter, of duty. But an analysis of this per- nor to a second ; but when Emilius bids formance only can do justice to its me her a solemn adieu in a third, being rerit.
solved to leave the family, rather than Lord Palmerston, an English noble- give her uneasiness, she reveals with man, has committed the education of his trembling her secret flame, as she has only daughter, Julia, to Emilius, a no hopes of being able to gratify it with young man, educated by his bounty, honour. and depending upon his patronage : The fears of innocence, and the soEmilius is smitten with the beauty of licitude of virtue, are finely marked in his fair pupil ; and notwithstanding the the following elegant lines. conbined motives of interest and gratitude, he is unable to restrain his passion, “ Am , eternal powers ! reduc'd fo and at last reveals it to Julia. With
low ! this declaration the first book commences. Kneeling I write, and bathe my
One would think it impossible to say words with woe. any thing new in a declaration of love; " To thee, Emilius, I this homage pay; the following lines, however, have no “ To thee, upon my knees, I trembling thing in them that is familiar to me,
pray : and yet they are perfectly natural. " Should'it thou now hear me, what
may'st thou not claim “ Oft have I fondly thought, as in our ” For rescued reason, and protected years,
fame? • And' in our taste fimilitude appears, “ How sweet the union of two souls “ A tender sympathy may likewise tie combin'd “ Our virgin-hearts in chords of har " By virtuous tenderness and love refin'd! mony.
!' With no desires, but what to saints “ Unsway'd by custom, unseduc'd by are given, pride,
“ We should anticipate the joys of « Our inclinations sweetly coincide :
heaven." “ Our general feelings are so much alike, " That every obje:t seems our souls to Emilius filences Julia's fears by a letstrike
ter pregnant with love, virtue, and po" With one emotion; and why not etry. She takes, however, the precausuppose
tion to invite her friend Conftantia to be “ That warm affeštion in our bofoms her guardian, and with Conftantia's glows :"
friendly answer the first book ends.
The second book opens with a letter What follows is highly pathetic for from Emilius, which begins thus : the subject.
!! O, Julia, what a mystery is love! “ Sometimes our eyes in soft confu “ How full of caprice !-tho' now rais'd fion meet, [lence greet :
above t! And fighs and tears our hearts in si "My highest hopes, I pine with dif"' 0, Julia, should that impulse be from heaven!
Egiven ! “ Thy breast I share-and yet new “ Should Jove this unison of soul have “ This restless heart Itill higher would “ Should we be destin'd by the powers aspire,
[love! ". Although it does not-dare not more “ No earthly force-Oh, I am mad with Imaginations strange distract my brain, Desire from hope has snatch'd the ma “ And wishes wild turn happiness to gic ray,
[gay: pain!" • And mocks my soul with an illusion
[fighs I vent!
It concludes thus :
her lover, and invites him to return to
some place in the neighbourhood, that “ One month I have triumphantly with- the may visit him—" at least in thought," stood,
[my blood; as the expresses it; for she is still afraid “ And but one month-the tumult in to trust herself with him. With this " But I'm entitled to the full reward invitation the third book ends, “ Of years of tenderness, and fond re The fourth book commences with gard.”
Emilius's return to the opposite bank of
the Severn, whence he is supposed to This letter is answered in a firmly view her father's house, and where he virtuous and spirited one from Julia: to writes a letter to her, full of all the whiɔh Emilius replies in a moft seduc- transports of love, and the madness of tive strain ; but another letter from Ju- despair. It concludes thus : lia brings him to himself, and the book concludes with these lines :
" Another word of her that I adore.
“ Julia has heard of fam'd Leucatia's . Since Julia still is present to my soul,
Thore : " And sees its restless passions as they “ It was the refuge of the Nighted maid; roll,
“ And there his vows the hopeless lo“ On her my fate with confidence I rest: ver paid. My hopes, my fears, repose upon her “ This place, and my distrefs'd condibreast.”
“ To that, alas! resemblance but too The third book begins with a letter ". The rock is rugged, and the flood is from Julia, in which she says,
“ Where may a lover in despair not “ I will convince you, spite of vulgar
leap" fame, “ And of the blushes of my virgin shame, Julia, in distraction of mind, grants " That sweeter are the favours love be- him an interview, and is overcome. ftows,
This, as we learn in a letter to Conftan" Than what proud man to intercession tia, was partly owing to her father's owes.”
threatening to marry her to another,
The raptures of Emilius, and the reAll that the grants him, however, is morse of Julia, make up the rest of this only a kiss ; which, trilling as it may book, and are delineated with a force seem to some people, has so violent an of colouring that does honour to Engeffect upon him, that he exclaims, lish poetry. Enrilius cries, “ O Julia! Julia !—though thy frown “ O let us diei my sweet, my gentle were fate,
friend! That I must risque-nay, I must risque “ My best belov'd! let us our beings end; I muft--that kiss has fet my soul on “ Let us to heaven restore that life it lent, fire
" Since we its pleasures have already " Or at thy feet, or on thy breast ex spent. pire!"
Say, if thou can'it, last night what I enjoy'd :
[be cloy'd ; She is, therefore, obliged to banish " And then convince me I ihall ne'er him; and as he had formerly intimated “ Or let me boldly from existence leap, an intention of making the tour of " And throud my transports in eternal Wales, the makes that her pretence. Neep." He complains grievously, but departs. In the mean time her father returns from Julia, in a very different tone, exSpa in renewed health, which is the claims to her friend Conftantia, fubject of joy to both; and Emilius, refigned to his lot, sends her a description • Does not all nature my reproach proof Wales; but all these are insufficient claim?
[shame? to relieve her mind, the languishes for
" Does not each object tell me of my M m 2