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The Political Hillery of Europe for the The Ghode we are many heart

of THE year of which we treat, has splendid actions, it has poffefled a kind been more favourable to the general tran- of negative merit, in not being attended hances seemed to indicate. It has not, those Itates with whom they began, and if quillity, than many preceding circum- with all the evil which it portended.

The flames of war are still restrained to however, been dettitute of interesting events. The dismemberment of Poland, the probability of peace does not appear the necessity which produced a ratificatia greater than at the beginning of the year, on of that as by the King and the Repub- those calamities seem to be increased.

neither does the danger of extending lic, and the precarious state of the remaining part of that unfortunate coun: North which seemed 10, threaten deftruc

Those great armies in Germany and the try, present a leffon to others, which mighi be studied with advantage. The tion to each other, or to the rest of manfavourable change which has taken place kind, have held their swords quietly in in the Ottoman affairs, and the infurrec- their hands, and are now so long accuftions which have happened in Russia, tomed to behold each other without emoseem rather to increafe the probability tion, that they almost forget their natural

of a peace, than of a long continuance animofities; while their masters have of the war. The final diflolution of the endeavoured by negociation and new arJesuits would alone distinguish the pre rangements, to obviate the fatal consesent year; and as that measure reftores quences of their collision, security to the territorial pofleffions of

It must however be acknowledged, the court of Rome, it may be fupposed that those heavy clouds which overbung to have a considerable effect in preserving the political horizon, are far from being the peace of Italy. The entire ceffion dispersed, and that whenever they burit of the Dutchy of 'Holstein to Denmark, it must be with a dreadful violence. The whether conlidered with respect to its extraordinary power and uncommon acpolitical value, or commercial confetivity of some of the continental princes, quences, is also a matter of public im- the jealousy, of others, and the ambition portance.

of all, are ill calculated for the preferThe great revolution which has taken „vation of the public tranquillity. Nations place in the state and constitution of the are now become soldiers, and must find East-India Company, have rendered our employment. Like the ancient maraudomestic affairs particularly interesting

ders of the Northern Hive, their counIndeed, the natural importance of the tries are become too narrow for the fupfubjet seems to be increased, by the a- port of so many armed nren. The prebility with which it was disculled, and sent fate of quiet, or rather of inaction, the difference of sentiments and opinions is nuore to be attributed to mutual diftruit it produced among the most eminent and apprehension, and a fagacious cautipersons in the nation.

on, that waits for favourable circumstanWe have endeavoured to state these and ces, or accidents, than to a love of peace other matters in as clear a manner as

or regard for justice. our means of information would admit,

The liate of Poland is still undeterand till hope for that indulgence to our mined. A diet indeed has been held, imperfections, which the kindness of the delegates appointed, and treaties of cefpublic has rendered habitual to us,

sion anii dismemberment ratihed ; and yet

it would be difficult to sew that any General State of Affairs. Poland. Rul thing has been really concluded. On one

fia. Retrospective View of the War, side, the losers are obliged to submit to an and its consequences considered. Cefhon inevitable present neceility, till hoping of Holstein. Revolt in the Crimea. in- that some unexpected intervention of forsurrection in the Government of Orem- tune, may enable them to reclaim their berg. Ottoman Empire. Pre; arations rights ; on the other, the demands of the by the new Grand Signior for carrying armed claimants, leem to increase with on the War. Great Germanic Powers. their acquifitions and the facility of obRevival of obsolete Claims. State of taining them. Thus they both continue the Empire. Aholition of the Jesuits, in their former situation; the one having Commercial Failures, Dearths, "Earth- obtained no additional security in his new, quakes.

por the other in his old poifeilions.

This has been sufficiently shewn since on and internal improvement; and that the conclusion of those treaties, by the the glare of fruitless victories, are a poor late conduct of the Prussians with regard recompence for the disorders excited by to Dantzick.” And though the other two the consequent oppressions of the people, partitioning powers have not yet taken and the real weakness that must enlue, any fteps of the fame nature, there is lit- from ļo long, and so violent an exertion. tle room to doubt that in proper time It was evident from the nature and and season they will follow the example. Tituation of the countries, and the conIndeed the measures they have all taken sequences of former wars with the Turks, for a continual interference in the affairs that conquetts in Moldavia, Wallachia, and government of Poland, sufficiently .or Berlarabia, and victories on the Pruth explain the nature of their future designs, or the Danube, . were not likely to be

Distracted and torn as this unhappy attended with much benefit to Ruffia. "country continues, 'it has not during this The gaining of a port upon the Blackyear presented' those Thocking scenes of Sea, was indeed an object of the utmott calamity, which had long made it a importance; but of such a nature as to Spectacle, as much of horror, as of be attended with almost insuperable difcompaffion. The vaftarnies with which ficulties; both from the fatal aspect which it was covered, having rendered all oppo- it must-bear to the Ottoman empire, sition impracticable, the pretences for and the jealoufy: - which it must excite * cruelly were taken away; and the muf- in several of the European powers. titude of spectators composed of differ- - It still remains to be enquired; ent nations, and under different com- whether the new acquisitions in Poland, mands, being a mutual check upon the or the influence gained in that country enormities of each other, the rage for by the court of Petersburg, be equivalent blood dwindled into regufar oppression. to the loss, expence, and danger of such Upon the whole, the condition of Po- a war. These will be found upon exland is not worse than it has been ; nor amination, to be very inadequate to such are the possibilities fewer, in its favour. a price. If Poland ftill continued to be,

The fortune of Russia has not at all what it long was, a great and powerful been predominant this year with respect nation, under the conduct of illuftriouş to the war. Their enemies become daily princess and guarded by a nobility fammore habituated to arms, and have been ous for their prowess and military.virtues, beaten into order and discipline. Dif- such anextension of frontier, would be tance and situation were also much a- a matter of real moment, and carry with gainst them; and they have been taught jt. great additional security. In the by experience the difficulties of a Bul. prelent inttance these circumstances are garian campaign; à serrice, which can totally changed. Ruflia had nothing Icarcely be carried on with a probability to apprehend from Poland, and much to of success, without the assistance of fuch gain by it. She has now obtained a large a fleet, as ean maintain a fuperiority on accession of territory in Lithuania, of the-Black-Sea." The rebellion in the the same nature with respect to foil and Crimea, and apprehensions of danger climate, and much in the same fate as nearer home, prevented, however, fome to cultivation, with those wide-extendof the exertions that might otherwise ed, but half-defart countries, which she · have been made in the war upon the had already polletled in that quarter; Danube.

and which will still require the time and It'fill remains to be seen, whether it labour of ages to be people and cultiwas a wise: policy in Russia, to attempt vated. Both the old and the new pofincreasing the bulk of that vaft empire, feffions produce the same commodities, by adding new conquests to those hound- have the same wants, require the same ·less and ill-cultivated regions which the degrees of improvement, and are incaalready possesses; and which are perhaps pable of being of any use or assistance to at present too large for the grasp of any each other. single government. It may possibly With respect to frontier, for the hereafter be thought, that the immense neighbourhood of the peaceable, indowaste of treasure and blood, which has lent and impotent Pole, Russia has now been so lavishly squandered in this pur- extended her boundaries into contact fuit, would' have been much better ap- with those of her jealous, watchful, and plied to the great purposes of populati- enterprizing rivals; and has thereby laid

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the foundation (if the present fyftem cafe been particularly fo to the French conținues) for such endless altercation merchants, it has given much umbrage and disputes, as must keep Germany and to the two great branches of the house the North in a continual state of war-' of Bourbon. And as the death of Ali fare and confusion. The wiselt and most Bey, and the return of Egypt to its duty, benevolent statesman could not have has cut off one of the principal sources wished for a happier barrier than Poland, of advantage that could be expected to prevent the clashing of the German from it, and that the passage of the and Muscovite empires; nor could the Dardanelles seems no longer to be thought demon of discord have thrown out bit- practicable, it may still be a matter not terer feeds of contention, than it is now unworthy of consideration, how much likely to produce.

farther it may be consistent with pruAs to the obtaining or preserving of an dence, to irritate the resentment of those influence in Poland, her late measures princes; and whether any advantages now have been attended with as little ad-, to be expected from a continuance of the vantage in that respect, as in any other. war in the Levant, are equivalent to the Ruffia before, solely guided and direct- risque of a rupture with France and ed the councils of that country, nor could Spain. This feet however, has been the have been deprived of the great lately reinforced, and it is said will be security and advantage which the deriv- 'rendered formidable in the ensuing sumed from that unbounded influence ; but mer. by the moft mistaken conduct and failsett The cession of the dutchy of Holstein policy. She now divides her authority to Denmark, is to be considered in no with the other members of the triumvi- other light, than as a sacrifice to the rate, who will be sufficiently careful present war, and is therefore to be that she does not retain more than her brought as a discount, on any future adThare; nor will her dividend in a future vantages that Russia may obtain by it. partition of the remains of that republic, At the same time, nothing can be a clearbe in any degree an equivalent for the er demonftration of the apprehenhons advantages which she has foregone, in which the latter had conceived, with losing that fupreme influence and directi respect to the designs of a near northern on by which ihe guided the whole. neighbour, than the great price which

Those schemes which were trumpeted she has upon this occasion paid for the throughout Europe, of totally conquer- friendship of the former. ing and subverting the Ottoman empire, It was one of the most favourite and however they might have been held out darling projects with Peter the Great, to to fatter the imaginations of the people, obtain at any expence, and by any means, or to answer purposes in negociations for a German principality, with a vote in the loans, could not have been seriously diet of the empire. The watchful and adopted by any itatesman. If the prac prudent jealousy, with which even his ticability of such an event, were even nearest allies regarded this design, preadmitted, it could answer no good pur- vented its accomplishment. They reapose, and would probably be highly dily joined him in tripping Sweden of pernicious to Russia. The eternal boun- its plumes, and adorned themselves with daries which Nature has placed between a part of them; but prudently declined those empires, their distance, situation, the honour of his becoming a nearer and vast extent, the extreme difference neighbour. This object, of which he of climate, and in the manners, cuttoms, was disappointed in himself, he however and religions of the inhabitants, are in- wished to obtain for his successors, and it fuperable bars to their coalefcing; and accordingly influenced his conduct in the render it as impossible for Petersburg to marriages of his children, in consequence rule the Ottoman empire, as it would of which, the late unfortunate Emperor, be for Constantinople to govern the Ruf- Peter the Third, united in his own persian.

son, the dutchies of Sleswick and Holstein, The war in the Mediterranean, has with the empire of Tia, this year been attended with little hon Such is the vanity of human defignis our, and with no other advantage than and wisdom, that this object of so much what proceeded from the taking of prizes, cảre and folicitude, though his original As a war of this nature is always very paternal inheritance, venerable for jrs prejudicial 19 commerce, and has in this antiquity, and of fome confideration for

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its value and extent, is relinquished by patriarch, and bestows his benedictions the present successor without any equi- on the people, with the air of a new avalent; Delmenhorst, and the county of poftle. "He declares that he has no views Oldenburgh, being in no degree to be for his own interest, he being entirely considered as such. It must however be weaned from the vanities of the world, acknowledged, that these duchies are of and the remainder of his life devoted infinitely greater consequence and value whoily to piety; and that as soon as he to Denmark than to Ruflia; and that has placed his dear fon upon the throne, this ceffion removes a bone of endless he will again retire to lead the life of a contention from between those stater. hermit. Notwithstanding the grofsnefs

The despotism of the Russian govern- of this impofture, the pitiableness and ment, can only secure obedience, while marvellous circumstances of the tale, the rods and the axes are immediately operating upon the discontent and ignobefore the eyes of the people ; but as rance of the people, procured him an insoon as distance or any other circum- finite number of followers, among whom, ftance, screens them from the immediate it is said, were many of the nobility of the exertion of power, all discipline, order, government of Oremburg, where the trouand submission are at an end, and those bles began, as well as of the adjoining who were immediately before its most countries. This matter was regarded in so abject Naves, become at once the most serious a degree in Petersburg,

Dec. 23d, arrogant contemners of all laws and ob- that a manifesto was published Jigations. To this uptoward disposition, againft Pugatscheff, and his ad

1773. (which, where religion does not rivet the herents, in which the reason of the people chains, in the inseparable attendant of was appealed to, for their guard against despotism) the Russians owe a new war, such delusions. Gen. Bibikow, and sevewhich has this year broken out in the Cri- ral bodies of troops have also been sent mea ; where the Don Cossacks, with o to suppress the insurrection; but as this thers of their subjects, having revolted, matter only originated near the close of and joined with the Tartars, and those the present year, and is not yet finally few Turks who were left in the country, determined, the particular detail will have become fo formidable as nearly to appear in its proper place upon a future master the whole, and thus have render. occasion. ed abortive, all their former successes in · It is not probable that these rebellions that peninsula.

will be attended with any extraordinary A rebellion of a more dangerous' na- consequences; they however thew the ture has lately broken out in the borders precarious state of power in that empire; pf the kingdom of Cafan, owing, it is and it is remarkable that they are the said, to the extraordinary impositions effects of a war, which was probably un. laid on for the support of the war, and dertaken to prevent such commotions. the continual draughts of men carried off The campaign this year upon the Dafor the fupply of the armies. For this nube, though not productive of advanpurpose, notwithstanding the great im- tage, must, from its nature and distance, provements in knowledge and science have been more expensive to Ruffia than which have taken place in Russia, it was any two of the preceding. Upon the not yet thought too late, to raise a new whole, in whatever light this war is conDemetrius from the dead. A Cossack, fidered, when separated from the glare whose name is Pugatscheff, has allumed of its victories, whether with respect to the pame and character of the late un- the waste of treasure, to depopulation, fortunate Emperor Peter the Third. He to the lofs of Hollein, to internal difpretends that he made his escape, through turbances, or with regard to the removan extraordinary intervention of Provi- ing of ancient landmarks, and boundadence, from the murderers who were de- ries, and overthrowing the established ftined for his destruction; and that the system of the North, thereby ferting a report of his death, was only a fiction precedent for the future breach of all coined by the court, to compose the minds faith and alliance, and forming precari-' of the people, and reconcile them to the ous, unpatural, and dangerous arrangepresent unlawful government, by being ments and connexions ; in every poine of cut off from all hopes of a better. view, it appears to have been highly rui

This impostor, who pretends to the boys and destructive to Ruflia ; and that greatest sanctity, affumes the garb of a no probable fuccels or advantage to be

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hoped from it, will in any degree com- whom he finds already in their possession pensate for the evils which it has alrea, and management. By what has hidy brought, and the greater, which it is therto app ared, he is making such prelikely to entail upon that empire. parations, as indicate a prosecut on of the

Upon a review of the general state of war with redoubled vigour. affairs at present, it seems probable, It would be a matter of no little difthat a fpeedy and final conclusion of the ficulty, to form even any conjecture, upwar, cannot be unacceptable to the court of on the conduct of the two great Germanic Petursburg; and it may be reasonably ima- powers. Their incessant preparations for gined, that if the negociations for a peace war, and augmentations of their armies, are renewed, she will prove moderate in without any apparent object, present us her demands. The marriage of the Great with a myitery, which can only be unDuke, with a princess of Helle Darmstadt, folded by its effects. The great encampand fifter to the Princess of Prussia, is ments formed by the Emperor, and the of no other political consequence, than movements of his troops on the Turkish as it may be supposed to operate in frontiers, made it imagined that he instrengthening the connexion between the tended to take an active part in the war courts of Petersburg and Berlm. The upon the Danube ; and it is not impofficonfanguinity of princes is, however, ble that this apprehenfion had some inonly productive of effect, when their in- fuence upon the conduct of the Ottomans tereits happen to draw in the same line. in the course of the campaign. As no

The present year has been fortunate to hostilities have taken place, it may not the Otiuman empire ; and though the perhaps be unreasonable to imagine, that events of the war have only afforded ne- ihese motions were only intended to in. gative advantages, they are of such a timidate the Porte, and thereby induce it nature as to be of the greatest importance. to enter into such terms of accommodation The abilities of a great minister, and the as would have answered the views of the enterprizing spirit of a brave adventurer, court of Petersburg. It must at the same have given a new colour to all their af- time be acknowledged, that it is far from fairs. Egypt is recovered, Ali Bey no being a certainty, than any such co-inmore, order restored in the coasts of the cidence of friendship and sentiment, acLesler Asia, and their troops have shaken tually subsifts between any two of the off their panic, and are ai length taught partitioning powers, except in what imto behold an enemy with a steady coun- mediately relates to their Niares of Potenance. And though the insurrection in land. Syria is still kept alive by the Chiek Da Among the evils engendered by the her, it can now be attended with no dan- present age, there is no one perhaps more gerous consequences; and the face of fatal in its tendency, or contagious in its things is so much changed for the better, example, than that which is now become in the capital, the provinces, and the ar- fashionable in Germany and the North, my, that it may be supposed, it will not of reviving or setting up of obsolete and a little contribute to the re-establishment antiquated claims and titles. The dan

gerous success which has already attended No opinion can yet be formed, of the this conduct, will extend the evil, if not effect that the death of the Grand Sig. timely and effectually checked, to the nior (which took place foon after the loosening of all security, and the renclose of the year) may have upon public dering all property precarious. A claim affairs. As little can be said as to the of this nature, upon the city of Hamcharacter of his fucceffor. Princes are burgh, has lately been ftarted, and put always exalted beyond the condition of in at Vienna, by Count Schomberg. As humanity at their first accefsion; and the title of the Hamburghers to their wonderful things are reported and ex- liberties, besides an original purchase pected from them. New reigns are ge- several times acknowledged and confirm. nerally vigorous in their beginning ; and ed, and a public declaration by the diet as it is not probable, that a prince at his of the empire in the year 1910, by which first coming out of a seraglio, in which Hamburgh was acknowledged a free and he had been confined for forty years, imperial city, was Itrengthened by a prewill have many opinions of his own upon scription of five hundred years landing, public affairs; it may be imagined that such an attempt at any other period, he vil? for some time be guided by those would only have afforded matier for

of peace:

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