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Compendium of Entertaining Knowledge,

For FEBRUARY, 1774.

The great Question resolved, Whether a rich Country can fand a Competition

with a poor Country (of equal natural Advantages) in railing of Provifions,

and Cheapness of Manufa&ures? With suitable Inferences and Deductions, Tbe following Solution to this interesting Queftion is extracted from a small

Treatise, jus published, intitled · Four Tracts, together with two Sermons, on Political and Commercial Subjects ;' written by Dr. Tucker, Dean of Gloucester, a Gentleman well known in the Republic of Letters, and universally admired for his strong and nervous Reasoning. We have endeavoured to retain the Substance of bis ingenious Solution ; but the Limits to which we are confined have obliged us to omit feveral curious Particulars mentioned by this mafterly Writer.

full liberty, will al: tryithe reasons usually assigned for

T has been a notion will turn again : So that, by attenduniversally received, ing to this change, you may discothat trade and manu ver the comparative riches or poverfactures, if left at ty of each particular place or coun

try. ways descend from a The

richer to a poorer this inigration, or rather circulation ftate; somewhat in the same man- of industry and commerce, are the Der as a stream of water falls from following, viz. In rich countries, higher to lower grounds; or as a where money is plenty, a greater current of air ruihes from a heavier quantity thereof is given for all the to a lighter part of the atmosphere, articles of food, raiment, and dwelin order to restore the equilibrium. ling: Whereas in poor countries, It is likewise inferred, very confiit- where money is scarce, a lesser quanently with this first principle, that, city of it is made to serve in procurwhen the poor country, in process ing the like necessaries of life, and of time, and by this influx of trade in paying the wages of the shepherd, and manufactures, is become rela- the plowinan, the artificer, and inatively richer, the course of traffic nufacturer. The inferrence from all February, 1774.

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which is, that provisions are raised, But is this indeed the case? -One
and goods manufactured much cheap- would not willingly run counter 19
er in poor countries than in rich ones; the settled notions of wankind; and
and therefore every poor country, if yet one ought not to make a sacrifice
a near neighbour to a rich one, and of truth to mere numbers, and the
if there is an eafy and commodieus. authority of opinions especially if it
communication between then, mutt should appear, that these are truths
unavoidably get the trade fronı it, of

great moment to the welfare of
were trade to be left at liberty to fociety. Therefore, with a becom-
take its natural course. Nor will ing deference, may it not here be
this increase of agriculture and ma- asked, - Can you suppose, that Di-
nufactures, wtereby the richer coun vine Providence bas really constituted
try is drained, and the poorer pro- the order of things in such a fort, as
portionably enriched, be stopped or to make the rule of national self-pre-
prevented, till things are brought to fervation to be inconsistent with the
a perfect level, or the tide of wealth fundamental principle of universal
begins to turn the other way, benevolence, and the doing as we

Now, according to this train of would be done by ? For my part, I
reasoning, one alarming and obvious must confess, I never could conceive
consequence mutt necessarily follow, that an all-wife, just, and benevo-
viz. That the provisions and inanu- lent Being would contrive one part
factures of a rich country could ne of his plan to be so contradictory 10
ver find a vent in poor ones, on ac the other, as here supposed ; – that
count of the higher value, or dearer is, would lay ụs under one obligation
price fet upon them: Whereas thofe as to morals, and another as to trade;
of a poor country would always find or, in short, make that to be our
a vent in a rich one, because they dury, which is not, upon the whole,
would be afforded the cheapest at and generally speaking (even without
the common market.

the consideration of a future state)
This being the case, can it be de- our interest likewife.
nied, that every poor country

is the Therefore I conclude à priori, that
natural and unavoidable enemy of a there must be fome Aaw or other in
rich one ; especially if it should hap- the preceding arguments, plausible
pen to be adjoining to it? And are as they seem, and great as they are
not we sure beforehand, that it will upon the foot of human authority.
never cease of draining it of its trade for though the appearance of things
and commerce, industry and manu at first sight makes for this conclusi-
factures, till it has at least so far re on, viz. · That poor countries must
duced it, as to be on a level and e inevitably draw away the trade from
quality with itself? Therefore the rich ones, and consequently impove-
rich country, if it regards its own rith them, the fact itself cannot be
interest, is obliged by a kind of self- so. Buț, leaving all arguments of
defence to make war upon the poor this fort, as being perhaps too me-
one, and to endeavour to extirpale taphysical for common use, let us
all its inhabitants, in order to main- have recourse to others, wherein we
tain itself in ftatu quo, or to prevent may be allifted by daily experience
the fatal consequences of loofing its and observation.
present influence, trade, and riches. Suppose therefore England and
For little less than a to!al extirpation Scotland to be two contiguous, in-
can be sufficient to guard against the dependent kingdoms, equal in fize,
evils to be feared from this dagerous fituation, and all natural advantages ;
rival, while it is suffered to exist. suppose, likewise, that the numbers


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of people in both were nearly equal ; On the contrary, the rich country
but that England had acquired hath the following advantages,
Espenty millions of current specie, which will more than counter-ba-
and Scotland had only a tenth part lance any disadvantage that inay arise
of that sum, viz, two millions ; The froin the foregoing articles, viz.
question now is, Whether England ist. As the richer country hath
will be able to support itself in its acquired its superior wealth by a ge-
fuperior influence, wealth, and cre- neral application, and long habits of
dit? Or be continually on the decline industry, it is therefore in actual port
in trade and manufactures, till it is fellion of an established trade and
furik into a parity with Scotland; so credit, large correspondences, expe-
that the current specie of both nati-rienced agents and factors, commo-
ons will be brought to be just the dious fhops, work-houses, maga-
fame, viz. eleven millions each. zines, &c. also a great variety of

Now, to resolve this question in a the best tools and implements in the
farisfactory manner, a previous in various kinds of manufactures and
quiry thould be set on foot, víz. How engines for abridging labour; - add
caine England to acquire this great to these good roads, canais, and
surplus of wealth ? And by what other artificial communications ;
means was it accumulated? If in the quays, docks, wharfs, and piers;
way of idleness, it certainly cannot numbers of thips, good pilots, and
retain it long; and England will a- trained failors: - And, in respect to
gain become poor ; - perhaps fo poor husbandry and agriculture, it is like-
as to be little better than Hungary wise in poffeffion of good inclosures,
or Poland : But if, by a courte of drains, waterings, artificial grasses,
regular and universal industry, the great stocks, and confequently the
fame means, which obtained the greater plenty of manures ; also a
wealth at first, will, if purfued, cer- great variety of plows, harrows,
tainly preserve it, and even add &c. fuited to the different soils; and,
thereto : So that Engiand need not in thort, of every other superior me-
entertain any jealousy againft the im- thod of husbandry arising from long
provements and manufactures of experience, various and expensive
Scotland ; -and, on the other band, trials. Whereas the poor country
Scotland, without hurting England, has, for the most part, all these
will likewise increase in trade and be things to seek after and procure.
benefitted both by its example, and 2dly. The richer country is not

only in possession of the things alrea-
But, as these are only general af- dy made and settled, but also of su-
fertions, let us now endeavour to perior skill and knowledge (acquired
fupport them by an induction. by long habit and experience) for

Now, on the side of the poorer inventing and making of more.
sation, it is alledged that, seeing it importance of this will appear the
has much less money, and yet is e greater, when we consider, that no
qual in size, situation, and other na man can pretend to let bounds to the
tural advantages, equal also in num- progress ibat may yet be made both
bers of people, and those equally in agriculture and manufactures; for
willing to be diligent and induftri-. who can take upon him to affirm,
ous; it cannot be but that such a that our children cannot as far ex-
country must have a manifest advan- ceed us as we have exceeded our
tage over the rich one in point of ils Gothic foresathers? And is it not
parfimonious way of living, low much more natural and reason ble
wages, and consequently cheap ina- to suppose that we are rather at the


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beginning only, and just got within constant, every manufa&ure that rethe threlhold, than that we are ar- quires various processes, and is comrived at the ne plus ultra of useful posed of different parts, is accorddiscoveries? Now, if so, the poorer ingly divided and subdivided into secountry, however willing to learn, parate and distinct branches; wherecannot be supposed to be capable of by each person becomes more expert, making the same progress in learning and also more expeditious, in the with the rich, for want of equal particular part assigned him. Wheremeans of instruction, equally good as, in a poor country, the same models and examples ; -- and there- person is obliged by neceffity, and fore, though both may be improving for the sake of getting a bare subevery day, yet the practical know- fistence, to undertake such different ledge of the poorer in agriculture branches as prevent him from exceland manufactures will always be ling, or being expeditious in any. found to keep at a respectful distance In such a case, is it not much cheapbehind that of the richer country. er to give 25. 6d. a day, in the rich

3dly. The richer country is not country, to the nimble and adroit only more knowing, but is also more artist, than it is to give only 6d. in able than the other to make further the poor one, to the tedious, aukimprovements, by laying out large ward bungler? fums of money in the prosecution of 6thly. As the richer country has the intended plan. Whereas the the greater number of rival tradefpoor country has here the mortifica- men, and those more quick and dexiion to find that the want of these is trous, the goods of such a country in many cases an infuperable bar to have not only the advantages arising its rise and advancement: And this from quickness and dexterity, but circumstance deserves tbc more re also will be afforded much cheaper, gard, as it is a known fact and crite on account of the emulation of so observation, that very few great and many rivals and competitors. Whereextensive projects were ever brought as, in a poor country, it is very easy to bear at firt setting out; and that for one rich, over-grown tradesman a vast deal of money must be sunk, to monopolise the whole trade to and many years be elapsed, before himself, and consequently to fet his they are capable of making any re own price upon the goods, as he turn.

knows that there are none who care 4thly. The higher wages of the contend with him in point of fortune ; rich country, and the greater scope -or, what is full as bad, the like and encouragement given for the ex- consequences will follow where the ertion of genius, induttry, and an numbers of the wealthy are so few, bition, will naturally determine a that they can combine together, a great many men of spirit and en

whenever they will, to prey upon

the terprise to forsake their own poor public. country, and feuile in the richer ; 7thly and lastly. In the richer fo that the one will always drain the country, the superiority of the cae other of the flower of its inhabi- pital, and the low interest of motants : Whereas there are not the ney, will ensure the vending of all teme temptations for the best hands · goods on the cheapest terms; beand aruits of the rich country to caufe a man of 2000l. capital.can forfale the best pay, and settle in a certainly afford to give the best wapontone.

ges to the bett workmun, and yet be 5thly. In the richer country, able to sell the produce or manufacwhere the demands are great and ture of such workinen at a much


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