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deeds. It must be a living dynamic force in the heart causing right action in the outward life. It must be the summation of those fruits of the spirit: love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, meekness, faith. All these high beliefs are of importance only as they yield this fruitage of the spirit; all worship and all religious fellowship have their reason for existence only as they develop this quality of life. Supreme among all the forces which create this element of character is the spirit of good-will to men. The sense of human brother. hood is the crowning result of both religion and civilization. All of modern study has tended to reinforce this principle of human unity. "Whoso loseth his life for my sake, shall find it” said Jesus, thereby voicing the most profound law of spiritual life. Nothing but the spirit of love and service can bring the rich fruits of character, or lift the race to the heights of joy and goodness which is its heritage. "And now abideth these three, faith, hope, love, but the greatest of these is love."






“Peace hath her victories, no less renowned than those of war. ” Milton might have added that peace, as well as war, has her defeats. The notable victories and the no less signal defeats of William Pitt were achieved and sustained on the bloodless field of diplomacy. Not the noisy clash of arms and the bustle of the camp, but the quiet of the council chamber was his element. His work demanded qualifications no less pronounced than those required by the characters already considered. It will be our task to trace the development of those characteristics from his boyhood to the time when, still almost in his boyhood, he moulded the destinies of England.

William Pitt was the second son of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, “The Great Commoner.” That he was not the first son, and therefore heir to the earldom, would have been a source of regret to one possessed of idle ambition and less lofty ideals. But to Pitt it was a source of satisfaction, as he preferred activity in the house of commons to being virtually buried in the house of lords. This desire for an active life was expressed by the child when he said, “I am glad I am not the eldest son, I want to speak in the house of commons, like papa."

At the birth of William Pitt, his father was one of the most famous and powerful men in England. The nation,



under his leadership, had just passed through some of the most fortunate events in its history, including the subjugation of an empire in India, the conquest of Canada from the French, and the establishment of British supremacy on the

England was proud of Chatham, he was proud of his sons, and they grew up to love and respect him, and to emulate his virtues. Between him and his children, there existed the deepest affection. Chatham manifested his love for them by giving them careful instruction along the lines in which he was famous-oratory and argument. This and other instruction at home largely took, in William's case, the place of school education from which he was debarred by his weak physical condition. In his, youth he was very precocious in certain lines of study. Chief among these may be mentioned literature, oratory, and politics, three accomplishments which were of ever-present assistance in his subsequent career. In these branches he was drilled by his father; and so skilful was the training and so great his precocity, that even in early boyhood his companions playfully referred to him as “taught by his dad on a stool." This grew, in great part, out of the fact that his father, who was a most excellent orator, had trained him in one of the most difficult of oratorical qualities, the control and management of the voice. And it is worthy of remark that the oratorical qualities thus inculcated did more than anything else to establish the complete mastery which he subsequently exercised over the house of commons, whenever he arose to speak. Much more by the force of his eloquence did he sway the hearts of men, than convince them of the justice of his policy. When that proud, musical, wellmodulated voice resounded through the house in words of burning eloquence, it was difficult for his opponents to stem the tide of feeling set in motion by his oratory. His speaking was of the commanding, persuasive order, with sufficient of the element of pleading to relieve it of harshness, though not enough to render it weak.

The excellent quality of his public speaking was due not alone to the elocutionary training above referred to (though that was an important element) but also to his assiduous cultivation, from youth to manhood, of a valuable and admirable

habit. It was his custom, as a boy, to take the printed speeches of great orators and parliamentarians through a course of critical study and analysis, special attention being given to those points which admitted of a logical answer. These answers he carefully framed, and then weighed them over against the corresponding elements in the speeches themselves, accurately estimating their relative value. This habit naturally added skill in debate to his power as a speaker, and rendered the matter of his speech as important as the manner. The combination was almost irresistible.

In the light of this explanation, it is no cause for wonder that upon hearing Pitt's first speech in the house, some one exclaimed, “He will be one of the first men in parliament:" and the brilliant Fox replied, "He is so already." Nor do we marvel that Burke said, “It is not a chip off the old block, but the old block itself.” All this fame had come to him at the early age of twenty-two.

In view of certain educational prejudices now held by many among us, it may be well to mention that Pitt's preparation for a brilliant life largely consisted in a careful training at Cambridge University in the basic studies, English, mathematics, and Latin and Greek. The first gave correctness and finish to his language, the second enabled him to follow strictly logical lines in preparing the framework of his speeches, and the classics gave him a wealth and elegance of vocabulary, a store of allusion and illustration, and a smoothness and polish which carried the shafts of his eloquence straight to the mark. To one whose work consists, in any considerable degree, in public speaking, such a training is invaluable.

William Pitt entered into public life at twenty-one years. True he was defeated when he first stood for parliament, but the next year his election was secured, and he became immediately, one of "the first men in parliament.” So soon, indeed, was his genius recognized that he was advanced to the position of chancellor of the exchequer at the age of twentythree. When he first entered parliament the American Revolution was in progress. He was as strongly opposed to the obstinate, oppressive policy of George III and Lord North, as his father was when he exclaimed, “If I were an American,

as I

am an Englishman, while a foreign troop was landed in my country, I never would lay down my armsnever, never, never!" Pitt had imbibed this sympathy for the oppressed and this love of freedom, in his youth; and only under force of the most discouraging circumstances, did he depart, in later life, from strict adherence to human rights. Only when the seed of liberty sown by the American Revolution had grown into the terrible license of the Reign of Terror and subsequent events in France, did Pitt feel justified in applying severe measures to lessen men's liberties. For this he has been blamed, while in reality it was a fault of the times, not his own. No one who has studied the development of the social heresies of that epoch, and Napoleon's usurpation and exercise of despotic power in the name of destiny and necessity, can censure Pitt for his feelings of apprehension and his necessarily harsh measures for suppressing socialistic theories. From his youth up he must be characterized as a friend of human liberty. And he had great opportunities, even in youth, for exercising dominion over men.

In .parliament at twenty-two, and practically prime minister at twentythree, he had risen to almost absolute authority at twentyfive. From that time until his death, the government of England was almost uninteruptedly under his control; yet oppression was not a characteristic feature of that period.

Unlike most men who have occupied similar positions, Pitt did not enrich himself at the expense of the state. The lessons of self-sacrifice to principle acquired in his youth, were retained through mature life. Was an office with no work and a high salary at his disposal, he appointed a superannuated soldier, instead of taking the office himself; were bribes employed to control official actions, he spurned them with contempt; did opportunity offer for him to rival, with ill-gotten wealth, a Wolsey or a Walpole, he preferred poverty with honor.

While we may censure, with justice, his living beyond his means, we cannot but honor him for his incorruptible integrity. Although it may be questioned whether his early training, which taught him to despise wealth, was wise, yet there can be no question as to the rightfulness of contempt for unjust gains.

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