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the comparative cheapness of labour his dignified statue of Watt, or the and means of subsistence.*
reposing children in Lichfield catheI close my remarks with their dral ; but though there were none School of Sculpture, where again, who shone pre-eminent, there were though with much diffidence (for it a greater proportion who deserved to is not from a transient glance that rank high in the class of excellence. we ought to speak decisively), I feel I do not indeed recollect one amongst inclined to award the palm of excel- their works manifesting so much bad lence to the French chisel. Not taste in composition, style, and exethat they can produce an artist to yie cution, as we see in many of those with Chantrey. There was nothing monuments which disfigure rather in the Louvre at all comparable to than adorn some of our cathedrals.
* Two inventions (I can scarcely call them improvements, but as they are in their infancy it would be uncandid to judge too severcly) exist in Paris; one by M. Senefelder, Boulevard Bonne Nouvelle, No. 31, which he calls L'Aquatinte Lithographique, ou maniere de reproduicer les desseins faites au pinceau, 1 vol. 4to. 12 planches, price 10 francs. The effect certainly bears a resemblance to the Aquatinte, but is very coarse. The other is Lithochromie, ou tableaux a l'huile par impression, by M. C. Malapeau, Quai Malaquais, No. 7, where about 50 specimens may be seen. The effect is that of bad oil painting, varying in price from 8 to 100 francs.
THE LOST WALKING-STICK. The influence of inanimate objects this kind provision of nature appear of perception in awakening those unaccountable, when we observe the vivid feelings which time or chance wonderful influence of custom and may have associated with them, is association in inseparably uniting too striking to have been passed over ideas between which there need be without some attempt at explanation. no natural kindred; and when we The portrait-the letter-or the gift reflect on what it is, in which the real of a deceased friend are cherished hy tenderness of friendship consists us, as if in them were really con- not merely in admiration of virtue or densed all those inestimable qualities brilliant genius-or in gratitude for on account of which he was dear repeated acts of kindness—but in to us; and, if they happen to be lost, that long and cordial intimacy, which we have an illusive feeling that the more frequently takes root in youth, pleasurable recollections, of which and on which time has no power these inanimate objects were, in a save to mature and to strengthen. manner, the representatives, are, at It is by the principle of association the same time, erased from our me- that writers on the philosophy of mory.
mind explain the influence of external We never view the gift of one to objects in suggesting particular trains whom we were strongly attached of ideas: and we know that Mr. when living, or visit those scenes Locke maintained, that the fearful which are hallowed to us by the re- ideas we are wont to associate with collections of departed worth,-in darkness have really no more to do fact, we never look at any object that with darkness than light, but are the is connected with his memory, with offspring of our education in the out experiencing a revival of delight, nursery. As an instance of the effect ful images and feelings, over which, of association in cementing together indeed, sorrow throws a shade of ideas that in themselves are not at melancholy tenderness--the sad ten all of kin, we cannot forbear quoting derness of pleasure to us gone by one from Mr. Locke--for the same for ever.
“ Formerly,” said an old reason that he gave for mentioning it man, pointing to the mansion of a -its “ pleasant oddness." " It is deceased friend, “I had only to climb of a young gentleman, who having these steps, to forget all the miseries learned to dance, and that to great of life ;” as if the very steps had im- perfection, there happened to stand bibed some of the charm of their an old trunk in the room where he former owner's virtues. Nor will learned. The idea of this remarkable piece of household stuff had so hours entailed on me by absence mixed itself with the turns and steps from friends. I have told you that it of all his dances, that though in that was the parting present of our muchamber he could dance excellently tual friend, Harry B-d, and had well, yet it was only whilst that been our companion at school, at trunk was there, nor could he per- college, and afterwards in our tour form well in any other place, unless through Greece and Italy. I well that, or some such other trunk, had remember the occasion on which it its due position in the room. If this was given to him. It was during story," proceeds Mr. Locke, “ shall the vacation that followed after the be suspected to be dressed up with death of the only parent I have ever some comical circumstances, a little seen-my father. B. wrote a letter beyond precise nature, I answer for privately to his uncle George, giving myself, that I had it some years him an account of the peculiar lonesince from a very sober and worthy liness of my situation; on receipt of man, upon his own knowledge, as 1 which, that kind-hearted man took report it.” But perhaps the power chaise immediately, and brought which inanimate objects of sense Harry and me home with him to his exercise over the combined images hospitable mansion in Westmoreland. of memory is in no instance more We one day had a trial of leapingstrongly evinced, than in the poignant an exercise, you may remember, I regret we feel for the loss of a thing with excelled in. B. made an extreme which were associated some tender effort to beat me, and sprained his recollections of friendship. From a ankle. Many days passed before he tendency of the mind to concentrate was able to stir out; and he then re—to embody, as it were,-in an ob- quired the support of this same stick, ject, the feelings it may give rise to, the loss of which has caused me such we feel, on the loss of such an object, heartfelt grief. It was given to him as if a particular amount of plea- by the worthy parish rector, a consurable recollections were, at the same stant and most welcome visitor at time, rent from the memory.—But his uncle's; a man of, refined intelthis will appear more evident from a lect, with the greatest simplicity of perusal of the two following letters. manners
who practised without osOf the first, we will give but ex- tentation the benevolent precepts that tracts; for there is a warmth of grief he preached ; a man, indeed, as B. expressed in it at the loss of a mere and I had often occasion to remark, walking-stick, which would appear very, very different from some of his ridiculous to those unacquainted with brethren with whom it was afterthe exaggerating disposition of the wards our lot to become acquainted. writer. The other, which professes Out of respect to this excellent man, to explain that vividness of our as- B. took the stick with him, on our sociate conceptions which is occa- return to school. In Cambridge, sioned by the presence of the sug- where we first knew you, you may gesting object of perception, is given remember the cautious respect with entire. And here it may be neces- which B. used to lay it by; for it sary to explain the sense in which had, in fact, become to us both a kind these two words-perception-con- of memorial of the past pleasure of ception-are used in these letters. our boyhood. When we met you in By perception is meant, a sensation Florence, you recognised it as the inwith a present reference to its cause, separable companion of our travels, the external object: by conception and, if I mistake not, it was you who is meant, those states of memory or then called it B.'s Doppelgänger, imagination which may, or may not, without which he could not move." have a present reference to external Here follows a love episode, in objects.
which the stick played a very distin“ You will, I am sure, laugh at guished part; to which, by the bye, my bewailing so bitterly the loss of we shrewdly suspect the value of the what is intrinsically of such little stick was more owing than our friend value-a walking-stick; but, indeed, would be perhaps willing to confess. you would not, if you could but see “ You were one of many friends the great gap it has made in those who lamented the sad ravages the musings of memory which served to beatings of a heart too big for its beguile me, during the many solitary case had made in his naturally deli
cate constitution; and you endea- of a knot of five of us who used to voured to cheer the drooping spirits meet at poor Harry B-d's chamof those who believed, alas! too bers, and who afterwards met amid truly, that they were gazing on him the ruins of the “ Eternal City,' I for the last time, by your sanguine expect a long letter of consolation ; declarations of health recovered un- perhaps you could devise some exder the balmy influence of a southern pedient that might alleviate this, besky. I accompanied him to Ply- lieve me, the most trying misfortune mouth. The was a forced kind of of my chequered life. Indeed, I am merriment in our conversation at almost tempted to cry out with Lear, parting, that ill accorded with the You see me here, you gods, a poor old man, sadness which sat heavily on our
As full of grief, as age ; wretched in both. hearts; and, although Harry tried to elicit some flashes from his playful
“Write soon, and direct as usual.” wit, the faint gleams served but to throw a melancholy lustre over his My dear friend, pallid countenance, so as to remind Í heartily sympathize with you on us of the phosphoric flame which is the loss of your old ivory-headed said to flit round the decaying te- companion, and readily enter into the nants of the charnel-house. We were feelings its absence 'must occasion both silently gazing on our old com- you; for I know where the spring panion—the stick, when he was sum
lies whence these feelings flow. moned on board. He sprang up
They indirectly arise from a tenput the stick in my hand. - Take dency of our nature (which your this,' said he, “it may remind you of friend, J-L-, would call the prothe many delightful scenes we have sopopæiaising tendency) to animate, visited together-it will prevent you when vividly excited, those external forgetting a friend who-while-He objects that give rise to our emoaverted his head, his lip quivered— tions, or with which long acquainta tear moistened his eye-he faulter- ance has made us familiar; à teningly squeezed my hand, and dropped dency, to which the bold personificainto the boat. The vessel got under tions of poetry owe their charm, and weigh, and soon melted from my which, if I mistake not, has been sight--I have twice visited his grave given as an instance of the tacit inat Naples.
fluence of an innate disposition to “ During the many years of gloom ascribe the changes of the external that have since rolled by, and when universe to a spiritual or mental the bleakness of my solitary and agency. It is well described by Akenwandering life has made me droop or side, when he speaks of feel unhappy, the sad but delightful
The charm reveries which the sight of that stick That searchless Nature o'er the sense of man always induced — the oases of the Diffuses,-to behold in lifeless things dreary desert of my existence—never The inexpressive semblance of himself, failed to cheer and revive me. When Of thought and passion. the weather did not admit of my But, though I am perfectly alive taking it out to walk with me, I used to the pain which the loss of your to place it opposite to me after din- stick inflicts upon you, I cannot adner, and sit for hours rehearsing the mit that it is irreparable ; for I will many mellowed emotions of joy and not readily believe, that the assowoe that were associated with it. I ciations, on account of which the knew it in my boyhood-it was a stick was cherished by you, were chum in college, and a companion in embodied so exclusively in it, as to my travels; and it witnessed the tor- render all other modes of appealing ture, the gloom, which ensued from to the memory ineffectual. Habit, I my ill-placed attachment—the cause am aware, had rendered it in some of the dark shadowings of my sub- measure essential to your comfort. sequent existence."
It was so identified with the incidents Here follows an account of the of your eventful life, that it was, in most vivid of these associate recol- fact, a symbolic history of your lections, which are, in fact, a history heart's strongest feelings; and, like of the writer's life, but are too long an Egyptian hieroglyphic, through for extract.
the influence of time, had become, in “ From you, my dear R. the last a manner, the sole record of the revolutions which age and circum- remembered passion to the more stances had produced in the empire purely intellectual feelings of our naof your affections. This being the ture. "T'is true, these inestimable case, it would be foolish to offer you remembrances, which pass soothingly as a substitute any similar object, over the mind like the melancholy of with the hope that it might in time soft music, are apt to darken and succeed as representative of the va shut out the glare of every-day rious emotions which were associated mirth; but, in the shade which they with its predecessor. Such another throw before them, are to be seen stick would, I fear, only remind you those glow-lights of the heart which of your loss, without suggesting those are invisible in broad sunshine. inestimable remembrances which ren- The apparently disproportioned dered the other so valuable to grief that we feel at the loss of any you. Not that, if you feel inclined, of the gifts, the sacred gifts of friends I would altogether dissuade you from ship, or for the loss of any object a trial; it is probable you would ule with which we have been loug famitimately succeed in investing the new liar, arises from a temporary i!luisire stick with a great relative valie; belief (which philosophy may but not without such pain as would, point out, but cannot eradie
at I am sure, damp the ardour of your the amount of delight which .. perseverance. Material expedients sociated with the particular gir being, then, to say the least, uncere object, is, as it were, deled from the tain, I would recommend you to seek memory by the removal of the object among the internal sources of intel that was wont to suggest it. That lect for a remedy, which, if it do not object-your stick for instance, had altogether assuage the bitterness, become the embodied representative may, at least, blunt the keenness of of those images and emotions of your feelings. It is needless to say, pleasure which casual circumstances that you cannot do this effectually, had associated with it; and, by being without having some conception of thug rendered the suggester of a parthe mental progress by which a mere ticular amount of delight, was instick has been animated (if I may so vested, by an illusive tendency of express myself) into a vivid repre- the mind to reflect back and diffuse sentative of your most heart-stirring over an object, the pleasure or pain recollections. I will say a few words it suggested. This illusive tendency on this interesting process, and leave of the mind to reflect back the deit to your own leisure and reflection light of uneasiness which the preto make a more elaborate analysis. sence of inanimate objects produces; It is, perhaps, unnecessary to pre- to invest them, as it were, with its mise to you, that in this, as in all own qualities or feelings, is the cause other attempts at an analysis of our of the pleasure which your old ivoryfeelings, we do not thereby expect, headed companion afforded you, and or even wish, to extinguish these feel indirectly of the pain or regret its ings: quite the contrary. The inter- absence now inflicts on you. To tion of every such inquiry into the you who are so intimately acquainted nature of any of our passions and with the theory of the acquired peremotions is to make them Jess pain- ceptions of sight, and of the beauty ful, and, if possible, more purely in- we ascribe to external objects, it is tellectual : in this we may not suc- unnecessary to offer any illustration ceed; but we never fail to render of this tendency of the mind to difthem more vivid and lasting. By fuse its own feelings over the objects thus blending the emotions of the that give rise to them, and of thereby heart with the reflections of intellect, commingling the associations conwe improve the temper of both; nected with an object, with its simwhile the feelings of one become ple perception, so as to give to the more intense and energetic, those of complex whole a imity, which indeed the other are rendered more bland requires a dexterous analysis to seand imperishable. From the tema parate into its elementary feelings. perate deductions of reason our con- The colours of bodies, which seem to luct of life derives its harmony ; to us spread over that wide surface of the feelings of the heart it is indebted landscape that terminates in the refor its melody; and what melody is mote horizon, are, as you well know, 14 harmony, is the sad tenderness of mental, not corporeal moctifications ;
the effect, indeed, of a few rays of feelings which co-existed with the senlight that impinge on the retina; but sations of touch ; in the same manner, an effect only, not a part of the ra- as the words of a language, when a diance; and you also know that this language has been fully learned, colour, which exists but as a sensa- suggest whatever the words may tion of our mind, is diffused by us have been used to denote. But too over, and incorporated, as it were, much of this with you. with the objects from which the rays I am sure I have said more than that occasion the sensation flow, enough on that process of the mind which objects, I need not say, are by which it endows inanimate objects not mind, but matter. This, which is with the agreeable (or opposite) a familiar truth with those aceus- qualities of the associate rememtomed to philosophical investigations, brances, which it by accidental eonwould sound oddly, in fact, para- nexion, perhaps, is enabled to sugdoxically, to the ear of the multi- gest-arising, as I have said, from a tude; as would another analogous tendency of the mind to reflect back fact, that the beauty we ascribe to on external objects the images or objects exists-not in the objects we feelings which they happen to give name beautiful, but in the mind that rise to. There is a part of this properceives the object; that it is the cess however, and, as it appears to mind alone which is the source of me, by far the most interesting part, beauty ; that objects appear beau- on which I will offer a few retiful, because the mind spreads over marks; to you, who have not read them, if I may say so, the mantle of the works of the late Dr. Brown, they its own pleasurable feelings—feelings will, I presume, be somewhat new; which, you know, are mostly asso, for it is a process which no other ciate, and thus embodies in those oba writer on the philosophy of mind; jects termed beautiful the delightful that I am acquainted with, has ever emotions which they serve but to attempted to explain, with the exsuggest. “ If no eye, that is to say, ception of Mr. Stewart, whose exno mind," asks Dr. Brown, “ were planation, as I shall have occasion to to behold it, what would be the love- show you, is but partly correct. It liest of those forms on which we is to Brown, who, in my mind, is by now gaze with rapture? A multitude far the soundest of the Scotch metaof particles more or less near or re- physical writers, that we are indebted mote." “A beautiful object," says for the perfect explanation of this the same philosopher, “ when consi- very interesting process; and the dered by us philosophically, like the following remarks do not pretend unknown causes of our sensations of to be more than a greater extencolour in bodies considered separately sion, or a more remote application, from our visual sensations, is merely of the principle laid down by him the cause of a certain delightful emo- than perhaps his limits could admit tion which we feel: a beautiful ob.. of. The process I mean is that by ject, as felt by us, when we do not which the interesting remembrances attempt to make any philosophic dis- which perceptible objects, i. e. obtinction, is like those coloured objects jects of sense, awaken, are rendered which we see around us, an object in of a more vivid and tender character which we have diffused the delightful than the same remembrances when feeling of our own mind.”
they present themselves as the casual If I were not writing to one who associations of some object of meis so much better acquainted with mory; why the group of associate the subject than I can pretend to be, conceptions, which your stick, for I would say something about the example, merely served to suggest; origin of our visual feelings, and of were more vivid and tender when our feelings of beauty, which I ima- your stick was before your eyes, gine it would not be a hopeless task to than when these recollections occur. attempt investigating ; at least, the red spontaneously in the absence of elements of our visual judgments are that inanimate object. When an not so difficult to trace. The great air, or song, that is associated with principle in our visual feelings is the home, or with the scenes or friends principle of association, by which the that render home delightful, strikes notions derived from touch are sug- our ear, i. e. becomes an object of gested immediately by the visual sense, the emotions it then excites