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Whose death when swift-wing'd Fame at full con- T' attempt with others' dangers, not his own, vey'd

He counts it wisdom if it could be wrought; To this disturbed queen, misdoubting nought; And thave the humour of the people known, Despite and sorrow such affliction laid

Was now that which was chiefly to be sought. Upon her soul, as wondrous passions wrought. For with the best he knew himself was grown “And art thou Suffolk, thus,” said she, “betray'd? | In such account, as made him take no thought ; And have my favours thy destruction brought? Having observ'd in those he meant to prove, Is this their gain whom highness favoureth; Their wit, their wealth, their carriage, and their love. Who chief preferr'd, stand as preferr'd to death?

With whom, and with his own alliances, “ O fatal grace! without which men complain, He first begins to open (in some wise) And with it perish-what prevails, that we The right he had ; yet with such doubtfulness, Mast wear the crown, and other men must reign; As rather sorrow than his drift descries : And cannot stand to be, that which we be? Complaiuing of his country's wretchedness, Must our own subjects limit and constrain

In what a miserable case it lies ; Our favours, whereas they themselves decree? And how much it imports them to provide Must we our love at their appointment place? For their defence, against this woman's pride. Do we command, and they direct our grace?

Then with the discontented he doth deal, “ Must they our pow'r thus from our will divide ? In sounding theirs, not utt'ring his intent ; And have we might, but must not use our might? As being advis'd not so much to reveal, Poor majesty, which other men must guide ; Whereby they might be made again content: Whose discontent can never look aright.

But when they grieved for the commonweal, For evermore we see, those who abide

He doth persuade them to be patient, Gracions in ours, are odious in their sight,

And to endure—there was no other course : Who would all-mast'ring majesty defeat

Yet so persuades, as makes their malice worse. Of her best grace; that is, to make men great.

And then with such as with the time did run, “But well ;-we see, although the king be head, In most upright opinion he doth stand ; The state will be the heart. This sov'reignty As one that never cross'd what they begun, Is but in place, not pow'r; and governed

But seem'd to like that which they took in hand : By th' equal sceptre of necessity.

Seeking all causes of offence to shun, And we have seen more princes ruined

Praises the rule, and blames the unruly land; By their immod'rate fav’ring privately,

Works so with gifts and kindly offices, Than by severity in general:

That ev'n of them he serves his turn no less. For best he's lik’d, that is alike to all.”

Then as for those who were his followers, Thus storms this lady, all disquieted;

(Being all choice men for virtues, or deserts) When as far greater tumults 23 now burst out;

He so with grace and benefits prefers, Which close and cunningly were practised,

That he becomes the monarch of their hearts. By such as sought great hopes to bring about.

He gets the learned for bis counsellors, For up in arms in Kent were gathered

And cherishes all men of rarest parts : A mighty, insolent, rebellious rout,

To whom good done doth an impression strike Under a dang’rous bead; who to deter

Of joy and love, in all that are alike.” The state the more, himself nam'd Mortimer.

And now by means of th' intermitted war,

Many most valiant men impov'rished, The duke of York, that did not idle stand,

Only by him fed and relieved are; (But seeks to work on all advantages)

Only respected, grac'd, and honoured. Had likewise in this course a secret hand,

Which let him in unto their hearts so far, And hearten'd on their chiefest 'complices;

As they by him were wholly to be led. To try how here the people of the land

“ He only treads the sure and perfect path Would (if occasion serv'd) be in readiness

To greatness, who love and opinion bath.”
To aid that line, if one should come indeed
To move his right, and in due course proceed: And to have one some certain province his,

As the main body that must work the feat;
Knowing himself to be the only one

Yorkshire he chose, the place wherein he is
That must attempt the thing, if any should; By title, livings, and possessions great.
And therefore lets the rebel now run on,

No conntry he prefers so much as this;
With that false name, t'effect the best he could; Here hath his bounty her abiding seat;
To make a way for him to work upon,

Here is his justice and relieving hand, Who but on certain ground adventure would. Ready to all that in distress do stand. For if the traitor sped, the gain were his; If not, yet he stands safe, and blameless is. Wbat with his tenants, servants, followers, friends,

And their alliances and amities;

All that shire universally attends 23 The commons of Kent assembled themselves His hand, held up to any enterprise. in great number ; and had to their captain Jack And thus far Virtue with her pow'r extends ; Cade, who named himself Mortimer, cousin to the The rest, touching th' event, in Fortune lies. duke of York; with purpose to redress the abuses with which accomplements so mighty grown, of the government.

Forward he tends with hope t'attain a crown.

THE

So much he errs that scorns, or else neglects
The small beginnings of arising broils;
And censures others, not his owo defects,

And with a self-conceit himself beguiles:
HISTORY OF THE CIVIL II'AR.

Thinking small force will compass great effects,

And spares at first to buy more costly toils :
BOOK VI.

“ When true-observing Providence, in war,
Still makes her foes far stronger than they are.”
Yet this good fortune all their fortune marr'd;

“ Which fools by helping ever doth suppress: THE ARGUMENT.

For wareless insolence (whilst undebarr'd The bad success of Cade's rebellion,

Of bouuding awe) runs on to such excess, York's open practice, and conspiracy:

That following lust, and spoil, and blood so hard, His coming in; and his submission.

Sees not how they procure their own distress. Th’ effect of printing, and artillery.

The better, loathing courses so impure, Bourdeaux revolts; craves our protection.

Rather will like their wounds than such a cure. Talbot, defending ours, dies gloriously. The French wars end--and York begins again;

For whilst this wild, unreined moltitude

(Led with an unforeseeing, greedy mind, And at St. Alban's Somerset is slain.

Of an imagin'd good, that did delude
Their ignorance, in their desires made blind)
Ransack the city, and (with hands embru’d)

Run to all outrage in th' extremest kind;
The furious train of that tumultuous rout', Heaping up wrath and horrour more and more,
Whom close sub-aiding pow'r, and good success, They add fresh guilt to mischiefs done before.
Had made unwisely proud, and fondly stout,
Thrust headlong on, oppression to oppress ;

And yet seeing all this sorting to no end, And now to fulness grown, boldly give out,

But to their own; no promis'd aid tappear; That they the public wrongs meant to redress.

No such partakers as they did attend, “ Formless themselves, reforming do pretend ;

Nor such successes as imagin'd were;
As if confusion could disorder mend."

Good men resolv'd the present to defend ;
Justice against them, with a brow severe;

Themselves feard of themselves; tir'd with excess, And on they march with their false-named head,

“ Found mischief was no fit way to redress." Of base and vulgar birth, though noble feign'd; Who puff'd with vain desires, to London led And as they stand in desp'rate comberment, His rash, abused troops, with shadows train'd.

Environ'd round with horrour, blood, and shame; When as the king thereof ascertained,

Cross'd of their course, despairing of th'erent, Supposing some small pow'r would have restrain’d

A pardon (that smooth bait for baseness) came ; Disorder'd rage;

sends with a simple crew, Which as a snare to catch the impotent, (same : Sir Humphrey Stafford, whom they orerthrew. Being once pronounc'd, they straight embrace the

And as huge snowy mountains melt with heat, Which so increas'd th' opinion of their might, So they dissolv'd with hope, and home they get; That much it gave to do, and much it wrought; Confirm'd their rage, drew on the vulgar wight,

Leaving their captain? to discharge alone Call'd forth the tim'rous, fresh partakers brought.

The shot of blood, consumed in their heat;
For many, though most glad their wrongs to right, Was one man's breath, which thousands did defeat

Too sinall a sacrifice for mischiefs done,
Yet durst not venture their estates for nought :
But seeing the cause had such advantage got,

“ Unrighteous Death, why art thou but all ope

Unto the small offender and the great ? Occasion makes them stir, that else would not.

Why art thou not more than thou art, to those

That thousands spoil, and thousands lives do love !" · The commons of Kent, with their leader, Jack This fury passing with so quick an end, Cade, divulge their many grievances : amongst Disclos’d not those that on th' advantage lay; which, that the king was driven to live only on his Who seeing the course to such disorder tend, commons, and other men to enjoy the revenues

Withdrew their foot, asham'd to take that way; of the crown; which caused porerty in his majesty, or else prevented whilst they did attend and the great payments of the people, now late Some mightier force, or for occasion stay: granted to the king in parliament. Also they de- But what they meant, ill fortune must not tell; sire, that the king would remove all the false pro

Mischief being oft made good by speeding well. geny and affinity of the late duke of Suffolk, Put by from this, the duke of York designs which be openly' known; and them to punish : Another course to bring his hopes about ; and to take about his person the true lords of his And with those friends affinity combines royal blood; to wit

, the mighty prince, the duke In surest bonds, his thoughts he poureth out ; of York, late exiled by the traitorous motion of the false duke of Suffolk, and his affinity, &c. Also they crave, that they who contrived the ? Anno regai 29. death of the high and mighty prince, Humphrey 3 The duke of York, who at this time was in Ireduke of Glocester, might have punishment. land, (sent thither to appease a rebellion; which

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And closely feels and closely undermines

“ And seem to cry, ‘What! can you thus behold The faith of whom he had both hope and doubt ; Their hateful feet upon our graves should tread? Meaning in more apparent, open course,

Your fathers' graves; who gloriously did bold To try his right, his fortune, and his force. That which your shame hath left recovered?

Redeem our tombs, O spirits too too cold;

Pull back these tow'rs our arms have honoured: Love and alliance had most firmly join'd

These tow'rs are yours: these forts we built for you: Unto his part that mighty family,

These walls do bear our names, and are your due.' The far distended stock of Nevil's kind; Great by their many-issu'd progeny ;

“ Thus well they may upbraid our wretchlessness, But greater by their worth, that clearly shind,

Whilst we (as if at league with infamy) And gave fair light to their nobility;

Riot away for nought whole provinces; So that each corner of the land became

Give up as nothing worth all Normandy; Enrich'd with some great worthy of that name.

Traffic important holds, sell fortresses

So long, that nought is left but misery, But greatest in renown doth Warwick sit;

Poor Calais, and these water-walls about, That brave king-maker, Warwick, so far grown

That basely pound us in from breaking out. In grace with Fortune, that he governs it, And monarchs makes; and made, again puts down. “ And (which is worse) I fear we shall in th' end What revolutions his first-moving wit

(Thrown from the glory of invading war) Here brought about, are more than too well known; Be forc'd our proper limits to defend; The fatal kindle-fire of those hot days;

Wherever men are not the same they are; Whose worth I may, whose work I cannot praise. The hope of conquest doth their spirits extend

Beyond the usual pow'rs of valour far.

For more is he that ventureth for more,
With him, with Richard earl of Salisbury,
Courtney and Brooke, and other his dear friends,

Than who fights but for what he had before.
He intimates his mind; and openly
The present bad proceedings discommends;

“ Put to your hands, therefore, to rescue now Laments the state, the people's misery,

Th’endanger'd state (dear lords) from this disgrace;

And let us in our honour labour how
And (that which such a pitier seldom mends)
Oppression, that sharp two-edged sword,

To bring this scorned land in better case.

No doubt but God our action will allow, That others wounds, and wounds likewise his lord.

That knows my right, and how they rule the place,

Whose weakness calls up our unwillingness,
“My lords,” saith he, “how things are carry'd here, As op'ning ev'n the door to our redress.
In this corrupted state, you plainly see;
What burden our abused shoulders bear,

“ Though I protest, it is not for a crown Charg'd with the weight of imbecility:

My soul is mov'd; (yet if it be my right, And in what base account all we appear,

I have no reason to refuse mine own) That stand without their grace that all must be ; But only these indignities to right. And who they be, and how their course succeeds, And what if God (whose judgments are unknown) Our sbame reports, and time bewrays their deeds. Hath me ordain'd the man ; that by my might

My country shall be bless'd? If so it be; “ Anjou and Main, (the maim that foul appears;

By helping me, you raise yourselves with me." Th' eternal scar of our dismember'd land) Guien, all lost; that did three hundred years

Those in whom zeal and amity had bred Remain subjected under our command.

A fore impression of the right he had, From whence methinks there sounds unto our ears

These stirring words so much encouraged, The voice of those dear ghosts, whose living hand

That (with desire of innovation mad)
Got it with sweat, and kept it with their blood, They seem'd to run afore, not to be led,
To do us (thankless us) their offspring good:

And to his fire do quicker fuel add:
For where such humours are prepar'd before,

The op’ning them makes them abound the more. he effected in such sort, as got him and his lineage Then counsel take they, fitting their desire : exceeding love and liking with that people ever (For nought that fits not their desire is weigh'd) after) returning home, and pretending great inju- The duke 4 is straight advised to retire ries to be offered him, both whilst he was in the Into the bounds of Wales, to levy aid : king's service, and likewise upon his landing in Which, under smooth pretence, he doth require; North Wales; combines himself with Richard T' amove such persons as the state betray'd; Nevil, earl of Salisbury, second son to Ralph, earl | And to redress th' oppression of the land; of Westmorland, (whose daughter he had married) | The charm which weakness seldom doth withstand. and with Richard Nevil (the son) earl of Warwick, with other bis especial friends ; with whom he consults for the reformation of the government, * The duke of York raiseth an army in the after he had complained of the great disorders Marches of Wales, under pretext to remove divers therein : laying the blame, for the loss of Nor-counsellors about the king; and to revenge the mandy, upon the duke of Somerset; whom, upon manifest injuries done to the commonwealth: and bis returning thence, he caused to be arrested and withal he publisheth a declaration of his loyalty, committed.

and the wrongs done him by his adversaries; ofici.

Ten thousand straight caught with this bait of | No noise of tumult ever wak'd them all ;
Are towards greater look’d-for forces led; (breath, Only perhaps some private jar within,
Whose pow'r the king by all means travaileth, For titles, or for confines, might befall;
In their arising to have ruined:

Which ended, soon made better love begin ;
But their preventing head so compasseth,

But no eruption did in general That all ambushments warily are fled ;

Break down their rest with universal sin: Refusing ought to hazard by the way,

No public shock disjointed this fair frame, Keeping his greatness for a greater day.

Till Nemesis from out the Orient came; And to the city straight directs his course;

Fierce Nemesis, mother of Fate and Change! The city, seat of kings, and king's chief grace!

Sword-bearer of th' eternal Providence ! Where having found his entertainment worse (That had so long with such afflictions strange By far than he expected in that place;

Confounded Asia's proud magnificence, Much disappointed, draws from thence bis force, And brought foul impious Barbarism to range And towards better trust marcheth apace;

On all the glory of her excellence) And down in Kent, (fatal for discontents)

Turns her stern look at last unto the West, Near to thy banks, fair Thames, doth pitch histents. As griev'd to see on Earth such happy rest. And there, intrench'd, plants his artillery;

And for Pandora calleth presently; Artillery, th' infernal instruments

Pandora, Jove's fair gift, that first deceiv'd New brought from Hell, to scourge mortality

Poor Epimetheus imbecility, With hideous roaring and astonishment.

That thought he had a wondrous boon receiv'd; Engine of horrour! fram'd to terrify

By means whereof curious Mortality And tear the Earth, and strongest tow'rs to rent:

Was of all former quiet quite bereav'd: Torment of thunder! made to mock the skies,

To whom being come, deck'd with all qualities, As more of pow'r in our calamities.

The wrathful goddess breaks out in this wise:

“ Dost thou not see in what secure estate Jf that first fire subtle Prometheus brought,

Those flourishing fair western parts remaju ? Stol'n out of Heav'n, did so afflict mankind,

As if they had made covenant with Fate, That ever since plagu'd with a curious thought

To be exempted free from others' pain; Of stirring search, could never quiet find;

At one with their desires, friends with debate; What hath he done, who now by stealth hath got Lightning and thunder both, in wondrous kind?

In peace with pride, content with their own gain;

Their bounds contain their minds, their minds apWhat plague deserves so proud an enterprise ?

To bave their bounds with plenty beautify'd. (ply'd Tell, Muse; and how it came; and in what wise.

“ Devotion (mother of Obedience) It was the time when fair Europa. sat

Bears such a hand on their credulity, With many goodly diadems address'd,

That it abates the spirit of eminence, And all her parts (in flourishing estate)

And busies them with humble piety. Lay beautiful, in order, at their rest.

For see what works, what infinite expen se, No swelling member, unproportionate,

What monuments of zeal they edify! Grown out of form, sought to disturb the rest :

As if they would (so that no stop were found) The less subsisting by the greaters's might;

Fill all with temples, make all holy ground.
The greater by the lesser kept upright.

“ But we must cool this all-believing zeal,
That hath enjoy'd so fair a tum so long;

And other revolutions must reveal, ing to take his oath upon the blessed sacrament, Other desires, other designs among: to have been ever true liege-man to the king, and Dislike of this first by degrees shall steal so ever to continue. Which declaration was writ- Upon the souls of men, persuaded wrong; ten from bis castle of Ludlow, January 9, anno And that abused pow'r ' which thus hath wrought, reg. 30. Feb. 16, the king, with the duke of Shall give herself the sword to cut her throat. Soinerset, and other lords, set forward towards the Marches ; but the duke of York took other ways, “ Go therefore thou, with all thy stirring train and made up towards London.

Of swe:ling sciences, the gifts of grief ; 5 The use of guns, and great ordnance, began Enlarge this uninquisitive belief:

Go loose the links of that soul-binding chain, about this time, or not long before.

Call up men's spirits, that simpleness retain; This principal part of Europe, which contained Enter their hearts, and knowledge make the thief, the most flourishing state of Christendom, was at To open all the doors, to let in light ; this time in the hands of many several princes and That all may all things see, but what is right. commonwealths, which quietly governed the same: for being so many, and none over-great, they were

“ Opinion arm against opinion grown; less attemptive to disturb others, and more care

Make new-born contradiction still to rise, ful to keep their own, with a mutual correspon- As if Thebes' founder (Cadmus) tongues had sown dence of amity. As Italy had then many more

Instead of teeth, for greater mutinies.. principalities and commonwealths than it hath. Bring new-defended faith against faith known; Spain was divided into many kingdoms. France Weary the soul with contrarieties; consisted of divers free princes. Both the Germanies, of many more governments.

7 The church.

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Till all religion become retrograde,

“ Then when their pow'r, unable to sustain And that fair ’tire the mask of sin be made. • And bear itself, upon itself shall fall,

She may (recover'd of her wouuds again) “ And better to effect a speedy end,

Sit and behold their parts as tragical, Let there be found two fatal instruments;

For there must come a time, that shall obtain The one to publish, th other to defend

Truce for distress; when make-peace Hymen shall Impious contention, and proud discontents:

Bring the conjoined adverse pow'rs to bed, Make, that instamped characters may send

And set the crown (made one) upon one head. Abroad to thousands, thousand men's intent; And in a moment may dispatch much more,

“ Out of which blessed union shall arise Than could a world of pens perform before.

A sacred branch, (with grace and glory bless’d)

Whose virtue shall her land so patronize, " Whereby all quarrels, titles, secrecies,

As all our pow'r shall not her days molest: May unto all be presently made known;

For she (fair she) the minion of the skies, Factions prepar'd, parties allur'd to rise ;

Shall purchase (of the bigh’st) to her's such rest, Sedition under fair pretensions sown ;

(Standing between the wrath of Heav'n and them) Whereby the vulgar may become so wise,

As no distress shall touch her diadem;
That (with a self-presumption over-grown)
They may of deepest mysteries debate,

“ And from the rocks of safety shall descry

The wondrous wrecks that wrath lays ruined : Control their betters, censure acts of state.

All round about her blood and misery; " And then when this dispersed mischief shall

Powers betray'd, princes slain, kings massacred;

States all confus'd, brought to calamity, Have brought confusion in each mystery,

And all the face of kingdoms altered : Call'd up contempt of states in general,

Yet she the same inviolable stands,
Ripend the bumour of impiety;

Dear to her own, wonder to other lands.
Then have they th' other engine, wherewithal
They inay torment their self-wrought misery, " But let not her defence discourage thee,
And scourge each other in so strange a wise, For never one but she shall have this grace,
As time or tyrants never could devise.

From all disturbs to be so long kept free,

And with such glory to discharge that place.
“ For by this stratagem they shall confound And therefore, if by such a pow'r thou be
All th' ancient form and discipline of war;

Stopt of thy course; reckon it no disgrace;
Alter their camps, alter their fights, their ground; Sith she alone (b’ing privileg'd from high)
Daunt mighty spirits, prowess and manhood mar: Hath this large patent of her dignity."
For basest cowards from a-far shall wound
The most courageous, forc'd to fight a-far;

This charge the goddess gave-when ready straight Valour wrapt up in smoke, (as in the night)

The subtle messenger, accompany'd
Shall perish without witness, without sight.

With all her crew of arts that on her wait,
Hastes to effect what she was counselled :

And out she pours of her immense conceit,
“ But first, before this general disease
Break forth into so great extremity,

Upon such searching spirits as travailed

In penetrating hidden secrecies ;
Prepare it by degrees: first kill this ease;

Who soon these means of misery devise.
Spoil this proportion; mar this harmony:
Make greater states upon the lesser seize ; And boldly breaking with rebellious mind
Join many kingdoms to one sov'reignty:

Into their mother's close-lock'd treasury,
Raise a few great, that may (with greater pow'r) They minerals combustible do find,
Slaughter each other, and mankind devour. Which (in stopt concaves placed cunningly)

They fire: and fire imprison'd against kind, " And first begin with factions to divide

Tears out a way, thrusts out his enemy; The fairest land ; that from her thrusts the rest, Barking with such a horrour, as if wroth As if she car'd not for the world beside:

With man, that wrongs himself and nature both. A world withip herself, with wonders bless'd! Raise such a strife as time shall not decide, And this beginning had this cursed frame, Till the dear blood of most of all her best

Which York now planted hath against his king; Be poured forth; and all her people toss'd Presuming by his pow'r, and by the saine, With unkind tumults, and almost all lost.

His purpose unto good effect to bring ;

When divers of the gravest council came, " Let her be made the sable stage, whereon Sent from the king, to understand what thing Shall first be acted bloody tragedies;

Had thrust him into these proceedings bad; That all the neighbour-states gazing thereon,

And what he sought, and what intent he had. May make their profit by her miseries : And those whom she before had march'd upon, (Having by this both time and mean to rise) · The duke of York being not admitted into the Made martial by her arms, should grow so great, city, passed over Kingston Bridge, and so into Kent; As (save their own) no force shall them defeat. and on Brent-Heath, near Dartford, pitched his

field. The king makes after, and embatteled upon

Black-Heath: from whence be sends the bishops of • The many states of Christendom reduced to Winchester and Bly, with the earls of Salisbury and few.

Warwick, to mediate a peace. VOL. III.

Kk

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