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as have ever been familiarly used amongst us; 60 vain; for if they become versifiers, we are like to that of all these eight several kiuds of new promis- have lean numbers instead of fat rhyme. And if ed numbers, you see what we have; only what was Tully would have his orator skilled in all the knowour own before, and the same but apparelled in fo- ledges appertaining to god and man, what should reign titles, which had they come in their kind and they have who would be a degree above orators? natural attire of rhyme, we should never have sus- why then it was to show his own skill, and what pected that they had affected to be other, or sought himself had observed; so he might well bave done, to degenerate into strange manners, which now we without doing wrong to the honour of the dead, see was the cause why they were turned out of their wrong to the fame of the living, and wrong to Eng. proper habit, and brought in as aliens, only to in- land, in seeking to lay reproach upon her rrative duce men to admire them as far comers: but see ornaments, and to turn the fair stream and full the power of nature; it is not all the artificial co- course of her accents, into the shallow current of verings of wit, that can hide their native and ori. a loose uncertainty, clean out of the way of her gival condition, which breaks out thorough the known delight. And I thought it could never bare strongest bands of affectation, and will be itself, do proceeded from the pen of a scholar (who sees no singularity what it can. And as for those imagined profession free from the impare mouth of the quantities of syllables, which have been ever held scorner) to say the reproach of others' idle tongues free and indifferent in our language, who can en- is the curse of nature upon us, when it is rather force as to take knowledge of them, being in nullius her curse upon him that knows not how to use his verba jurati, and owing fealty to no foreign inven- tongue. What, doth he think himself is now gottion; especially in such a case, where there is no ten so far out of the way of contempt, that his numnecessity in nature, or that it imports either the bers are gone beyond the reach of obloqay; and matter or form, whether it be so or otherwise. But that how frivolous or idle soever they shall run, every versifier that well observes his work, finds in they shall be protected from disgrace, as though our language, without all these unnecessary pre- that light rhymes and right numbers did not weigh cepts, what number best fit the nature of her all alike in the grave opinion of the wise? and that idiom, and the proper places destined to such ac- it is not rhyme, but onr idle arguments that hath cents, as she will not let into any other rooms, than brought down to so base a reckoning, the price and in those for which they were born. As for exam- estimation of writing in this kind: when the few ple, you cannot make this fall into the right sound good things of this age, by coming together in one of a verse,

throng, and press with the many bad, are not disa

cerned from them, but overlooked with them, and None thinks reward rendred worthy his worth, all taken to be alike; but when after-times sball

make a quest of inquiry, to examine the best of unless you thus misplace the accent upon rendred this age, peradventure there will be found, in the and worthy, contrary to the nature of these words, now contending records of rhyme, matter not unfitwhich showeth that two feminine numbers, (or tro- ting the gravest divine, and severest lawyer in this chees, if so you will call them) will not succeed in kingdom: but these things must have the date of the third and fourth place of the verse. And so antiquity to make them reverend and authentical, likeivise in this case,

for ever in the collation of writers, men rather

weigh their age than their merit', et legunt priscos Though death doth consume, yet virtue preserves, cum reverentia, quando coætaneos non possunt sine

invidia. And let no writer in rhyme be any way it will not be a verse, though it hath the just sylla- discouraged in his endeavour by this brave alarum, bles, without the same number in the second, and but rather animated to bring up all the best of their the altering of the fourth place, in this sort, powers, and charge withal the strength of nature

and industry upon contempt, that the shor of their 'Though death doth ruine, virtue yet preserves. real forces may turn back insolency into her own

hold; for, be sure that innovation never works any Again, who knows not that we cannot kindly an overthrow, but upon the advantage of a careless swer a feminine number with a masculine rhyme, idleness, and let this make us look the better to our or (if you will so térm it) a trochei with a sponde, feet, the better to our matter, better to our manas weakness with confess, nature and endure, only for ners. Let the adversary that thought to hurt us, that thereby we shall wrong the accent, the chief bring more profit and honour, by being against os, tord and grave governor of numbers; also you can- than if he had stood still on our side; for that not, in a verse of four feet, place a trochei in the (next to the awe of Heaven) the best rein, the first, without the like offence, as,

strongest band to make men keep their way, is,

that which their enemy bears upon them: and let Yearly out of his watry cell.

this be the benefit we make by being oppugned,

and the means to redeem back the good opinion, for so you shall sound it, yearlie, which is unnatu- vanity and idleness have suffered to be won from ral: and other such like observations occur, which us, which nothing but substance and matter can nature and a judicial car of themselves téach us effect: for, readily to avoid.

Scribendi recte sapere est et principium et fons. But now for whom hath our adversary taken all this pain, for the learned, or for the ignorant, or When we hear music, we must be in our ear, in for himself to show his own skill? if for the learn the utter-room of sense; but when we entertain ed, it is to no purpose, for every grammarian in this land hath learned his Prosodia, and already knows this art of numbers: if for the ignorant, it was

Simplicius longe posita miramur,


judgment, we retire into the cabinet and innermost / sentence shall require a couplet: and to avoid this withdrawing chamber of the soul: and it is but as overglutting the ear with that always certain and music for the ear,

full encounter of rhyme, I essayed in some of my

epistles to alter the usual place of meeting, and to Verba sequi fidibus modulanda Latinis : set it further off by one verse to try how I could dis

use my own ear, and to ease it of this continual but it is a work of power for the soul.

burthen, which indeed seems to surcharge it a little

too much, but as yet I cannot come to please myNumerosque modosque ediscere vitæ. self therein; this alternate or cross rhyme holding

still the best place in my affection. The most judicial and worthy spirits of this land Besides in me this change of vumber in a poem are not so delicate, or will owe so much to their of one nature fits not so well, as to mix uncertainly ear, as to rest upon the outside of words, and be feminine rhymes with masculine, which, ever since entertained with sound ; seeing that both number, I was warned of that deformity by my kind friend measure, and rhyme, is but as the ground or seat, and countryman, Mr. Hugh Samford, I have always whereupon is raised the work that commends it, and so avoided it, as there are not above two couplets which may be easily at the first found out by any in that kind in all my poem of the Civil Wars; and shallow conceit; as we see some fantastic to be. I would willingly if I could, have altered it in the gin a fashion, which afterward gravity itself is fain rest, holding feminine rhymes to be fittest for ditties, to put on, because it will not be out of the wear of and either to be set certain, or else by themselves : other men, and recti apud pos locum tenet error but in these things, I say, I dare not take upon me ubi publicus factus est. And power and strength to teach that they ought to be so, in respect myself that can plant itself any where, having built within holds them to be so, or that I think it right; for inthis compass, and reared it of so high a respect, we deed there is no right in these things that are connow embrace it as the fittest dwelling for our in- tinually in a wandering motion, carried with the vention, and have thereon bestowed all the sub-violence of our uncertain likings, being but only stance of our understanding to furnish it as it is; the time that gives them their power. For if this and therefore here I stand forth, only to make good right, or truth, should be no other thing than what the place we have thus taken up, and to defend we make it, we shall shape it in a thousand figures, the sacred monuments erected therein, which con- seeing this excellent painter-man can so well lay taip the honour of the dead, the fame of the living, the colours which himself grinds in his own affecthe glory of peace, and the best power of our tions, as that he will make them serve for any shasperch, and wherein so many honourable spirits dow, and any counterfeit. Bat the greatest hinhave sacrificed to memory their dearest passions, derer of our proceedings, and the reformation of showing by what divine influence they have been our errours, is this self-love, whereunto we versimoved, and under what stars they lived.

fiers are ever noted to be especially subject; a disa But yet notwithstanding all this wbich I have ease of all other the most dangerous and incurahere delivered in the defence of rhyme, I am not ble, being once seated in the spirits, for which so far in love with mine own mystery, or will seem there is no cure, but only by a spiritual remedy; so froward, as to be against the reformation, and multos puto, ad sapientiam potuisse pervenire, nisi the better stttling these measures of ours; wherein putassent se pervenisse : and this opinion of our there be many things, I could wish were more cer- sufficiency makes so great a crack in our judgtain and better ordered, though myself dare not ment, as it will hardly ever hold any thing of take upon me tu be a teacher therein, having so worth, cæcus amor sui, and though it would seem much need to learn of others. And I must confess, to see all without it, yet certainly it discerns that to mine own ear, those continuat cadences of but little within. For there is not the simplest. couplets used in long and continued poems, are writer that will ever tell himself he doth ill, but as very tiresome and uupleasing, by reason that still if he were the parasite only to sooth his own doings, methinks they rád on with a sound of one nature, persuades him that his lines cannot but please and a kind of certainty which stuffs the delight others, which so much delight himself: rather than entertains it. But yet notwithstanding, I must not out of my own daintiness condemn Suffenus est quisque sibi-neque idem unquam. this kind of writing, which peradventure to another Æque est beatus, ac poema cum scribit, may seem most delightful; and many worthy Tam gaudet iu se tamque se ipse miratur. compositions we see to have passed with commendation in that kind. Besides, methinks sometimes and the more to show that he is so, we shall see to beguile the ear with a running out and passing him evermore in all places, and to all persons, reover the rhyme, as no bound to stay us in the line peating his own compositions: and, where the violence of the matter will break through, is rather graceful than otherwise. Wherein I find Quem vero arripuit, tenet occiditque legendo. my Homer-Lucan, as if he gloried to seem to have no bounds; albeit, he were confined within his Next to this deformity stands our affectation, measures, to be in my conceit must happy; for so wherein we always bewray ourselves to be both thereby, they who care not for verse or rhyme, may unkind and unnatural to our own native language, pass it over without taking any notice thereof, and in disguising or forging strange or unusual words, please themselves with a well-measured prose. as if it were to make our verse seem another kind And I must confess my adversary hath wrought of speech out of the course of our usual practice, this much upon me, that I think a tragedy would displacing our words, or investing new, openly indeed best comport with a blank verse, and dis- upon a singularity ; when our own accustomed pense with rhyme, saving in the chorus, or where a phrase, set in the due place, would express us more


familiarly and to better delight, than all this idle “Delia may hap to deign to read our story,-
affectation of antiquity or novelty can ever do. And offer up her sighs amongst the rest,
And I cannot but wonder at the strange presump- Whose merit would suffice for both our glory,
tion of some men, that dare so audaciously to in- Whereby thou might'st be grac'd and I be bless'd,
troduce any wbatsoever foreign words, be they That indulgence would profit me the best :
never so strange; and of themselves as it were, Such pow'r she hath by whom thy youth is led,
without a parliament, without any consent or al- To joy the living, and to bless the dead.
lowance, stablish them as free-denizens in our lan-
guage. But this is but a character of that perpe- “ So I (through beauty) made the woful'st wight, 55
tual revolution which we see to be in all things that By beauty might have comfort after death;
never remain the same, and we must herein be That dying fairest, by the fairest might
content to submit ourselves to the law of time, Find life above on Earth, and rest beneath :
which in a few years will make all that for which she that can bless us with one happy breath,-
we now contend, nothing.

Give comfort to thy Muse to do her best,
That thereby thou may'st joy, and I may rest."
Thus said, forthwith mov'd with a tender care
And pity (which myself could never find)
What she desir'd my Muse deign'd to declare,

And therefore willd her boldly tell her mind : 60
COMPLAINT OF ROSAMOND. And I (more willing) took this charge assign'd,

Because her griefs were worthy to be known,

And telling hers, might apt forget mine own. “ Out from the horrour of infernal deeps, My poor afflicted ghost comes here to plain it,

“ Then write,” quoth she, “ the ruin of my youth, Attended with my shame that never sleeps, The spot wherewith my kind and youth did stain it; Of all my life reveal the simple truth,

Report the downfall of my slipp'ry state; My body found a grave where to contain it:

To teach to others what I learnt too late; A sheet could hide my face, but not my sin,,

Examplify my frailty, tell how fate For fame finds never tomb e inclose it in.

Keeps in eternal dark our fortunes hidden,

And e'er they come to know them 't is forbidden. - 70 And which is worse, my soul is now denied Her trausport to the sweet Elysian rest,

" For whilst the sunshine of my fortune lasted, 1o The joyful bliss for ghosts repurified,

I joy'd the bappiest warmth, the sweetest heat
The ever-springing gardens of the bless'd : That ever yet imperious beauty tasted ; -
Charon denies me waftage with the rest,

I had what glory ever flesh could get;
And says, my soul can never pass the river, But this fair morning bad a shameful set;
Till lovers sighs on Earth shall it deliver.

Disgrace dark'd honour, sin did cloud my brow,

As note the sequel, and I'll tell thee how.
A “So shall I never pass ; for how should I
Procure this sacrifice amongst the living?

“ The blood I stain'd was good, and of the best ; Time hath long since worn out the memory

My birth bad honour, and my beauty fame; Both of my life, and lives unjust depriving,

Nature and fortune join'd to make me bless', - 80 Sorrow for me is dead for aye reviving.

Had I had grace t' have known to use the same. 20Rosamond bath little left her but her name,

My education show'd from whence it came, And that disgrac'd, for time hath wrong'd the same.

And all concurrd to make me happy first,

Tbat so great hope might make me more accurs'd. “ No Muse suggests the pity of my case,

“ Happy liv'd I, whilst parents' eye did guide Each pen doth overpass my just complaint, Whilst others are preferr'd, though far more base; And country home kept me from being ey'd,

The indiscretion of my feeble ways;
Shore's wife is grac'd, and passes for a saint;

Where best, unknown, I spent my sweetest days,
Her legend justifies her foul attaint:
Her well-told tale did such compassion find,

Till that my friends mine honour sought to raise
That she is pass'd, and I am left behind.

To higher place, which greater credit yields, yo

Deeming such beauty was unfit for fields. “ Which seen with grief, my miserable ghost, “ From country then to court I was preferid ? (Whilome invested in so fair a veil,

From calm to storms, from shore into the deeps; Which, whilst it liv'd, was honour'd of the most;

There, where I perislı'd, where my youth first err'd, And being dead, gives matter to bewail)

There, where I lost the flower which honour keeps, Comes to solicit thee (whilst others fail)

There, where the worser thrives, the better weeps: 'To take this task, and in thy woful song

Ah me! (poor wench) on this unhappy shelf, To form my case, and register my wrong.

I grounded me, and cast away myself. “ Although I know thy just lamenting Muse, “ There, where as frail and tender beauty stands, Toil'd in the affection of thine own distress; With all assaulting powers environed; 100 In others' cares hath little time to use,

Having but prayers and weak feeble hands And therefore may'st esteem of mine the less; To hold their honour's fort unvanquished; Yet as thy hopes attend bappy redress :

There where to stand, and be unconquered, The joys depending on a woman's grace,

Is to b' above the nature of our kind, So move thy mind, a woful woman's case.

That cannot long, for pity, be unkind.

" For thither com'd, when years had arm'd my Found well (by proof) the privilege of beauty,-With rarest proof of beauty ever seen: [youth, That it had power to countermand all duty. When my reviving eye had learnt the truth,

That it had power to make the winter green, “ For after all his victories in France, 110 And flour affections, whereas none had been; And all the triumphs of his honour won ; 170 Soon could I teach my brow to tyrannize,

Unmatch'd by sword, was vanquish'd by a glance, And make the world do homage to mine eyes. And hotter wars within his breast begvu:

Wars, whom whole legions of desires drew on; “ For age I saw (though years with cold conceit Against all which, my chastity contends Congeaľd their thoughts against a warm desire) With force of honour, which my shame defends. Yet sigh their want, and look at such a bait: I saw how youth was wax before the fire ;

“ No armour might be found that could defend I saw by stealth, I fram'd my look a lyre,

Transpiercing rays of crystal pointed eyes;
Yet well perceiv'd how fortune made me then No stratagem, no reason could amend,
The envy of my sex, and wonder unto men. No, not his age ; (yet old men should be wise)

But shows deceive, outward appearance lies. 180 120« Look how a comet, at the first appearing, Let none for seeming so think saiots of others;

Draws all men's eyes with wonder to behold it ; Por all are men, and all have suck'd their mothers.
Or as the saddest tale, at suc den hearing,
Takes silent, list’ning unto him that told it ;-

“ Who would have thought a monarch would have So did my speech, when rubies did unfold it; Obey'd his hand-maid of so mean estate; [ever So did the blazing of my blush appear,

Vulture ambition feeding on his liver, Tamaze the world that holds such sigbs so dear. Age having wom his pleasures out of date?

But hap comes never, or it comes too late: “ Ah, Beauty! syren, fair enchanting good,

For such a dainty which his youth found not, Sweet silent rhetoric of persuading eyes ;

Unto his feeble age did chance a lot. Dumbeloquence, whose power doth move the blood,

“ Ah, fortune! never absolutely good, 199 130 More than the words or wisdom of the wise ;

For that some cross still counter-cbecks our luck, Still harmony, whose diapason lies

As here behold th' incompatible blood Within a brow; the key which passions move

Of age and youth, was that whereon we stuck, To ravish sense, and play a world in love.

Whose loathing we from Nature's breasts do suck; I

As opposite to what our blood requires, “ What might I then not do, whose power is such?

Por equal age doth equal like desires. What cannot women do that know their power ? What women know it not (I fear too much) “ But mighty men in highest honour sitting, How bliss or bale lies in their laugh or lour? Nought but applause and pleasure can behold: Whilst they enjoy their happy blooming flower, - Sooth'd in their liking, careless what is fitting,

Whilst Nature decks them in their best attires May not be suffer'd once to think they 're old : 200 14 of youth and beauty, which the world admires. Not trusting what they see, but what is told.

Miserable fortune to forget so far “ Such one was I, my beauty was mine own;

The state of Aesh, and what our frailties are.
No borrow'd blush, which bankrupt beauties seek,
That new-found shame, a sin to us unknown;

“ Yet must I need excuse so great defect, Th’adulterate beauty of a falsed cheek,

For, drinking of the Lethe of mine eyes, Vile stain to honour, and to women eke;

He's forc'd to forget himself, and all respect Seeing that time our fading must detect,

Of majesty, whereon his state relies : Thus with defect to cover our defect.

And now of loves and pleasures must devise.

For thus reviv'd again, he serves and su'th, “ Impiety of times, chastity's abator,

And seeks all means to undermine my youth. 2! 0 Falsehood, wherein thyself thyself deniest; 1 150 Treason to counterfeit the seal of Nature, “ Which never by assault he could recover,

The stamp of Heaven, impressed by the highest; So well encamp'd in strength of chaste desires: Disgrace unto the world, to whom thou liest : My clean-arm'd thoughts repell’d an unchaste lover,Idol unto thyself, shame to the wise, -

The crown that could command what it requires, And all that honour thee idolatrize.

I lesser priz'd than chastity's attires.

Th' unstain'd veil, which innocents adorns,
« Far was that sin from us, whose age was pure, Th’ ungather'd rose, defended with the thorns.
When simple beaaty was accounted best;
The tiine when women had no other lure

“ And safe mine honour stood, till that in truth, But modesty, pure cheeks, a virtuous breast, One of my sex, of place and nature bad,

This was the pomp wherewith my youth was bless'd: Was set in ambush to entrap my youth. 2.20 16oThese were the weapons which mine honour won, One in the habit of like frailty clad, In all the conflicts which mine eyes begun;

One who the liv'ry of like weakness had.

A seeming matron, yet a sinful monster, " Which were not small, I wrought on no mean ob- As by ber words the chaster sort may construe.

ject, A crown was at my feet, sceptres obey'd me; “ She set upon me with the smoothest speech Whom fortune made my king, love made my sub- That court and age could cunningly devise: ject,

[me, Thone authentic, made her fit to teach, Who did command the land, most humbly pray'a The other learn'd her how to subtilize. Henry the Second, that so highly weigh'd me; Both were enough to circumvent the wise.




A document that well might teach the sage, « « Then use thy tallent, youth shall be thy warrant,
That there 's no trust in youth, nor hope in age. And let not honour from thy sports detract:

Thou must not fondly think thyself transparent, .299
"• Daughter,' said she, “behold thy happy chance, That those who see thy face can judge thy fact,
That hast the lot cast down into thy lap,

Let her have shame that cannot closely act.
Whereby thou may'st thy honour great advance, And seem the chaste, which is the chiefest art,
Whilst thou, unhappy, wilt not see thy hap:

For what we seem each see, none knows our heart.
Such fond respect thy youth doth so inwrap,
- T' oppose thyself against thine own good fortune,

" What, dost thou stand on tbis, that he is old ? - That points thee out, and seems thee to importune. Thy beauty hath the more to work upon,

Thy pleasure's want shall be supply'd with gold,

" " Dost thou not see, how that thy king (thy Jove) Enticing words prevail with such a one.

age dotes most, when heat of youth is gone: 24° Lightens forth glory on thy dark estate: And showers down gold and treasure from above,

Allaring shows most deep impression strikes, 300
Whilst thou dost shut thy lap against thy fate?

For age is prone to credit wbat it likes.'
-Fie, fondling, fie ! thou wilt repent too late
The errour of thy youth; that canst not see

“ Here interrupt, she leaves me in a doubt,

When lo! began the combat in my blood,
What is thy fortune that doth follow thee.

Seeing my youth environ'd round about,

The ground uncertain where my reasons stood;
" " Thou must not think thy flower can always Alou- Small my defence to make my party goud,

Against such powers which were so surely laid,
And that thy beauty will be still admir'd ;

To overthrow a poor unskilful maid.
- But that those rays which all these flames do nou-

" Treason was in my bones, myself conspiring
Cancell'd with time, will have their date expir'd, To sell myself to lust, my soul to sin: 310
2 50 And men will scorn what now is so desir’d. Pure blushing shame was even in retiring,

Our frailties' doom is written in the flowers, Leaving the sacred hold it gloried in.
Which flourish now, and fade e'er many hours. Honour lay prostrate for my flesh to win,

When cleaner thoughts my weakness gan upbray
" " Read in my face the ruins of my youth, Against myself, and shame did force me say;
The wreck of years upon my aged brow;
I have been fair (I must confess the truth)

"• Ah! Rosamond, what doth thy flesh prepare? And stood upon as nice respects as thou;

Destruction to thy days, death to thy fame;
I lost my time, and I repent it now.

Wilt thou betray that honour held with care,
But were I to begin my youth again,

T'entomb with black reproach a spotted name?
I would redeem the time I spent in vain. Leaving thy blush, the colours of thy shame - 320

Opening thy feet to sin, thy soul to last,
* But thou hast years and privilege to use them, Graceless to lay thy glory in the dust?
Thy privilege doth bear beauty's great seal ;
Besides, the law of Nature doth excuse them,

"Nay, first let the Earth gape wide to swallow thce, To whom thy youth may have a just appeal.

And shut thee up in bosom with her dead,

Ere serpent tempt thee taste forbidden tree,
Esteem not fame more than thou dost thy weal.
Fame (whereof the world seems to make such choice) Suffering thyself by lust to be misled;

Or feel the warmth of an unlawful bed,
Is but an echo, and an idle voice.

So to disgrace thyself and grieve thine heire,

That Clifford's race should scorn thee one of theirs. "" Then why should this respect of honour bound In th' imaginary lists of reputation ?

[us, « « Never wish longer to enjoy the air. - 330 Titles which cold severity hath found us,

Than that thou breath'st the breath of chastity : 270* Breath of the vulgar, foe to recreation :

Longer than thou preserv'st thy soul as fair
Melancholy's opinion, custom's relation ;

As is thy face, free from impurity.
Pleasure's plague, beauty's scourge, Hell to the fair, Thy face, that makes th' admir'd in erery eye,
To leave the sweet for castles in the air.

Where Nature's care such rarities enroll,

Which us'd amiss, may serve to damn thy soul.
« • Pleasure is felt, opinion but conceiv'd,
Honour, a thing without us, not our own;

“ • But what! he is my king, and may constrain Whereof we see how many are bereav'd,

Whether I yield or not, I live defamed. [me, Which should have reap'd the glory they had sown:

The world will think authority did gain me,

I shall be judg'd his love, and so be shamed, 360
And many have it, yet unworthy, known.
So breathes his blast this many-headed beast,

We see the fair condemn'd, that never gamed.

And if I yield, 't is honourable shame, 21 Whereof the wisest have esteemed least.

If not, I live disgrac'd, yet thought the same. « • The subtle city-women, better learn'd, “' What way is left thee then (unhappy maid !! Esteem them chaste enough that best seem so: Whereby thy spotless foot may wander out Who though they sport, it shall not be discern'd, This dreadful danger, which thou seest is laid, Their face berays not what their bodies do; Wherein thy shame doth compass thee about? 'T is wary walking that does safeliest gu.

Thy simple years cannot resolve this doubt With show of virtue, as the cunning knows, Thy youth can never guide thy foot so even, - Babes are beguild with sweets, and men with shows. But (in despite) some scandal will be given?. 350


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