Middle Atmosphere Dynamics

Front Cover
Academic Press, Oct 12, 1987 - Science - 489 pages
For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography.

* Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and
beginning graduate students
* Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and
laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web
* Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative
laboratory experiments
* Includes copious problems (with sample answers) to help students learn the
material.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Zonal Mean Temperature and Wind Distributions
6
Composition of the Middle Atmosphere
9
The Vertical Distribution of Eddy Amplitudes
15
Observational Techniques
18
References
20
Radiative Processes and Remote Sounding
21
Fundamentals
22
Theoretical Modeling of Sudden Warmings
275
References
294
The Extratropical ZonalMean Circulation
295
Some Simple Zonally Averaged Models of the Middle Atmosphere
298
The Upper Mesosphere
305
The Winter Polar Stratosphere
308
Interpretation and Generalization
309
References
311

Gaseous Absorption Spectra
30
Transmission Functions
49
Infrared Radiative Exchange and Radiative Damping
64
Departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium
72
Absorption of Solar Radiation
82
Radiative Equilibrium Temperature and HeatingRate Distributions
91
Remote Sounding
99
References
110
Basic Dynamics
113
The BetaPlane Approximation and QuasiGeostrophic Theory
118
The EulerianMean Equations
123
Linearized Disturbances to ZonalMean Flows
125
The Transformed EulerianMean Equations
127
The Generalized EliassenPalm Theorem and the CharneyDrazin Nonacceleration Theorem
130
The Lagrangian Approach
133
Isentropic Coordinates
138
The ZonalMean Equations in Isentropic Coordinates
142
Derivation of Some Equations in Isentropic Coordinates
144
Boundary Conditions on the Residual Circulation
147
References
149
Linear Wave Theory
150
Wave Disturbances to a Resting Spherical Atmosphere
151
Atmospheric Thermal Tides
157
Free Traveling Planetary Waves
169
Forced Planetary Waves
175
Gravity Waves
188
Equatorial Waves
200
RayTracing Theory and Wave Action in a Slowly Varying Medium
215
References
218
Extratropical PlanetaryScale Circulations
220
The Observed Annual Cycle
221
Detailed Linear Models of Stationary Planetary Waves in the Middle Atmosphere
239
Detailed Linear Models of Free Traveling Planetary Waves in the Atmosphere
245
Barotropic and Baroclinic Instability
248
PlanetaryWave Critical Layers
253
References
257
Stratospheric Sudden Warmings
259
Observed Features of Sudden Warmings
261
Equatorial Circulations
313
The Observed Structure of the Equatorial QuasiBiennial Oscillation
314
Theory of the QuasiBiennial Oscillation
319
Observed Structure of the Equatorial Semiannual Oscillations
331
Dynamics of the Equatorial Semiannual Oscillations
333
Inertial Instability in the Equatorial Zone
338
References
341
Tracer Transport in the Middle Atmosphere
343
LongLived Chemical Tracers
347
Transport in the Meridional Plane
349
Formulations of Eddy and MeanFlow Transport
354
Dispersive Wave Transport Irreversible Mixing of Tracers
361
TroposphereStratosphere Exchange
371
Transport Modeling
377
The Transformed EulerianMean Transport for SmallAmplitude Eddies
390
References
391
The Ozone Layer
392
The Climatology of Ozone
393
Elementary Aspects of Photochemical Modeling
398
Photochemistry of Ozone Catalytic Cycles
403
Models of the Natural and Perturbed Ozone Layer
406
The Continuity Equation for Chemical Species
413
References
414
General Circulation Modeling
415
Models of the Lower Stratosphere
417
The GFDL SKYHI model
422
Forecasting of Sudden Stratospheric Warmings
428
Transport Modeling
433
References
442
Interaction between the Middle Atmosphere and the Lower Atmosphere
443
Radiative Links Deductions from Simple Models
444
Radiative Links Deductions from GCMs
446
Dynamical Links Vertically Propagating Planetary Waves
450
Interannual Variability in the Stratosphere
453
References
461
Bibliography
463
Index
483
Copyright

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About the author (1987)

James R. Holton was Professor of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington until his death in 2004. A member of the National Academies of Science, during his career he was awarded every major honor available in the atmospheric sciences including AGU's Revelle Medal.

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