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charge many domeftic offices them- cy and superfluity, were they not too felves. Children continue till about lazy to enjoy the blesings nature betheir fourth year, or till their under- ftows, caring for their daily sustenance standings begin to unfold, under the alone. The country is interfected by soke care of their parents; after which many small rivers, besides the great the boys are placed under the mobo river Bambe, which forms the northern woia, and the girls are instructed by boundary between this kingdom and his wife.

that of Congo, and waters with its “ Their dress confifts of palm-leaf numerous branches the adjacent coun. aprons, extending to the knees. The tries. To the east Angola is bounded men twift their hair round bones, ge by the kingdom of Matamba, to the Derally ribs of sheep; and I saw several fouth by Benguela and Soya, and to who wore fix, and even eight, pieces the west by the sea. dangling to their heads. The women “This country produces faltpetre, bind their hair with thongs, and many filver, tin, and a great quantity of of them have from four to fix of these ivory, all which the Portuguese endeatrelles hanging over their foreheads. vour to purchase, as also a great quan

“ The inhabitants of Mataman cat tity of skins of all forts. It is one of but one regular meal a day, which is at the richeit countries in bearts of all sunset, taking in the intermediate time kinds, and affords its inhabitants the fome millet, or rye, and sour milk. Pro- means of subsistence without much visions often fail through their extreme labour. Of the elephant and rhinocelaziness, for they prefer fafting leveral ros it seems, as it were, the native days together, to taking a little trouble home, for they are met with in large to procure food. Salt is rarely met herds ; but the breeding of cattle is with. It is brought from the kingdom not in repute, the fleth of wild beasts of Mazumbo, in exchange for skins; being generally eaten. but they are often without it for years, “ The kings of Angola were former when at war with that nation. In this ly subject to the fovereigns of Con: 0; case, many use a very bad species of but the present king feparated froin falt, obtained by burning the bones of them, afferted his liberty, and thus wild beasts.

obtained the love and veneration of his " At my arrival I was conducted to fubjects, infomuch that women and the hut of the mobwola, who gave me children take the field whenever war is a little milk and a handful of barley, declared against him. He has also a When I had eaten this, the man who court, conlifting of twenty-four manis, had brought me into the village, also fifty priests, and two hundred and fifty gave me milk and barley, which of- foldiers armed with muskets, which tended the former; and a violent dif- they use with great dexterity, and pute arose, which, however, produced which were taken in a sudden attack no bad consequences. The mobwoia made on the Portuguese in 1763.maintained that it was his right, as Each city is superintended by two chief, to show me hospitality; while manis, and every village by one; who, the other asserted, that he had the however, cannot judge any cause, but same right, having brought me to the must make a report to the king, and Vol. i. p. 168.

receive his decision. At this time the king was about thirty-six years old,

wore long blue breeches and a red MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE

cloak, made of bad materials. He is ANGOLANS.

an enemy to the Portuguese, and to all « THE kingdom of Angola extends Christians; he therefore restrains their fourteen days journey from east to liberty of trading in his territories, and west, and ten from north to south. seems only waiting a proper opportuThe face of the country is alternately nity entirely to prohibit their entering varied with mountains, bare rocks, his dominions. fertile vales, and the fineft pastures, “ The military force confifts of fifty which offer the inhabitants competen- thousand well-disciplined infantry; but

* "I fince found that the chief was right, and that, according to the laws of the land, it is his place to receive strangers; he having the superintendence of the public granaries, from which he may take corn for their use." Vol. V-No. XLIII.

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there is no cavalry, owing to the scars' mily then light a fire, in which this city of horses, their increase being pre- ftaff is burnt to alhes, and being mixed vented by the great number of wild in milk, is blessed by the priest and beasts. Buffaloes are used for military swallowed by the young couple. This operations, and to carry the baggage. is done to favour fecundity, and avert

“ The king generally gives audience various evils. Polygamy is permitted in the open air, surrounded by his and customary; but open divorces are body-guard, and officers holding drawn not allowed, although many women swords in their hands. These latter are compelled by ill-treatment to leave he calls fidalgo *, and the former mo their husbands. carani (the best soldiers), though they « Children are here carefully brought never fight in the field. The priests, up, being instructed by the priests in who are called kvanga, are next in writing and in the laws and religion of rank to the king; and after them is the country. For paper the Angolans the tambocado, or chief justice, before use the skin of a beast, covered with whom the manis are obliged to lay their foot'and fat, and for pens they employ reports for further investigation; after a sharp-pointed bone. Instruction is which this officer lays them before the given in the open air; and I obferved king, or causes them to be presented that the children are here much more by the priests.

attentive than in many German schools. “ The Angolans do not pray to idols, All boys belong to the king, who though they worship the sun and moon causes them, when grown up, to be as the supreme divinities; and each taught the use of arms, for which the change of the latter is celebrated as a father receives a certain bounty; as holyday, when no one can go a-hunt- for example, to every one that brings ing. Days of penitence, however, are in a grown-up son, a year's subsistence appointed when storms arise ; for then is given. To provide for this heavy they say the great lord is angry, On expense, the king takes a third of the these occasions they refrain from all produce of the chase, of all booty, of food, and quit their huts, especially the harvest, and of all other gains. when it thunders during the night;

“ The dress of the Angolans is very lying down with their faces on the various; many of them only wearing ground till the storm is paft. The aprons of palm-leaves, and others addharvest-feast continues three days, and ing an afh-coloured cloak, made of is celebrated with the greatest re- bad cloth or linen, purchased of the joicings. The Angolans are pagans, Portuguese. Others wear skins of vayet circumcifion prevails; and there rious beasts on their backs. Their are huts devoted to the service of God, hair is not long, but curly, and they where, on the days appointed by the adorn it with muscle-shells, chaplets, priests, religious assemblies are held. and other ornaments, purchafed of the

“ The regulation of domestic affairs Portuguese. They paint their cheeks is very simple; and although nature blue or red; and, their nails being has provided wild beasts of numerous never cut, the fingers of those, who, fpecies, and various kinds of fruit, yet in order to make a brilliant appearance the inhabitants live very poorly. Agri- in public, secure them from accidents, culture is pursued in very few places; resemble the talons of an eagle. but barley, Indian corn, and a species “ Toward the natives of Africa the of millet, are fown; and the gourds Angolans are very hospitable, but to and water-inelons are also very good. Christians they will not give a night's Of muscles the inhabitants are ex- lodging, nor do they willingly permit tremely fond, and travel many miles them to enter their country; to avoid to seek thein,

which, they carry the merchandise to “ Marriages are here attended with be exchanged to the Portuguese, and many ceremonies. A priest blesses the bring back what they purchase. The young couple, who ft upon the Portuguese factories of Loanda and ground, with certain forms which no Gambamba are also obliged to send one understands, then walks several envoys twice a year to the king, at his times round them with his staff, and residence called Manpango, to appease drives the evil spirits away. The fa- him in fome degree, as he will not * "A Portuguese word, fignifying noblemen.”

CACONGO.

fuffer so many of his subjects to be kid- western fide are contiguous to the napped and enslaved. But should an Portuguele compting-houses. 3. The alliance, that has been projected, be third, or lower part, is the kingdom formed between this prince and the of Cacongo. Both these nations, about king of Mataman, the Portuguese may, a hundred and fifty years ago, were in all probability, be treated in this under the dominion of a king; but in country as they were at Japan.” the sequel, fome great men of the Vol. i. p. 206.

court of Loango, taking advantage of the floth and carelessness of that mo

narch, raised an army for the purpose THE KINGDOMS OF MALEMBA AND

of erecting kingdoms for themselves;

and thus were formed the kingdoms of “ IN this place it may be proper to Malemba and Cacongo, which, howe say something concerning the nation, ever, since that period, have underdefcribed to be so favage, I was now gone several revolutions. visiting.–The tract of country inhabit : “ The two principal nations, which ed by them is divided into three parts; set bounds to the usurpations of the and, though mountainous, is yet very Portuguese, are able to bring into the fruitful. Their minerals are copper, field, including the auxiliaries

furnished lead, tin, and a small matter of gold- them by the neighbouring nations in duft. The soil produces pulse, Turkish amity with them, thirty thousand fightcorn, millet, gourds, the sugar-cane, ing men, whose weapons confift solely of and tobacco. Here is also made a very bows and arrows, and who have shown tolerable palm-wine, and an excellent themselves brave on all occasions. The liquor from the expressed juice of army confifts entirely of infantry. plums. The profits arising from cot- Their religion, which is paganisin, is ton are at present but trifling, as, from not burdened with ceremonies, nor the perpetual wars with the neigh- degraded by idolatry, as they admit of bouring nations, the culture of it is only one supreme being, whom they much diminished and impeded : thus, adore by supplications, morning and for instance, in 1780, the fine forest evening daily, in temples meanly connear the city Alimthangoy, or Ango, structed. The priests have no influence fix miles long, and nearly as broad, whatever in the government, neither which used to produce great quantities are they so highly revered as in other of cotton, was entirely burnt. Ani- heathenish nations. The Portuguese mals, both wild and tame, are found have taken great pains to disseminate in great abundance; as elephants, Christianity in these parts, but without highly prized for their ivory, ranofters, success. From what I could learn, it lions, tigers, and wolves, in the skins was chiefly the numerous ceremonies, whereof a great trade is carried on to but more especially the dogmas which Malemba, the emporium of commerce human reason cannot comprehend, in this country, and there fold to the that deterred the heathens, accustomEuropeans, particularly the Dutch. Be- ed to a simple worship, from adopting fides these, here are buffaloes, oxen, Christianity.--Buildings for schools peacocks, oftriches, red and blue are here not seen, as the children itriped rock-doves, of extraordinary are instructed in a verdant lawn under fize, pheasants, &c. The hares of the open sky. The art of writing has this country, which are called mazato, been long known among them, the are as large as the West Indian filk leaves of the palm serving them in tead hares; but their fur, as well as the of paper, and for pens they use the small wool of the sheep, which resemble our bones of birds or of fish. The colour hounds, is entirely useless. The great of the inhabitants is properly dark lake above the town of Malemba yields brown rather than reddish, and gives excellent fish, and particularly very them a wild look. In their persons large and well-tafted thell-fish.-The they are mostly large and stout, having three divisions of the country are: large eyes, long hair, which they ore 1. The upper part, bordering on the nament with little bones and shells, fea, belongs to the Portuguese. fat noses, and thick pouting lips. All The middle region, inhabited by the the inhabitants go naked as low as the Malembanese themselves, who dwell waist, round which they wear aprons in the heart of the country, and on the of skins or palm-leavesThole who

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live in the vicinity of the Portuguefe about two hundred and feventy mifer-
poffeffions, wear aprons of blue striped able houtes, and found stinking water,
linen, which is as thin as our boulting- fetched from the distance of a mile and
cloth. The women are only diftin- a half from the town. The generality
guishable by having the hair braided in of the inhabitants are miners, chiefly
five or fix treffes, which they twift working in the adjacent mountains.
found the head and decorate with Mafavah, king of Cacongo, is lord of
fhells, bones, and particularly with the town, where he keeps two judges,
glafs beads. They all Imear their bodies who in some sort form the magiftracy:
with grease, obtained by broiling the I was very well received, though I
sheep-tails, which continues always in perceived a necessity for prosecuting
a fuid ftate. I myself was obliged to my journey the next morning, as I
comply with this disgusting practice. was taken for a white Nave, and a de-
My skin was so scorched by the fun as fire to detain me was very apparent :
to cause me conliderable pain. The however, on Niding a guilder into the
houses are built of reeds, wood, and hand of the judge, he suffered me to
elay, occasionally even of rough stone, depart." Vol. ii. p. 12.
but are very like the common huts,
with a circular roof, in which an aper-
ture is made for letting out the smoke.

THE YAGANESE.
-Their ordinary food is curdled milk, « THE Yaganese, a small and poor
meal, fith, and the flesh of animals nation, for the most part dwell in
they take by hunting.-Of tame beasts forests, living on tree-fruits and roots.
they Nay none except on holydays. The chafe is not very productive to

The people in towns live better them; as the tigers are in such abunthan those of the villages. Culinary dance as to let no other animal become Vessels are known, though little in use, numerous. Only elephants and tigers as they are fo strongly attached to their are met with in any quantity; in old hereditary way of dressing their exchange for the teeth of the former food. In no other territory of Africa the people get javelins and huntingis hospitality carried to so high a degree fpears. The tract of country inhabitas here. A traveller that is unac- ed by this nation is properly a part quainted with the country is never of Malemba; but they made themallowed to pursue his journey alone, felves independent, and possess eight but is always accompanied either tó villages, which lie so, that the inhabitfome other village, or to a spot ants of them may in one day assemble whence he can no longer miftake his together on the same fpot. Every vilway.-The people are in general good. lage has a chieftain, chosen from humnoured and kind, cheerfully im- among the valianteft. Concerning the parting to others of what they have, origin of this nation I was not able to and absolutely refusing to receive any learn any thing: to me it seems not acknowledgment. Injuries are acute- unlikely that they

are descended from ly felt, and jealoufy is universally pre- that of Kongo. The number of fight. valent. If a man have but the Nighteft ing men, according to their account, furmise that his wife has a private un is about a thousand, and they boast derstanding with another, or esteems much of the bravery of their people. him in ever fo fmall a degree, she is The king of Cacongo, who is styled obliged to attend him every where, protector and sovereign of the Yagathat she may have no opportunity of nefe, can only rely upon the aid and being faithless to him.-Most of the allistance of this nation so long as he men are employed in the chase and the esteems and honours them; they never fishery, and exercise themselves in receive any arbitrary commands from arms. Some make earthen wares, him. Notwithstanding that he has far others forge arms, and others again inore warriors in his own country, yet weave nets.

he could do this small nation but little “I travelled with my guide through harm, were he never so much inclined the villages Magay, Ahala, and See- to injure them, as they dwell on mounhang, and spent the night in the town tains, in forefts, and other hidingof Rungoha. This is fituate in à places. They are accused of being marshy diftri&, at the foot of a small much addicted to robbery, and even chain of mountains. I counted here of feeding on hutnan leih. I never

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perceived the smalleft indications of the straw; I was obliged therefore to this; though they told me several go and look out for fruits and roots times that the neighbouring Monomo- for my own sustenance; and to avoid tapans never failed to thieve whenever becoming as lazy as they were, I made they had an opportunity, and even acquaintance with a girl who carved devoured the leth of their captives. figures on bleached bones. She buried The people here likewise are hospi. the bones in moist fand, then taking table, presenting strangers with the best them out, she laid them to heat in the of what their country affords. Tra- fun, which, with the moisture, exhalvellers who confidently put themselves ed all their impurities; which done, under their protection, are sure that she, with stones, carved on, them vano injury will be done them. They rious kinds of figures. She was so have neither king nor priests, living in ready and ingenious at this, that there perfe& fimplicity of manners, and in are perhaps numbers of tolerable artists conformity with the dictates of nature. who would find it difficult to imitate If one diftrict be deficient in water, her work.-Concubinage is here dethey go northwards, particularly to nied to none, it being accounted a naa branch of the river Bambo, which tural want which no one ought to rehas water the whole year through. fift.-I tarried till the end of the year The children grow up without any with this good-natured people, even tuition, and their formation is left en went out with them sometimes againft tirely to themselves. The employment their enemies, and affifted in carrying of the men, hunting excepted, is alto- off a couple of war-buffalos *. They gether insignificant. The women bring were afterwards slaughtered, and eaten home wood, feed the fire, and go out at the feast in celebration of the victory. to gather fruits. No mats or aprons On testifying my design of leaving them are here made; the people Neep on to prosecute my journey, most of the rulhes, and go quite naked. Most of inhabitants of the village exhibited evithem lie in a state of total inaction on dent signs of sorrow; and when I asked their sedgy couch frequently all day and them to show me the direct road to all night, and I may fafely affirm, that the kingdom of Maffi, numbers of them here are found the laziest people in all offered to conduct me to the borders. Africa.- I saw no religious rites among They gave me a quantity of dried them, nor could I learn that they ever roots and a water-pouch † for my observed any.-The chieftain invited journey.” Vol. ii. p.40. me to ftay as long with him as I pleas (To be concluded in our next.) ed, saying, “Stay here, ftay, stranger; 'while thou art here, it will go well * with us, and thou thalt not starve.' Of the latter I was not quite certain; III. Travels in the French Republic: for on hot days these folks ate little or containing a circumstantial View of nothing, but continued lying idly on the present State of Learning, the

*“ I ought to have described them before. They are trained up from their infancy to this purpose ; first, by splitting their horns into several parts, and gradually bending them forwards diftin&ly, which gives the animal a formidable appearance. Then they are so tamed and taught, that, on being goaded with a Tharp-pointed stick, by a man either fitting on their back or coming behind them, they run forwards with all speed. In battle they are thus pushed on amidst the enemy, where they do much mischief, by overthrowing or maiming whatever they meet, with the numerous ends of their horns. It is common to hang a doubly-folded piece of the hide of an elephant before the head and the breast, to prevent the javelins from wounding them fo much, and likewise that they may not be terrified at secing the host of enemies that rush upon them.”

f“ These pouches are made of the entrails and bowels of the elephant, subbed out with ashes and dried in the air. They serve for carrying water, particularly in travelling. When filled with water, they are tied round the body, and when the traveller is in want of fresh water, he suspends them in the air between two pieces of wood or two trees, that the water may be cooled. These facks or pouches are of infinite ufe to travellers in these parts, as by their means they have always a refrething draught at hand."

Arts,

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