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For MARCH 1801.
XXII. Travels from France to Italy, id. Port of Clufe:
through the Lepontine Alps; or, 11. Ferney. an Itinerary of the Road from 12. Fig. 1. Internal view of the Ro Lyons to Turin, by the Way of man Theatre at Lyons. fig.2. the Pays-de-Vaud, the Vallais, and Voltaire's Tomb. across the Monts Great St. Ber: 13. Geneva. nard, Simplon, and St. Gothard: :4. Versoix. with topographical and historical 15. Morges, Descriptions of the principal Places 16. Lausanne. which lie contiguous to the Route; 17. Vevay. including some philofophical Ob 16. Salt - works at Bex, Canton of fervations on the Natural History
Berne. and Elevation of that part of the 19. Bridge of St. Maurice, on the Alps. To which are added, Re
Rhone. marks on the Course of the Rhone; 20. Martignie and the Valley of the from its Source to the Mediterra.
Rhone. nean Sea. By Albanis Beauu, 21. The small Valley situated at the MONT, Author of the “ Rhætian Basis of a Part of the extensive and Maritime Alps,” &c. &c. &c.
Glacier La Valpeline, contiguo Royal Folio. pp. 218. With a ous to that of La Valforey. Chart and Plates. 51. gs. Robin 22. Summit of the Great St. Bernard, fors, Payne.
including the Hospice or Convent. LIST OF PLATES,
24. Source of the Rhone and Glacier of
25. Afcent of the St. Gothard, 1. GENERAL Chart of Placer 26. Hofpice on the St. Gothard.
connected with the Route from 27. The Devil's Bridge.
Lyons to Lombardy, &c.
CHAP. I. Description of Lyons. 4. Plan of Lyons.
--II. Continuation of Lyons-Deş. Cascade and Lake of Nantua. parture from that City. ---UI. Road 6. Continuation of the fame Lake. from Lyons to Nantua.-IV. Nantua 7. Representation of the above Lake. and its Environs-Perte of the Rhone 8. Lots of the Rhone.
-Chateau of Ferney--Arrival at Ge9. Reahpenrance of the Rhone. neva.--V. General Ideas on the Ori. VOL. V.-No. XLV.
gin of Geneva-Its Situation, Form of the works of Meffrs. Haller, Tiffot, Government, internal Commotions, and Graner. and Observations on the Natural His
6. These Cretins are positively in tory of its Environs. VI. Geneva in such a degree of brutishness, or mental Continuation-Remainder of its Hif: imbecility, that they not only are torv--- Account of its City and Lake. with sentiments of horror, combined
shocking to humanity, but fill the mind -VII. Road from Geneva to Lau. with pity, at viewing a fellow-creature fanne.-VIII. Lausanne in Continu. thus degraded and afflicted. There ation, including its Envitons, which are fome, even, who have this loath. skirt the eastern Extremity of the some disease to such excess, that their Lake of Geneva.—IX. Observations goitres hang half way down their body,' on the Formation of Mountains in so that it is impossible to discern the general, though more particularly on passage from the head to the body; those which screen the Lake of Ge others, again, have several of these neva, with the Consequences arising together, and are, if poffible, ftill more
swellings, joined or united, as it were, therefrom, in order to explain, and hideous and disgusting. elucidate the Origin of the Lake it “ These miferable beings have, in gefelf.-X. Villeneuve-Lower Valley neral, a yellow and fickly countenance; of the Rhone-Arrival at Martignie. their fielh fabby and livid; the tongue
-XI. Departure from Martignie-- extremely thick, so that they cannot Northern Side of the Great St. Ber. ' articulate, but make a croaking noise; nard--Arrival at the Convent or the features deformed; the eyes in. Hospice.--XII. Description of the flamed, with a look of languor and above Institution-Southern Descent
heaviness; walking with great difficulof that Pass—Entrance into the Plains
ty, and so excessively indolent, that
even in the absolute want of common of Piedmont.---XIII. Valley of the neceffaries theý require affiftance, and Rhone-Upper Vallais-Second De- oftentiines to be fed with a spoon, like parture from Martignie. ---XIV. Ar. a new-born infant. Those who are not rival at Leuk ----Upper Vallais fo severely attacked, render themselves Ascent of the Passage of Simplon. - sometimes useful in menial capacities; XV. Source of the Rhone-Glacier and there have been instances of their of the Fourche or Furca---Mont St. marrying, and children resulting from Gothard- Return to Munster,
these marriages : but what is more remarkable, this dreadful malady seldom
makes its appearance till the unfor. EXTRACTS.
tunate victims (if one may so call them)
are seven or eight years of age, and THE MALADY CALLED THE GOITRES. then it goes on gradually increafing till
“ I MUST not omit noticing a me the age of puberty; for till then it is lancholy infirmity, and, I may fay, a feldom known to reign to any violent woful impediment to beauty, which degree. Some physicians have been affects a considerable number of the led to attribute the origin of this cominhabitants(of the Lower Vallais), calle plaint to the melted ice and fnow, ed the goîtres, which is an excrescence which the people of the country drink; in the neck, an appearance the most others, again, to the selenitic and calunlightly and disgusting that can be careous particles with which the water imagined. This is attributed, by many is impregnated; but many, I think, of the faculty, to a swelling of the with greater appearance of probability, glands; and by others to a tumour,'or suppose it to be in a great measure inorbid swelling, produced by an al- owing to the noxious effluvia, which most total relaxation in the nervous proceed from the marshes and swampy fyftem, or in the conftitutions of the grounds that generally lie at the bot. miserable beings who are thus affiliated. tom of the deep valleys of the Alps,
“ But the cause of this evil is pro- added to the want of circulation of bably partly physical, and partly mo- the air, and the intense heat experal; and those who are the most afflict. rienced during the summer months, as ed are named Gretins. For a inore at Maurienne in Savoy, the city of complete account of this subject, lëe Aöfta, &c. where that infirmity reigns.
Monsieur de Sauffure judiciously ob- the inclemency of their frozen regions, serves, that goîtres are unknown in the have preserved the lives of many. Alps, wherever the elevation exceeds “ These monks, whp are in general three thousand feet above the level of called Maronnier, or Hospitalier, in the sea. It may, however, be pre- fact a kind of Auguftine friars, are sumed that this complaint in fome mostly strong and robuft, perfectly measure depends on the nature of the well acquainted with every part of the bodies of the individuals themselves, mountain, for which reason they are fince, in the fame valleys, they are not chosen to proted travellers during the all equally affected. These poor great falls of snow and the avalanches, wretches, with their deplorable appear- when they are oftentimes under the anee, are by no means mischievous; necessity of digging them out, at the but on the contrary, meek and humble depth of even twenty feet. For this to an extreme,- for innocence and tor- purpose a large dog, not unlike the pitude seem to be their chief charac- Newfoundland, is kept at the convent, teristics. They are even, I may add, who regularly accompanies these cha. beloved, and waited on with care and ritable beings, and by means of his attention by the rest of the inhabitants, scent discovers the poor wretches who who, from religious ideas, as well as are apparently lost; then the friars from their natural goodness of charac- (even the superiors, for in time of danter, consider these inoffenfive beings as ger none are exempt) dig till they predeftined by heaven to be guarded succeed in extricating the unfortunate by that malady from fin and future person, who, if not too late, has every punishment. I have often had occa asistance adminiftered, and is conveyed fion to witness mothers fending their to the convent, where the greatest care children to help and comfort those who is taken of him till perfectly recovered. were incapable of doing any thing for Should it be necessary to amputate, themselves, telling them, at the fame the operation is performed with the time They will pray for you, my greatest humanity, and the utmost ten* children; and their prayers must be derness is shown while in the hospice ; • heard, for they are faints on earth.' but if, on the contrary, the patients And thus the maternal mandate, dic. be paft recovery, they are removed to tated by religion and compassion, was the second building, noticed above, no sooner issued than cheerfully com called the traveller's cimetière, or buplied with :-a forcible and convincing rying-place, where each individual is proof that true principles of religion placed in his clothes, that he may be (let that religion be what it may) not the easier known, and to intense is the only wonderfully tend towards reliev- cold in this frozen region the whole ing our personal afflictions, but inspire year round, and of course so very unus with the proper defire of pouring favourable to putrefaction, that, the the balm of comfort into the wounds last time I crossed the Great St. Berof the unfortunate," P. 136.
nard, there were bodies which had been remaining two years, without the
least appearance of being disfigured. THE HOSPITAL OF THE GREAT ST. At halt a league from this melancholy BERNARD
abode, the road crolies the Drance, “CONTIGUOUS to the high road, which takes its fource at no great' diftwo small buildings have been erected, tance from the bridge there thrown which are vaulted, and called the Hol across; for the summit of the pass is pital.' One of them ferves as a refuge the point of feparation between the for travellers of every description, there waters which fall into the Adriatic sea, being at all times fire, bread, wine, and those which throw themfelves into and cheese, regularly brought by a the Mediterranean. brother monk, who, during tempeftu “ Previous to reaching the convent, ou3 weather, regularly visits this build the ascent is so extremely steep, that ing, which is diftant three miles from one may almost call it abrupt, and the hospice or convent, built on the nearly covered with immenfe pieces of fummit of the mountain, where the rock; but what must appear fingular, traveller of the Alps is at all times though i circuimstance on record in received, and where the monks, by the convent, is, that a woman, fixty affording a comfortable felter from years of age, returning from some of
the neighbouring hamlets, having been and at the same time annexed to it overtaken by a storm, fought refuge funds fufficient for the completion of under one of those rocks, which in an the establishment. He at first began by instant, by a sudden gust of wind, was fixing only a certain number of Augus. totally covered with snow, and the tine friars; but soon after retired there good woman buried twelve feet deep. himself, in order to superintend, watch, In this fituation the lay fix-and-thirty and encourage by his example, the hours, till discovered by the before. execution of the rules he had planned mentioned dog, when she was taken for the relief of the poor, as well as to to the convent, and absolutely reço- afford a comfortable afylum to those vered.
who might need affiftance. For this “ Near this institution is a wall of pious ačt, the pontiff Alexander II. amazing thickness, which shelters fome conferred on him the dignity of prevôt, fmall buildings thereunto belonging with the privilege of being crofiered from the avalanches, or falls of snow, and mitred as a bishop. This acknowfrom the neighbouring mountains. To ledgment of the virtue of the founder, this succeeds an esplanade, or plain, and of the merit of the undertaking, that commands a small lake, of confi- foon inspired several of the European derable depth, on the edge of which princes and grandees, who, sensible of stands the convent, the dreary and the great use of the institution, vied with arid appearance of which, as well as each other in donations, in order to every surrounding object, added to the maintain it according to the original disorder and general confusion which plan; so that, in fact, it so insensibly exifts, give a moft forcible idea of and rapidly increased in wealth, that chaos, or nature in a state of absolute in 1460 it had not less than fourscore Merility,—for all is barrenness and stag- livings in its pofseffion, besides landed nation, nothing like vegetation: it is, property in Piedmont, Savoy, Swithowever, a spot consecrated to hu- zerland, Sicily, Germany, and even manity, religion, and hospitality, where England. their votaries have fought an asylum, « Unfortunately, however, we see and practife the Christian virtues with in this institution, far removed, as the greatest energy, enthusiasm, and might be supposed, from the vices of disinterestedness.”
the world, that neither foil nor region is proof against the corrupting influence
of riches, that bane of virtue, and DESCRIPTION OF THE CONTENT OF consequently of happiness,-properly
termed by the poet irritamenta malo “ THE convent, more commonly rum; for, from the arid fummits of called hospice, from indiscriminately the frozen Alps to the fruitful smiling giving refuge and shelter to every indi- plains of Europe, all are alike! and vidual who travels that way, when how many are to be found whom even overtaken by want, fatigue, or stress profufion cannot fatisfy! Such was of weather, is of freestone, containing the case here; for in consequence of a number of apartments and beds, to the abundance of wealth and high de. which is annexed a handsome chapel, gree of power which this inftitution where the service is regularly perform- had acquired, ambition, with its dis, ed by the friars. This building ap- quieting train, jealousy and contentions pears, from Simlar, the historian, to for pre-eminence, foon began to difhave been founded in the tenth cen. tract the community, and had nearly tury, by one St. Bernard de Manthon, proved fatal to the establishment itself. at that time a regular canon, and arch- To this may be added, as an accumu. deacon of Aöfta. Animated by fenti- lation of misfortunes, and by which ments of humanity, that worthy cha- their existence seemed threatened, that racter, who was a defcendant of one the pope, having once granted to the of the mosi ancient families of Savoy, prevôt the title or dignity of comman. caused this convent to be erected, at datory, he, forfooth, thought himself his own expense, on the summit of the', authorized to defert the convent, and mountain, till then called Joux, or take up his residence in a large city, Jovis, for the affirtance and reception where, from diflipation, negligence, of travellers, who might be forced to and donations to his family, which cross tha: frozen region of the Alps; were of course imitated by his fola
THE GREAT ST. BERNARD
lowers, the immense property belong- butter must of course be considerable, ing to the inftitution was foon found yet it is not found adequate to the to be almost expended. Nor was it consumption of the house. But the till the year 1589 that the friars were object which they mostly complain of, roused from their ftupor, who, in and which becomes heavily expensive, consequence of long and warm debates, is the wood: thirty mules are regularly compelled the prevôts in future, on employed, four months in the year, in pain of forfeiting their appointment, to fetching it from the basis of the mounrefide continually at the convent. tain; and, considering the small quan
“ This measure, though excellent tities each time conveyed by those in itself, and at that time extremely animals, and the number of fires invaneceffary, could not however retrieve riably kept up the whole year round, the landed property, and vast sums of this article is a heavy charge to the money, heretofore alienated by the community, and accounts for their not prevõts; and the community foon baking in the convent. They have found it impracticable to follow the their bread made five miles off,' in the original rules, as dictated by St. Bera hamlet of Auxières. The provisions nard, for want of fufficient funds. In likely to be met with in the house, and addition to this calamity, fresh distress indeed the only ones that can be prearose, by the Duke of Savoy's losing ferved good for any time, consist in the Pays-de-Vaud, the Pays-de-Gex, falt meats, dried fruits, and vegetables, and the Vallais, in which they had ftill with different forts of Italian paste, confiderable possessions. This unfore- such as maccaroni, vermicelli, &c. all seen misfortune soon forced them to excellent of their kind; but as for freth determine on sending some of their meats, they never can remain long in community, yearly, to Italy, France, that state, owing to the extreme rarity Switzerland, and Germany, in quest of the air. of donations, circumstance they “ Before concluding this description, have had no reason to repent of; for I shall give my reader fome idea of the they were, and are still, fo successful different functions or dignities exer(this custom being continued), that, cised by the friars, who may assuredly, from their own acknowledgment, they by their religion and virtues, be deemare at present enabled to follow, with. ed ornaments to humanity. The first out the least deviation, the original of these, as before noticed, is styled intention of succouring, indiscrimi. the prevót, chosen by a majority of nately, every traveller that crosses this votes from among the community: he tremendous pass, without regard to must, however, have employed his religion, rank, or sex. These acts of youth in every act of hospitality tobeneficence become the more merito. wards the relief of the unfortunate trarious, and fhow the excellent regula- veller of the Alps; and of course, at tions and great economy of their pre- the time of being chosen, is in general fent fyftem, that though every article old and infirm; for which reason, since of provision, &c. must be unavoidably the late regulations have been establishbrought from the foot of the mountain ed, he is allowed to refide at Martig. on mules, owing to the arid and defo- nie, which, the reader may recollect, late state of their ftuation, not having is seated at the basis of the mountain, even a blade of grass, or the least ap- where the chapter has still a house and pearance of vegetation, for the space fome church-lands belonging to it. of five or fix miles round, both north This house, or rather château, likewise and south, so that nature seems totally serves for an asylum to the rest of the dead, yet are these venerable men in- friars, whom age and infirmity prevent defatigable in their pursuits, and have from living on the top of the mountain. their bread, wine, butter, milk, hay, The second in rank may be deemed ftraw, and even wood for firing, thus the Prieur Clauftral, who is expected conveyed, although it occasions infinite to be a resident in the convent, and is labour and great expense. They have charged with the administration of the likewise one hundred and twenty cows community. Thirdiy, the Sacristain, belonging to the convent, which, du- who superintends the care of the charing the summer months, graze in one pel, which is well decorated, though of their meadows, about fix miles dif- on so, barren a spot; for the altar, in tant; and though their produce in particular, exhibits marble columns of