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exquifite workmanship, which must not be abolished. Yet, with all thefe have cost iinmenfe labour and expense, precautions, scarcely a year passes withmerely for their conveyance hither. out some, and indeed I may add many, Fourthly, the Celerier, or Procurateur, individuals perifhing while crofling this who has the care of providing, giving passage, which may certainly be re. out the provisions, and also of tranf- garded as one of the higheft of the acting the external business of the Alps; and many, though they may house. Fifthly, the Father Clavandier, not be totally given up to death's cold who diftributes the necessary wine and embrace, are frequently found with liquors to travellers, as well as the their limbs so frozen, as to require amcommunity at large. And, fixthly, putation, a circumstance which, to the Father Infirmier, to whom the care those who are unacquainted with the of the sick is confided, and who must country, and the number of persons consequently understand surgery and who annually pafs, muft naturally apmedicine.
pear dreadful, and create melancholy “ The number of friars who now reflections; but when it is considered, form the community is five-and-twen- that, one year with the other, no less ty, twelve of whom are to be conftant- than five-and-twenty thousand-travelly refident in the convent, and the restlers, mostly Italian and German, a&tua either at the different curacies belong- `ally crofs this mountain, the astonishing to the chapter, which are generally ment ceases, and it in fact becomes filled by the eldeft, or else on their wonderful that the lives of so many are travels in queft of donations. The preserved, as appears by the account above charges or functions do not, of the friars.” P. 1:54. however, in the least prevent them from rendering every affiftance in time of danger, or during the grand passages,
THE BATHS OF LOICHE. which are those times in the year when business renders the mountain more « THE baths of Loiche, .or Lon. frequented; for, with the greatest cher-bed, as they are sometimes called, philanthropy, do they all, indiscrimi- are situate in a valley, rich in pasture, nately, lend a helping hand to the un- at the basis of Mont Gemmi, though fortunate, and pay a generous tribute surrounded by lofty rocks, covered to suffering humanity, by administer. with permanent snow. This spot is ing every comfort to the unhappy furnished with a tolerably good inn, being who appears overcome with and several wooden houses, moft of fatigue, cold, or laffitude; and every which are for the accommodation of individual, let his fituation be what it strangers. Nearly in the centre of this may, meets with kind and generous little village is an extenfive bafin, which treatment; and all are, with equal at serves as a reservoir to the drain be tention, lodged, fed, and attended to, longing to the superior springs, of gratis, as long as neceffity obliges them which there are twelve, at about a to stay. A large comfortable apart. mile and a half from the inn. But, ment is allotted for thé poor; while what is fingular, though these springs those who make a more decent appear- are placed at the foot of an immense ance remain with the community, and rock, which serves as a support to the went at their table during their refidence. great glacier of Gemmi, yet, contiSurely, then, too much praise cannot guous to their source, the state of their he given to the founder of fuch an in- temperature raises the mercury in Fahftitution, as well as to the zeal, inde- renheit's thermometer to one hundred fatigable care, and extreme humanity, and twenty degrees,-a circumstance of those respectable men, from whom which, had I not, in the course of my I have not only experienced the kindest travels, feen molten lava runrting down attention, but have witnesled the dan- the fides of Vesuvius when its fummit gers they run in rescuing from the was covered with snow, would doubt. Inow the unfortunate traveller. I can- less have furprised me. not but express a hope, that, whatever “ These springs, which all together changes the religious and political sys- yield about five or fix cubíc inches of tems of Europe may undergo, this in. water, ferve to fill four large baths, ftitution, as to its great object, will divided into four regular squares,
pable of containing five-and-twenty or found fulphur, vitriol, and vitriolic thirty persons each. The water has a pyrites, besides a mine of filver ore, trong fulphureous smell, which eva which is not worked, though appaporates or loses itself if taken any dif- rently very rich: there likewise stands tance. It is deemed efficacious for an hospital, but small; and a deep many complaints, as the fpleen, hyfte. lake, the drain of which is unknown. pics, (curvy, &c. and is accounted a From the highest part of the mountain, great strengthener of the stomach. But called Point Daubin, the prospect is a moft fingular virtue which attends it, both sublime and magnificent, for the and which must not pass unnoticed, is eye wanders westward, on an extenthat of restoring life and colour to five glacier, that stretches in an ealy lowers and vegetables, let them be ascent for the space of five miles; ever fo withered or dead, when thrown while, on the opposite fide, the whole into it; although, from the heat of length of the valley of the Rhône is the water, it might naturally be sup- diftinguishable, with the Great St. posed to have a contrary effect; but Bernard at its head, Mont Velán, and so it is; and no otherwise can í ac- the rest of the frozen chain which sepacount for it, than from the particles of rates the Vallais from Italy, forming a neutral and alkaline salts with which noble aspect; whereas, east and north, the water is impregnated. Close to the view totally changes, and all is the baths begins the ascent to Mont desolate and melancholy; for nothing Gemmi, which is neither less curious but immenfe fragments of rock, piled for wonderful than the former, being mountains high, one on the other, likewife cut in the main rock for the spread abroad, and strongly evince the space of feven or eight miles, in a con- dreadful convulsions of nature which tinual zig-zag, and nearly every where this mountain has doubtless experiencovered by the rock itfelf. This afto- ced at some very diftant period. nishing undertaking was completed by “ About two miles and a half from order of the states of Berne and the re- the baths of Loiche I gained the bafis public of Vallais, at the beginning of of rocks on which stands the village of the present century; for, as this pals, Albinen, where ladders are placed, which is as ftupendous as the Great from rock to rock, in the same manner St. Bernard, is much frequented by as were originally near the baths. This the mercantile people of the country, village, which is atuate in the midft of and those who visit the baths of Loiche, an extensive plain or basin, nine hunthese states found themselves equally dred feet at least above the valley of interested in opening this paliage, Loiche, is large and populous, the inthough ftill passable only on mules or habitants being healthy and comfort. on foot, owing to the frequent falling able; and though there is no other of fome parts of the mountains that way of access to them than by the ladstand contiguous to the road; which ders above described, it is nevertheless circumstance has prevented it being much frequented; and, as a proof of entirely finished on the Swiss fide. what I advance, I shall here mention
« This tremendous mountain is as what I was witness to, and which may curious in its construction as in the he- doubtless be depended on. At the terogeneity of its strata. Its nucleus moment I was preparing to ascend, I appears to be partly granite, and partly observed, five hundred feet above me, quartzofe, micaceous rock; but, what a woman, perched as it were on one seemed most remarkable, near its sum- of the ladders, carrying a pail on her mit I observed calcareous strata, of head, and two youths following. From five feet thickness, in which were im- the extreme distance they were at, they bedded a yaft quantity of foslils, mostly had a moft fingular appearance, and cochliti and anomiæ,-a very convinc might have been taken for birds rather cing proof of the extreme height of the than human beings; but from their ka at the time it submerged our con- alacrity and manner of proceeding, tinents, fince those fame strata are now had I not known by what means they seven thousand feet above the present were reaching the summit, I might level of the fea. At no great distance easily have conjectured that they were from the top of the mountain are also aftending a flight of steps." P. 179.
XXIII. Barron's Travels into the In- them in hot ashes, and through a small *terior of Southern Africa. (Conti- hole made in the upper end to stir the nued from p. 73.)
contents continually round till they acquire the consistence of an omlet: prepared in this manner, we very often,
in the course of our long journies over OSTRICHES AND THEIR EGGS.
the wilds of Africa, found them an exON many parts of the great deserts cellent repaft. In these eggs are fre:
ostriches were seen sco ing the quently discovered a number of small plains, and waving their black and oval-shaped pebbles, about the size of white plumes in the wind, a fignal to a marrowfat pea, of a pale yellow co'the Hottentots that their nefts were lour and exceeding hard. În one egg not far diftant, especially if they wheel were nine, and in another twelve of ed round the place from whence they such stones." P. 94. started up: when they have no neit they make off, immediately on being disturbed, with the wing-feathers close
THE SPRING-BOK OR LEAPING ANto the body. There is something in
TELOPE, &c. the economy of this animal different " THE spring-bok or leaping ante, in general from that of the rest of the lope is a gregarious animal never met feathered race. It seems to be the with but in large herds, some of which, link of union, in the great chain of na- according to the accounts of the peature, that connects the winged with fantry, will amount to the number of the four-footed tribe. Its strong-jointed ten thousand. The Dutch have given legs and cloven hoofs are well adapted a name to this beautiful creature indifor speed and for defence. The wings cative of its gait. The strength and and all its feathers are insufficient to elasticity of the muscles are so great, raise it from the ground; its camel. that, when closely pursued, he will fhaped neck is covered with hair; its spring at a single leap from fifteen to 'voice is a kind of hollow mournful low- five-and-twenty feet. Its usual pace is ing, and it grazes on the plain with that of a constant jumping or springthe qua-cha and the zebra. Among ing, with all the four legs stretched the very few polygamous birds that out, and off the ground at the same ' are found in a state of nature, the time, and at every spring the hair on oftrich is one. The male, distinguished the rump divides or sheds, and, falling by its glossy black feathers from the back on each side, displays a surface dulky grey female, is generally seen of snowy whiteness. No dog can atwith two or three, and frequently as tempt to approach the old ones; but many as five, of the latter. These fe. the young kids, which were now numales lay their eggs in one neft, to the merous, were frequently caught after number of ten or twelve each, which a hard chase. Both old and young are they hatch all together, the male tak- excellent venison; and vast numbers ing his turn of fitting on them among are destroyed by the Dutch farmers, the reft. Between fixty and seventy not only for the sake of the flesh, but egęs have been found in one neft; and also for the skins, of which they make if incubation has begun, a few are facks for holding provisions and other most commonly lying round the fides articles, clothing for their slaves, and, of the hole, having been thrown out at the time of the capture by the by the birds on finding the nest to con- English, for themselves also and chiltain more than they could conveniently dren. The poverty and miserable concover. The time of incubation is fix dition of the colony were then fo great, weeks. For want of knowing the that all their numerous focks and oftrich to be polygamous, an error herds were insufficient to procure them respecting this bird has Aipt into the decent clothing. Syftema Nature, where it is said that “ The gems-bok is also a very beauone female lays fifty eggs.
tiful animal, and of a fize much larger “ The eggs of the oftrich are con than the spring-bok. It has none of fidered as a great delicacy. They are that timidity which generally marks prepared in a variety of ways; but the character of the antelope ; but, on that made use of by the Hottentots is the contrary, if clofely pursued or perhaps the best: it is limply to bury wounded, will coolly fit down on its
baunches, and keep both sportsinen pounds in weight: when melted it roand dogs at bay. Its long, itraight, tains the confiftence of fat vegetable barp-pointed horns, used in defence oils, and in this state it is frequently, by ftriking back with the head, make used as a substitute for butter, and for it dangerous to approach. Dogs are making foap by boiling it with the lie Tery frequently killed by it; and no of the ashes of the salíola. The sheep pxalant
, after wounding the animal, of the Cape are marked with every Fill venture within its reach till it be shade of colour; fome are black, some dead, or its strength at least exhausted. brown, and others bay; but the grcatest The flesh of the gems-bok is reckoned number are spotted; their necks are to be the best venison that Africa pro- small and extended, and their ears long duces.
and penduious: they weigh from fixty “ The koodoo is still larger than to seventy pounds each when taken the gems-bok, being about the height from their pasture; but on their arrival of a common-lized ass, but much at the Cape are reduced to about longer. Its strong spiral horns are forty; and they are sold to the thuree feet in length, and seem to be butchers, who collect them upon the very ill adapted for the convenience of spot, for six or eight shillings a-piece. the animal in the thick covert which it The price of a bullock is about twelve constantly frequents. The hind part rixdollars, or forty-eight shillings, and of the dusky mouse-coloured body has the average weight is about four hunseveral clear white fluipes, and different dred pouuds. The graziers seldom from most of the genus: on the neck kill an ox for their own consumption, is a hort mane : the fleth is dry and unless it be to lay up in salt. Their without flavour.” P. 104.
general fare is mutton and goat's flesh. The African gaat is the finest of the
species I ever law, and so wonderfully HOTTENTOT FARMERS-CAPE
prolific, that it is considered as the SHEEP, &c.
most profitable animal for home con“OUR first route lay directly to fumption that can be kept. They go the southward towards the fea-coast, twenty weeks with young, and seldom through a country as fandy, arid, and have less than two at a birth, very Ferd, as any part of the Great Désert, commonly three, and frequently four. and equally ill fupplied with water. The flesh, though much inferior to Two farm-houses only were passed on mutton, is thought quite good enough the first day's journey, which was in for the Hottentois in the service of the the divison called Camdeboo, a Hot. farmer; and the choice pieces, well ter: Ot word, fignifying green elevations, foaked in the fat of theeps' tails, are aplying to the projecting buttresses served upon his own table. ašich support the Snowy Mountains, “ The wool of the sheep is little cd which are mostly covered with better than a strong frizzled hair, of
dure. The farmers here are entirely which they make no kind of use except. uzziers ; and for feeding their numé- for stuffing cushions or matrailes. Dus herds each occupies a vast extent They neither wash nor fhear their of country. Notwithstanding the mi- sheep, but suffer the wool to drop off cable appearance of the plains, the on its own accord, which it usually tulocks were large and in excellent does in the months of September and curdition, and the theep were in tole- October. The skins are used only as zble good order ; but the broad-tailed clothing for the Hottentots, aprons seed of the Cape seems to be of a for their children, bags for holding Kry inferior kind to those of Siberia various articles, and other houicholi ad oriental Tartary: they are long- purposes. Ezzed, small in the body, remarkably “ A hog is a ipecies of animal scarcely in in the fore-quarters and across the known in the ditrict. No reason but ibs: they have very little intestine or that of indolence can be assigned for Lailat; the whole of this seems to be the wint of it. To feed hogs there wieded upon the hind part of the would be a necessity of planting, and Iph and upon the tail: this is ihort, to this they seem to have a mortal antraad, fat, naked on the under fide, tipathy, it is great exertion to throur ad weighs in general about five or fix a little corn into the ground for their paunds; sometimes it exceeds a dozen own bread. Many are not at the
VOL. V-No. XLY.
trouble even of doing this, but preferreous and succulent plants as had been to make a journey of several days to observed to grow most commonly in exchange their cattle for what corn the thickets of the adjoining country. they may stand in need of. Potatoes The water was perfectly clear, but they have a dislike to; and, according salt as brine. It was one of those faltto their report, the Hottentots, whofe water lakes which abound in southern ftomachs are not very nice, refuse to Africa, where they are called zout pans eat them. It is curious enough that by the colonists. This it seems is the this poisonous root has been generally most famous ill the country, and is rerejected at firft by moft nations. Strong forted to by the inhabitants from very prejudices existed against it when first distant parts of the colony, for the it was introduced into England, where purpose of procuring falt for their own the privation of it now would be one consumption or for sale. It is situated of the greatest calamities that could on a plain of confiderable elevation befall the country. The same reasons above the level of the sea. The greatest that prevent them from breeding hogs part of the bottom of the lake was cooperate againft their keeping poultry: vered with one continued body of salt there would require grain, and this like a sheet of ice, the crystals of labour. Of wild fowl, such as ducks which were fo united that it formed a and geefe, may be procured in most folid mass as hard as rock. The marparts of the country almost any quan- gin or shore of the basin was like the tity, at the expense of a little powder landy beach of the fea-coast, with fand. and mot. The larger kinds of game, stone and quartz pebbles thinly scathowever, are generally the objects of tered over it, fome red, some purple, the Dutch farmers. They have a suffi- and others gray. Beyond the narrow cient degree of penetration to calcu- belt of sand the sheet of salt commenced late that the same quantity of powder with a thin porous crust, increafing in required to kill a duck will bring down thickness and folidity as it advarced an antelope. Of this deer, that species towards the middle of the lake. The mentioned in a former chapter under falt that is taken out for use is genethe name of spring-bok, is met with rally broken up with picks where it is on the plains of Camdeboo in numbers about four or five inches thick, which that are almoit incredible. A thorough- is at no great distance from the margin bred sportsman will kill from twenty of the lake. The thickness in the midto thirty every time he goes out. This, dle is not known, a quantity of waier however, the farmer does by a kind of generally remaining in that part. The poaching. He les concealed among dry fouth-easterly winds of summer, the thickets near the springs or pools agitating the waier of the lake, proof water, to which the whole herd, duce on the margin a fine, liht, towards the clofe of the day, repair powdery salt, like Bakes of snow. This to quench their thirst, and by firing is equally beautiful as the refined falt among them his enormous piece loaded of England, and is much fought after with feveral bulletin he brings down by the women, who always comunillion three or four at a thot. Oftriches we their husbands to bring home a quar.faw in great plenty, and often refreshed tity of snowy falt for the table. our whole company with the spoils of “ In endeavouring to account for itbeir nests." P. 115,
the great accumulation of pure cry tallized falt at the bottom of this late,
I frould have conceivid the following A RYMARKABLE SALT-WATER LIKE,
explanation full certyfatisfactcry, had “ ON the evening of the 19th of not some lccal creumstances comed August 1797, we encamped on the ver to militate ftrony ly againit it. The dant bank of a beautiful lake in the water of the sea in the coast of Africa midft of a wood of fruitescent plants. contains a very ligh proportion of falt. K vas of an oval form, about three During the strong fouth-east winds of miles in circumference. On the west- summer, the fpry of the fea is carried ern fide was a thelving bank of green to a very confiderable extent into the turf, and round the other parts of the country in the Pope of a thick mift, tafin the ground, rising more abruptly, The powerful and scr:bined effects of and to a greater height, was covered the dry wind and the fun carry on a thickly with the same kind of arbo- rapid evaporation of the aqueous part