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of the mist, and of course a disengage-of-the fame kind behind the Snowy ment of the saline particles: thele, in Mountains, at the distance of two huna their fall, are received on the ground, dred miles from the fea-coast, and on

or on the foliage of the Thrubbery. an elevation that could not be less than • When the rains commence they are five or fix thousand feet. The soil toq

again taken up in folution, and carried on all fides of the Zwart-kop's faltinto the salt-pan, towards which the pan was deep vegetable earth, in some country on every fide inclines. The places red and in others black, resting quantity of falt thus feparated from upon a bed of clay, and without have the sea, and borne upon the land, is ing the smallest veftige of salt in its much more considerable than at first compolition. That dalt in a foil was thought it might seem to be. At the inimical to, and destructive of, vegetadistance of several miles from the sea- tion, was well known to the ancients, coast, the air, in walking against the In the metaphorical manner of the wind, is perceptibly faline on the lips. eastern nations in treating things as It leaves a damp feel upon the clothes, well as ideas, it was usually ordained, and gives to them also a saline taste. after the destruction of a city, to‘throw The ostrich feather I wore in my hat • falt upon it, that nothing afterwards always hung in separate threads when • might grow there. The shrubbery, near the sea-coast in a fouth-east wind, however, upon the banks of this fait and recovered itself immediately when lake, was beautifully luxuriant to the the wind shifted. In short, the air be- very water's edge. comes so much obscured with the line “ A cause, then, less remote reparticles, that objects can only be dil mains to be adopted. Either falt-water tinguished through it at very short dif- springs must exist towards the centre tances. These winds prevailing for of the lake, or the water that rests in feven or eight months in the year, the it must come in contact with a stratum mind can easily perceive that, in the of fal gem or rock-lalt. This in fact lapse of ages, the quantity of salt car feems to be the only satisfactory way ried upon the surrounding country, of accounting for the faltness of the and wafted annually from thence into fea; and if the subterranean ftrata of the common relervoir, might have ac this substance be among the number of cumulated to the present bulk. those that are most commonly met

“ Were this, however, actually the with in the bowels of the earth, as has case, it would naturally follow that all been suppofed, the effects that exist the reservoirs of water in the proximity may easily be conceived to arise from of this sea-coast should contain, more it. The fult of Poland alone would or less, a portion of falt. Most of be more than futricient to salify the them, in fact, do fo. Between the northern Atlntic. one in question and the fea, a distance We happened to visit the lake at of fix miles, there are three other falt a very unfavourable reason, when it lakes, two of which are on a plain, was full of water. About the middle within a mile of the strand. None of it was three feet deep, but fufficiently these, however, deposit a body of salt clear to perceive several veins of a dark except in very dry summers, when the ferruginous colour, interfecting in va. greatest part of the water is evapo- rious directions the sheet of falt. These rated. One is called the Red Salt-pan, were in all probability springs whose the crystals of salt produced in it be- action had impeded crystallization, ing always tinged of a ruby colour and brought up a quantity of ochrawith iron. This lake is above, twice ceous matter. I caused a hole four. the size of that above described. Aix feet in depth to be dug in the land these should seem to favour the suppo- close to the edge of the water. The fition of the falt being brought from two first feet were through fand like the sea, were it not that close to the that of the sea-shore, in which were fide of the lake that produces the mingled small shining crystals of salt. greatest quantity, is a ftagnant pool or The third foot was confiderably harder valley, the water of which is perfectly and more compact, and came up in freth. Another strong argument against fakes that required some force to the hypothesis above assumed is, the break, and the last foot was so folid circumstance of our having discovered, that the spade would scarcely pierce it; ou a future journey, several falt-pans and one fifth part of the mass at least


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P. 1226


was pure falt in crystals. The water “ The water of the spring was of now gushed in perfectly clear, and as the same temperature as the furroundsalt as brine.

ing atmosphere; but a farmer, who “ Another object of natural history was with us, asserted positively, that was discovered about five miles north- fifteen years ago, when last he was on west of the falt-pan. This was on the the spot, the water was thrown out side of a small hill, down which ran a warm to a considerable degree. His streamlet of chalybeate water from a aftertion, however, was liable to some spring situated about midway of the doubt. Periodical hot springs are pheaicent. Immediately below the spring nomena in nature not frequently, if the stream ran through a charm of five ever, met with. It is possible that a or fix feet deep, in the midst of a portion of unsaturated fulphuric acid mound of black boggy earth, which coming in its disengaged state in conseemed to have been vomited out of tact with the water might occasionally the spring. The mound was raise its temperature. The informpletely deftitute of any kind of vegeta- ation of the peasantry on any subject, tion, and so light and tumefied, that and in all countries, should be received it would scarcely support the weight with a degree of caution. Those of of a man.

The water was clear, but Africa, I have generally observed, are the bottom of the channel was covered much disposed to the marvellous. Bewith a deep orange-coloured sediment fore I ascended the hill in question, I of a gelatinous consistence, void of was told that the suffocating smell of smell or taste. In every part of the fulphur constantly given out was scarce. bog was oozing out a substance, in ly to be supported, and that there was some places yellow, and in others always a prodigious smoke ; both of green, which was auftere to the taste which

were palpable falsehoods." like that of alum. When exposed to the flame of a candle it swelled out into a large hollow blister, of which the external part had become a red

LION AND THE BUFFALO friable clay, and the interior surface was coated over with a black glasly “ WE found encamped on the bora pellicle. The smell given out was at ders of the falt-water lake a farmer and first sightly fulphureous and after- his whole family, consisting of sons and wards bituminous. Great quantities daughters, and grandchildren; of oxen, of a dark, red, ochraceous carth were cows, Wheep, goats, and dogs. He was thrown out from the bog in small heaps moving to a new habitation; and, in like mole-hills. This, when taken be addition to his live-stock, carried with tween the fingers, became oily and him his whole property in two wagadhesive, and the colour brightened gons. He advisid us to make fast our to that of vermilion. Both the red, oxcn to the waggons, as two of his the green, and the yellow subitances, horses had been devoured on the prewhen boiled in water, deposited a ceding night by lions. This powerful smooth clayey sediment, unctuous to and treacherous animal is very comthe feel, tasteless, and colourless. The mon in the thickets about the falt-pan; water had imbibed a ftrong acid, and treacherous, because it feldom makes had dissolved part of the copper kettle an open attack, but, like the reft of in which it was boiled, as appeared by the filine genus, lies in ambush till it this metal being brought down on can conveniently spring upon its prey. pieces of polished iron. The impreg- Happy for the peasantry, the Hottennated water changed the colour of tots, and those animals that are the cbblue paper. The want of chemical jects of its destruction, were its noble tests prevented any farther experi- and generous nature, that so oft has ments; but I imagine the substances fired the imagination of poets, realized, were sulphuric acid in combination with and that his royal paw disdained to clay forming alum, and the acid stain itself in the blood of any seeping in union with iron, composing green creature. The lion, in fact,' is ctie of vitriol or copperas, which the mixture the most incolent of all the beasts of of bituminous or other heterogeneous prey, and never gives himself the trou, matter had prevented from forming it- ble of a pursuit unless hard preifed klf into regular cryftals.

with hunger. On our arrival at a



Kirm-house on the banks of the Zwart- male, if taken very young, and suffered up's river, a lion had just been shot to run among the cattle, would in all by a trap-gwa; and shortly after one probability have, intercourse with the of the Hottentots had brought down a cows;. at least the other species of the large male buffalo. This animal (the bovine tribe, when domefticated, have tas caffer of the Systema Naturæ ) is the been found to mix together without ftrongeft and fiercest of the bovine ge- any difficulty. Such a connexion would Dus. Nature seems to have designed produce a change in the present breed him as a model for producing extraor- of cattle in the colony, and without dinary powers. The horns at the bale doubt for the better: a worse it could are each twelve or thirteen inches not well be than the common longbroad, and are separated only by a legged ox of the country.”. P. 119. narrow channel, which fills up with age,

To be continued.) and gives to the animal a forehead completely covered with a rugged mass of horn as hard as rock. From the XXIV. Pennant's Journey from London base they diverge backwards, and are incurved towards the points, which

to the Ter ng Wight. (Continued are generally diftant from each other

from p. 8o.) about three feet. About the height of a common-fized ox, the African BECKET'S SHRINE-PILGRIMAGES buffalo is at least twice its bulk. The

PENANCE OF HENRY II. fibres of its muscles are like so many bundles of cords, and they are covered “ BEYOND this chapel (of the Holy with a hide little inferior in strength Trinity) is one of a circular form, and thickness to that of the rhinoceros. called Becket's Crown: in it are five It is preferred by the peasantry to the lofty narrow windows, and between skin of all other animals for cutting some of them are very rude paintings. into thongs to be used as traces and Beneath, in a circular vault, was his harness for their carts and waggons. place of interment, or rather the spot The flesh is too coarse-grained to be where the monks hastily buried his good; yet the farmers generally falt it body, for fear it thould be exposed to up as food for their Hottentots. It is the fowls of the air, as the aflatlins curious enough that the teeth of this threatened. This vault must have been species of buffalo should at all times built long after, and his remains tranfbe so perfectly loose in the fockets as lated into the shrine, where they reto rattle and shake in its head.

mained till Cromwell, by order of the “ The lion frequently meafures his all-powerful Henry, directed his bones firength with the buffalo, and always to be taken out, and consumed to gains the advantage. This, however, afhes. It was not likely that he would he is said to accomplish by ftratagem, pay any respect to fo virulent an op. ' being afraid to attack him on the open poser of royal authority. plain. He lies waiting in ambuih till “ His thrine stood within the chapel a convenient opportunity offers for of the Holy Trinity. The following ipringing upon the buffalo, and fixing description, taken from Stow, will show his fangs in his throat; then striking its immense wealth: his paw into the animal's face, he “ • Saint Auftine's abbey at Cantera twists round the head and pins him to • bury was supprefled, and the shrine the ground by the horns, holding him and goods taken to the king's tream in that situation till he expires from • fury; as also the thrine of Thomas loss of blood. Such a battle would • Becket, in the priory of Christ'a furnish a grand subject for the powers Church, was likewise taken to the of a masterly pencil.

kuse. This shrine was builded “ If the Dutch have been too indo .about a man's height, all of stone, lent to domesticate the qua-cha and then upward of timber plaine, within the zebra, it is less a matter of asto the which was a cheft of yron, con. mhment that no attempts have been “teyning the bones of Thomas Becket, made on the fierce and powerful buf full and all, with the wounde of his falo. Any other nation, pollefling the death, and the peece cut out of his Cape for one hundred and fifty years, "lcul! layde in the same woundwould certainly have effected it. A • These bones (by commandement of

• the

. the L. Cromwell) were then and there where they had lodging and diet at the • brent; the timber work of this thrine expense of the house. It was a hun.

on the outside was couered with dred and fifty feet long, and forty • plates of gold, damasked with gold broad; and had a noble hall for the • wier, which ground of gold was reception of poor pilgrims and ftran6 againe couered with jewels of golde, gers. Mr. Grofe' has given us a view . as rings, ten or twelve, cramped with of the beautiful entrance, through a gold wyer into the fayd ground of round arched door, with carved mould

golde, many of those rings having ings, and of the fingular columns on • ftones in them; brooches, images, the side of the stair-case. 6 angels, pretious stones and great “ The pilgrims, in their way, used (pearl &c. The spoile of which to stop at the hospital at Harbledon,

thrine, in golden and pretious stones, which had been founded by Bishop • filled two great chests, such as fixe Lanfranc, for leprous perfons. This

or feauen strong men could doe no house is about a mile and an half from more than conuey one of them at the city, on the London road. It had once out of the church.'

the happiness to be in pofterion of St. “ This was the object of pilgrimage Thomas Becket's Nipper. This, Eraf. without end. A hundred thoufand mus l'ays, was the upper leather of an devotees have made it a visit in one old shoe, decked with crystals fet in year: men of every ranki, even to copper, which the pilgrims killed with ihe crowned head.' Among others, great devotion, as a preparation for Louis VII. of France came in 1179, in the more folemn approach to the the guife of a common pilgrim. Louis, tomb. on this occasion, presented a rich cup, “ The history of this violent man is of gold, and the famous precious stone, so well known that I need not repeat called the Rega! of France, which it. I will only say, that he was, after Henry VIII. fet and wore as a thumbe his murder, ihrown by the affaffing ring. He granted the monks a hundred over the stairs that lead to the choir; tons of wine, to be paid at Paris an and to this day the guide shows you nua ly. He kept watch a whole night the spot where his indelible blood at the tomb, and in the morning de- remains.” Vol. i. p. 150. manded to be admitted of the frater “ The chapter-room is ninety-two nity; and was indulged in his request, feet by thirty-seven, and fifty-four feet attended by the penitent Henry 11. high. The pillars of the stalls on the

“ St. Thomas seems quite to have fide are of Petworth marble. In this preceded, if not fuperseded, our Sa- place Henry II. underwent the severity viour: for in one year the offering to of his humiliating penance. 'Christ's altar was ol, os. od.; to that “ "'I he king thought it necessary to of his Holy Mother, 4.. is. 81.; to • visit the shrine of this new-created that of the great Becket, 2541. 6s. Zd. faint; and as soon as he came within It was also by the merit of his blood, •fight of the tower of Canterbury ca. not our Saviour's, that we were taught 'thedral, at the distance of three miles, to expect salvation.,

• descended from his horse and walked

thither bare-foot, over a road that • Tu, per Thomæ fanguinem,

. was full of rough and sharp ftones, * quem pro te impendit,

• which so wounded his feet, that in • Fac nos, Christe, scandere quò Thomas ascendit.'

• many places they were stained with his

• blood. When he got to the tomb, « Chaucer mukes one of these reli- " which was then in the crypt of the gious follies the subject of a most en church, he threw himself proftrate tertaining poem. The pilgrims aflem • before it, and remained for fome bled at the inn in Southwark, and put time in fervent prayer, during which, up at the Chequer, in High Sireet, by his orders, the Bishop of London, which still remains. It is a wooden in his name, declared to the people building, with a great gallery round that he had neither commanded nor the court, and is now the habitation advised, nor by any artifice contrived of many poor families: not but there the death of Becket, for the truth of was, in the days of pilgrimages, good which he appealed in the moft folemn provision made in this monastery for • manner to the testimony of God; the poor itinerants, a domus bofpiturn, “but as the murderers of that prelate

• had

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had taken occasion, from his words, This was not all: the sea swallowed up 'too inconfiderately spoken, to com his Kentish estates, and left them in

mit this offence, he voluntarily thus the flape we find them to this day. 'fubmitted himself to the discipline of Swift jocularly tells us, that to the 'tor church. After this he was scourg- present time the houses and steeples are ed, at his own request and command, visible beneath the waves.

by all the morks of the convent Thus oft by mariners are shown frembled for that purpose, from

*(Unless the men of Kent are liars) 'every one of whom, and from several

• Fari Gedwine's castles overflown, bit.ops and abbots there present, he

• And palace - roofs, and steeplereceived three or four stripes. This * sharp penance being done, he return

ed to his prayers before the tomb, “ Perhaps a natural solution may be *which he continued all that day and as credible: we may afcribe it to the

all the next night, not even suffering a valt inundation which A.D. 1100 overcarpet to be spread beneath him, but flowed part of Holland, fo that the kneeling on the hard pavement. Ear- water being carried from this part of 'iy in the morning he went round all the fea rendered it to shallow, that the altars of the church, and paid his places which might have been safely

devotions to the saints there interred; pafled over before, now became full of which having performed, he came dangerous foals. Such was the case back to Becket's tomb, where he staid here: the Godwine fands were two 'till the hour when mass was said in fub-marine hills, in ancient times unthe church, at which he aflifted. noticed by reason of the depth. After ". During all this time he had taken this drainage their heads at the ebb tides no kind of food, and, except when appeared above water, and became he gave his, naked body to be whipt, most dangerous to mariners: yet they (was clad in fackcloth. Before his have their utility--thips anchor or "departure that he might fully com moor beneath their shelter, and the

plete the expiation of his sin accord- little they receive from the North and "ing to the notions of the church of South Forelands, and find protection Rome), he afligned a revenue of forty from the winds, unless in very extrapounds a year to keep lights always ordinary tempests: such was the fatal burning, in honour of Becket, about one of November 1703. It began five his tomb. The next evening he reach hundred leagues from the English coast, d London, where he found it necef- and hurried the homeward-bound ships, fary to be blooded and rest some which happened to be in the Atlantic, days'.” Vol. i. po 154.

with amazing impetuofity up the channel, and as it were swept the ocean

and filled every port: no ship that GODWINE'S SANDS-GREAT STORM

did not go direct before the wind could OF 1703.

live. It passed over England, France, “ MUCH is fabled concerning those Germany, Sweden, Finland, Russia, fatal thoals; that they had been once and part of Tartary, and spent itself a solid and populous' tract, the pro- amidst the islands of ice in the Frozen perty of Earl Godwinç, sometimes Sea. I refer to a most ample relation ftyled Earl of Kent, a man of great of its dirc effects by fea and land, given abilities and courage, but infamous in the City Remembrancer, vol. ii. for cruely and treachery. He died in from p. 43 to 187: its height was in the year 1053. The monks give him the right of November the 26th, but a horrid end, and fay, that, dining at it lasted with incredible fury fourteen the table of Edward the Confeffor, and days. That dreadful night was unbeing charged with a murder, he with commonly dark, and made more hide. horrid imprecations took a bit of bread ous in many places by the quick corus-. and wished it might be his bane if he cations of lightning and the fingular was guilty: no sooner had he put it glare of meteors and imaginary fymde into his mouth but he died in the most toms of earthquakes, while the rolling dreadful manner. It seems this bread of the thunder and the howling of the bad been corsned, i. e. accursed accord- winds formed the terrific diapafon. It ing to form by a certain bishop; so the iz said, that in various parts not rewer purgation proted fatal to the Earl. than eight thousand perfons perished..


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